Taramasalata or taramosalata is a Greek meze made from tarama, the salted and cured roe of the cod, carp, or grey mullet mixed with olive oil, lemon juice, a starchy base of bread or potatoes, or sometimes almonds. Variants may include vinegar instead of lemon juice. While not traditionally Greek, rather than cured, cod's roe is more available in some places, used. Bottarga is much more expensive than cod's roe. Traditionally the dish is made with a pestle and mortar, giving a grainy texture, but commercial taramasalata is blended to a smooth paste. Taramasalata is eaten as a meze, a dip for bread or raw vegetables; the colour can vary from creamy beige depending on the type of roe and colourings used. Most taramasalata sold commercially is dyed pink, but high quality taramasalata is always beige in colour. In Greece, taramasalata is associated with the first day of Great Lent. Tarama is the salted roe itself, but sometimes the prepared dish is called tarama; the spelling taramosalata reflects the Greek.
A similar dip or spread, salată de icre is common in Romania and Bulgaria. It is made with pike or carp roe but with sunflower or vegetable oil instead of olive oil, sometimes with a thickener like white bread, it is mass-produced and is available in grocery shops and supermarkets, as well as being made at home, in which case chopped onions are added. A dip, fasole bătută or fasole făcăluită, prepared with mashed beans, sunflower oil and chopped onions, is sometimes called icre de fasole. List of condiments List of dips
The Aromanians are a Romance ethnic group native to the Balkans, traditionally living in northern and central Greece and southern Albania, the Republic of North Macedonia and south-western Bulgaria. The term Vlachs is used in Greece to refer to Aromanians, but this term is internationally used to encompass all Romance-speaking peoples of the Balkans and Tatra Mountains regions. Aromanians speak the Aromanian language, a Latin-derived vernacular similar to Romanian, has many varying dialects of its own, it descends from the Vulgar Latin spoken by the Paleo-Balkan peoples subsequent to their Romanization. Aromanian is a mix of domestic and Latin language with additional influences from other surrounding languages of the Balkans Greek, Albanian and Bulgarian; the term Aromanian derives directly from the Latin Romanus. The initial a- is a regular epenthetic vowel, occurring when certain consonant clusters are formed, it is not, as folk etymology sometimes has it, related to the negative or privative a- of Greek.
The term was coined by Gustav Weigand in his 1894 work Die Aromunen. The first book to which many scholars have referred to as the most valuable to translate their ethnic name is a grammar printed in 1813 in Austria by Michael Boiagi; the Greek title was Grammatike Romanike Etoi Makedono-Blachike. The terms Aromanian or Vlach are both exonyms; the Aromanians call themselves Rrãmãn or Armãn, depending on which of the two dialectal groups they belong, identify as part of the Fara Armãneascã or the Populu Armãnescu. The endonym is rendered in Romanian as Aromâni, in Greek as Armanoi, in Albanian as Arumunët, in Bulgarian as Arumani, in Macedonian as Aromanci, in Serbo-Croatian as Armani and Aromuni; the term "Vlach" was used in medieval Balkans as an exonym for all the Romance-speaking people of the region, as well as a general name for shepherds, but nowadays is used for the Aromanians and Meglenites, Daco-Romanians being named Vlachs only in Serbia and Bulgaria. The term is noted in the following languages: Greek "Vlachoi", Albanian "Vllah", Bulgarian and Serbian "Vlasi", Turkish "Ulahlar", Hungarian "Oláh".
It is noteworthy that the term Vlach meant "bandit" or "rebel" in Ottoman historiography, that the term was used as an exonym for Orthodox Christians in Ottoman-ruled western Balkans, as well as by the Venetians for the immigrant Slavophone population of the Dalmatian hinterland. Kahl divides the Aromanians into two main groups, the "Rrãmãnj" and "Armãnj", which are further divided into sub-groups. Armãn Pindeans, concentrated in and around the Pindus Mountains of Northern and Central Greece. Gramustians, from Gramos Mountains, an isolated area in south-eastern Albania, north-west of Greece. Rrãmãnj Muzachiars, from Muzachia situated in southwestern-central Albania. Farsherots, concentrated in Epirus, from Frashër, once Aromanian urban center situated in south-eastern Albania. Moscopolitans, from the city of Moscopole, once an important urban center of the Balkans, now a village in southeastern Albania; the Aromanian communities have several nicknames depending on the country. Gramustians and Pindians are nicknamed Koutsovlachs.
This term is sometimes taken as derogatory, as the first element of this term is from the Greek koutso- meaning "lame". Following a Turkish etymology where küçük means "little" they are the smaller group of Vlachs as opposed to the more numerous Vlachs. Farsherots, from Frashër, Moscopole and Muzachia are nicknamed "Frashariotes" or Arvanitovlachs, meaning "Albanian Vlachs" referring to their place of origin. Most of the Frashariotes are characterized as "Greek-Vlach Northern Epirotes" because of their frequent historical inhabitancy of ethnic Greek territory. In the South Slavic countries, such as Serbia, the Republic of North Macedonia and Bulgaria, the nicknames used to refer to the Aromanians are Vlasi and Tsintsari, derived from the way the Aromanians pronounce the word meaning five, tsintsi. In Romania, the demonym macedoni and machedoni is used. In Albania, the terms Vllah and Çoban or Çobenj are used; the Aromanian community in Albania is estimated to number 100,000 to 200,000 people, including those who no longer speak the language.
Tanner estimates. In Albania, Aromanian communities inhabit Moscopole, their most famous settlement, the Kolonjë District, a quarter of Fier, while Aromanian was taught, as recorded by Tom Winnifrith, at primary schools in Andon Poçi near Gjirokastër, Shkallë near Sarandë, Borovë near Korçë. A Romanian research team concluded in the 1960s that Albanian Aromanians migrated to Tirana, Stan Karbunarë, Pojan and Korçë, that they inhabited Karaja, Lushnjë, Drenovë and Boboshticë; the Aromanians are predominantly Orthodox Christians, follow the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar. The Aromanian language is related to the Vulgar Latin spoken in the Balkans durin
Florina is a town and municipality in the mountainous northwestern Macedonia, Greece. Its motto is,'Where Greece begins'; the town of Florina is the capital of the Florina regional unit and the seat of the eponymous municipality. It belongs to the administrative region of West Macedonia; the town's population is 17,686 people. It is in a wooded valley about 13 km south of the international border of Greece with the Republic of North Macedonia. Florina is the gateway to the Prespa Lakes and, until the modernisation of the road system, of the old town of Kastoria, it is located west of Edessa, northwest of Kozani, northeast of Ioannina and Kastoria cities. Outside the Greek borders it is in proximity to Korçë in Albania and Bitola in the Republic of Macedonia; the nearest airports are situated to the south. The mountains of Verno lie to Varnous to the northwest. Winters bring heavy snow and long periods of temperature below freezing point. Furthermore, the town and the surrounding valley is covered in thick fog during the winter months that may last for weeks under specific conditions.
During the summer months it becomes a busy market town with an economy boosted by summer and winter tourism due to the heavy snowfalls and the nearby ski resorts. Though Florina was the site of the first rail line built in the southern Ottoman provinces in the late 19th century, its rail system remains undeveloped. Today, Florina is linked by a single track standard gauge line to Thessaloniki and Bitola, to Kozani where it was intended to continue south and link up with the terminal in Kalambaka, in Thessaly but this did not proceed due to the 1930s financial crisis. Florina is passed by GR-2 and GR-3/E65; the new Motorway 27 will run east of Florina with its Florina-Niki segment operational since 2015. The historic Via Egnatia is situated to the east. Florina is one of the coldest towns in Greece, because of its geographic position. Heavy snowfalls, thick fog and below-freezing temperatures are common during the winter months, while the summers are mild. Under the Köppen climate classification, Florina has a humid subtropical climate with strong hot-summer continental climate influences.
On 18 January 2012, a temperature of -25.1 °C was recorded by the HNMS's station with several reports, however, in the local press for temperatures in villages of the municipality that reached -32 °C, but there was no official record of such temperature. The National Observatory of Athens's station reported a temperature of -22.2 °C a day earlier in Florina, while the same station continuously recorded minimum temperatures below -20 °C from 16/1/12 until 19/1/12, with the average maximum temperature for January just -0.6 °C, the prevalence for 13 consecutive days of temperatures below 0 °C 24 hours a day. The above situation resulted in the Greek General Secretariat of Civil Protection to declare the municipality of Florina in a state of emergency on 16/1/12, at the request of the mayor of Florina, due to the polar temperatures and the intense snowfall that prevailed for days; the city's original Byzantine name, Χλέρινον, derives from the Greek word χλωρός. The name was sometimes Latinized as Florinon in the Byzantine period, in early Ottoman documents the forms Chlerina and Florina are both used, with the latter becoming standard after the 17th century.
The form with is a local dialect form of χλωρός in Greek. The Slavic name for the city is Lerin, a borrowing of the Byzantine Greek name, but with the loss of the initial characteristic of the local dialect; the Albanian name for the city is Follorinë. The current municipality of Florina was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that since 2011 became municipal units: Florina Kato Kleines Meliti PerasmaThe municipality has an area of 819.698 km2, the municipal unit 150.634 km2. The municipal unit of Florina is further divided into the following communities: Alona Armenochori Florina Koryfi Mesonisi Proti Skopia Trivouno Within the boundaries of the present-day city lie the remains of a Hellenistic settlement on the hill of Agios Panteleimon. Archaeologists excavated on the site in 1930-1934, but a hotel was built over the ruins. Excavations began again in the 1980s and the total excavated area is now around 8,000 metres square; the buildings uncovered are residential blocks, the range of finds suggests that the site was continuously inhabited from the 4th century BC until its destruction by fire in the 1st century BC.
Many of these finds are now on display in the Archaeological Museum of Florina. The town is first mentioned in 1334, when the Serbian king Stefan Dušan established a certain Sphrantzes Palaeologus as commander of the fortress of Chlerenon. By 1385, the place had fallen to the Ottomans. An Ottoman defter for the year 1481 records a settlement of 243 households. Florina and its inhabitants contributed to the Macedonian Struggle. Prominent leaders included Nikolaos Pyrzas, Petros Chatzitasis. In the late Ottoman period the area surrounding Florina supported the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization who fought against the Ottomans. During the Macedonian Struggle the Greek makedonomachoi gained significant advantage towards the Bulgarian Exarhists within 10 months in 1905 and extended their zone of control in various regions of western Macedonia including the plains north and south of Florina. In 1
Meat is animal flesh, eaten as food. Humans have killed animals for meat since prehistoric times; the advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, rabbits and cattle. This led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses. Meat is composed of water and fat, it is edible raw, but is eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi. Meat is important in economy and culture though its mass production and consumption has been determined to pose risks for human health and the environment. Many religions have rules about which meat may not be eaten. Vegetarians may abstain from eating meat because of concerns about the ethics of eating meat, environmental effects of meat production or nutritional effects of consumption; the word meat comes from the Old English word mete. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, matur in Icelandic and Faroese, which mean'food'.
The word mete exists in Old Frisian to denote important food, differentiating it from swiets and dierfied. Most meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may describe other edible tissues such as offal. Meat is sometimes used in a more restrictive sense to mean the flesh of mammalian species raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish, other seafood, poultry, or other animals. In the context of food, meat can refer to "the edible part of something as distinguished from its covering", for example, coconut meat. Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial proportion of the diet of the earliest humans. Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer; the domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period, allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production.
Animals that are now principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations: Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture as early as the 8th millennium BCE. Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BCE. Today, more than 200 sheep-breeds exist. Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BCE, several breeds were established by 2500 BCE. Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus and Bos taurus indicus, both descended from the now-extinct aurochs; the breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for work or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century. Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BCE in modern-day Hungary and in Troy. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times.
Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products. Other animals have been raised or hunted for their flesh; the type of meat consumed varies much between different cultures, changes over time, depending on factors such as tradition and the availability of the animals. The amount and kind of meat consumed varies by income, both between countries and within a given country. Horses are eaten in France, Italy and Japan, among other countries. Horses and other large mammals such as reindeer were hunted during the late Paleolithic in western Europe. Dogs are consumed in South Korea and Vietnam. Dogs are occasionally eaten in the Arctic regions. Dog meat has been consumed in various parts of the world, such as Hawaii, Japan and Mexico. Cats are consumed in Southern China and sometimes in Northern Italy. Guinea pigs are raised for their flesh in the Andes. Whales and dolphins are hunted for their flesh, in Japan, Siberia, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and by two small communities in Indonesia.
Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to speed artificial selection by breeding animals to acquire the qualities desired by meat producers. For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of United Kingdom beef and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, due to both selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery. Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now becoming available. Though it is a old industry, meat production continues to be shaped by the evolving demands of customers; the trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts. More animals not exploited for their meat are now being farmed the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed better than those of cattle, sheep or pigs.
Examples are the various antelope species, the zebra, water buffalo and camel, as well as non-
Lake Kerkini, is an artificial reservoir, created in 1932, redeveloped in 1980, on the site of what was an extensive marshland. Before 1932, there were irregular marsh lakes on Strymon, one of them called "Podkova" Ottoman Turkish: ݒودقوه كولي Podkova Gölü. Lake Kerkini is now one of, if not the, premier birding site in Greece, and, as it is situated along the migratory flyway for migratory birds en route to the Aegean Sea, the Balkan region, the Black Sea, the Hungarian steppes and beyond it experiences an interesting migration. In the flat and semi-mountainous area, important hydrobiospheres are developing which are of great international significance and acceptance; the most essential hydrobiosphere is the one in Kerkini lake. It is a miracle of nature which came about by man's technical intervention on the natural characteristics of Strymon river; the water extent, which varies from time to time from 54 Km2 to 72 Km2, works out to be useful in two ways: as a technical work of great agricultural utility and as a hydrobiosphere for thousands of water fowls.
This wonderful biosphere is recouped by the International Convention of Ramsar and presents numerous admirable elements. Thousands of birds, both rare and protected, riverside forests, water-lilies in a large area, fish variety and fantastic panoramic view from the mountains of Belasica and Krousia give it a characteristic tone; the lake hosts 227 kinds of birds non-migrants. 76 of them are recorded in the National Red Catalogue, while at least 31 of them are protected by EEC's Directive concerning wild life. What makes an exceptional presence is the buffalo's herd in the area, plus the one of the jackelo in the area of Kerkini lake. In the surrounding area of Kerkini lake there are at least 10 amphibian species, five snail species, 19 reptile species and a great variety of insects which play an important part in the food chain and contribute towards the biological resources of the lake. A winter view of some tree at Kerkini lake The lake was created where Kerkini lake was by making embankments on the eastern and western sides and a dam was constructed near the village of Lithotopos, which started functioning in 1932.
The main water provider of the lake is Strymon River. Additionally, there is Kerkinitis river from Krousia. After the construction of the dam, the form of the initial hydrobioshere changed completely; the human intervention retracts or takes negative action against the natural processes, Kerkini lake is a rare example, where the gentle human handling had the exact opposite result. As time went by, the lake's capacity was reduced because of the substances that were washed up by Strymon river. So the rising of the embankments and the construction of a new dam was necessary, started operating in 1982. Harvard University Library, Rumeli-i Şahane Haritası Lake Kerkini: A Greek Wonderland
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages. They inhabit a contiguous region in the Balkan Peninsula and the eastern Alps, in the modern era are geographically separated from the body of West Slavic and East Slavic people by the Romanians and Austrians in between; the South Slavs today include the nations of Bosniaks, Croats, Montenegrins and Slovenes. They are the main population of the Eastern and Southeastern European countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, North Macedonia and Slovenia. In the 20th century, the country of Yugoslavia united the regions inhabited by South Slavic nations – with the key exception of Bulgaria – into a single state; the concept of Yugoslavia, a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the 19th century Illyrian movement. The Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, renamed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, was proclaimed on 1 December 1918, following the unification of the State of Slovenes and Serbs with the kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro.
The South Slavs are known in Serbian and Montenegrin as Južni Sloveni. The Slavic root *jugъ means "south"; the Slavic ethnonym itself was used by 6th-century writers to describe the southern group of Early Slavs. The South Slavs are called "Balkan Slavs", although this term does not encompass the Slovenes. Another name popular in the Early modern period was "Illyrians", the name of a pre-Slavic Balkan people, a name first adopted by Dalmatian intellectuals in the late 15th century to refer to South Slavic lands and population, it was used by the Habsburg Monarchy and notably adopted by the 19th-century Croatian nationalist and Pan-Slavist Illyrian movement. The idea of Yugoslavism appeared, aimed at uniting all South Slav-populated territories into a common state. From this idea emerged Yugoslavia, which however did not include Bulgaria; the Proto-Slavic homeland is the area of Slavic settlement in Central and Eastern Europe during the first millennium AD, with its precise location debated by archaeologists and historians.
None of the proposed homelands reaches the Volga River in the east, over the Dinaric Alps in the southwest or the Balkan Mountains in the south, or past Bohemia in the west. Traditionally, scholars put it in the marshes of Ukraine, alternatively between the Bug and the Dnieper, according to F. Curta, the homeland of the southern Slavs mentioned by 6th-century writers was just north of the Lower Danube. Little is known about the Slavs before the 5th century. Jordanes and other late Roman authors provide the probable earliest references to southern Slavs in the second half of the 6th century. Procopius described the Sclaveni and Antes as two barbarian peoples with the same institutions and customs since ancient times, not ruled by a single leader but living under democracy, while Pseudo-Maurice called them a numerous people, undisciplined and leaderless, who did not allow enslavement and conquest, resistant to hardship, bearing all weathers, they were portrayed by Procopius as unusually tall and strong, of dark skin and "reddish" hair, leading a primitive life and living in scattered huts changing their residence.
Procopius said they were henotheistic, believing in the god of lightning, the ruler of all, to whom they sacrificed cattle. They went into battle on foot, charging straight at their enemy, armed with spears and small shields, but they did not wear armour. Slavs settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries. Up until the late 560s their activity was raiding, crossing from the Danube, though with limited Slavic settlement through Byzantine foederati colonies; the Danube and Sava frontier was overwhelmed by large-scale Slavic settlement in the late 6th and early 7th century. What is today central Serbia was an important geo-strategical province, through which the Via Militaris crossed; this area was intruded by barbarians in the 5th and 6th centuries. From the Danube, the Slavs commenced raiding the Byzantine Empire from the 520s, on an annual basis, spreading destruction, taking loot and herds of cattle, seizing prisoners and taking fortresses; the Byzantine Empire was stretched defending its rich Asian provinces from Arabs and others.
This meant that numerically small, disorganised early Slavic raids were capable of causing much disruption, but could not capture the larger, fortified cities. The first Slavic raid south of the Danube was recorded by Procopius, who mentions an attack of the Antes, "who dwell close to the Sclaveni" in 518. Sclaveni are first mentioned in the context of the military policy on the Danube frontier of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. Throughout the century, Slavs raided and plundered deep into the Balkans, from Dalmatia to Greece and Thrace, were at times recruited as mercenaries, fighting the Ostrogoths. Justinian seems to have used divide and conquer and the Sclaveni and Antes are mentioned as fighting each other; the Antes are last mentioned as anti-Byzantine belligerents in 545, the Sclaveni continued to raid the Balkans. In 558 the Avars arrived at the Black Sea steppe, defeated the Antes between the Dnieper and Dniester; the Avars subsequently allied themselves with the Sclaveni, although there was an episode in which the Sclaveni Daurentius (fl.
Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. Armenians constitute the de facto independent Artsakh. There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside modern Armenia; the largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia, the United States, Georgia, Germany, Lebanon and Syria. With the exceptions of Iran and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora was formed as a result of the Armenian Genocide. Most Armenians adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a non-Chalcedonian church, the world's oldest national church. Christianity began to spread in Armenia soon after Jesus' death, due to the efforts of two of his apostles, St. Thaddeus and St. Bartholomew. In the early 4th century, the Kingdom of Armenia became the first state to adopt Christianity as a state religion. Armenian is an Indo-European language, it has two mutually intelligible and written forms: Eastern Armenian, today spoken in Armenia, Artsakh and the former Soviet republics.
The unique Armenian alphabet was invented in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots. The name Armenian has come to internationally designate this group of people, it was first used by neighbouring countries of ancient Armenia. The earliest attestations of the exonym Armenia date around the 6th century BC. In his trilingual Behistun Inscription dated to 517 BC, Darius I the Great of Persia refers to Urashtu as Armina (in Old Persian. In Greek, Αρμένιοι "Armenians" is attested from about the same time the earliest reference being a fragment attributed to Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. Armenians call themselves Hay; the name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region.
It is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. Movses Khorenatsi, the important early medieval Armenian historian, wrote that the word Armenian originated from the name Armenak or Aram; the Armenian Highland is the area surrounding the highest peak of the region. A controversial hypothesis put forward by some scholars, such as T. Gamkrelidze and V. Ivanov, has proposed that the Indo-European homeland was around the Armenian Highland; the modern Armenian language is grouped with Greek and Ancient Macedonian in the Pontic Indo-European subgroup of Indo-European languages by Eric P. Hamp in his 2012 Indo-European family tree, groups. There are two possible explanations, not mutually exclusive, for a common origin of the Armenian and Greek languages. Ancient Greek scholars, such as Herodotus, suggest that the Phrygians of western Anatolia, who spoke an Indo-European language, had made a contribution to the ethnogenesis of the Armenians: "the Armenians were equipped like Phrygians, being Phrygian colonists".
This appears to imply that some Phrygians migrated eastward to Armenia following the destruction of Phrygia by a Cimmerian invasion in the late 7th century BC. Greek scholars believed that the Phrygians had originated in the Balkans, in an area adjoining Macedonia, from where they had emigrated to Anatolia many centuries earlier. In Hamp's view the homeland of the proposed Greco-Armenian subgroup is the northeast coast of the Black Sea and its hinterlands, he assumes that they migrated from there southeast through the Caucasus with the Armenians remaining after Batumi while the pre-Greeks proceeded westwards along the southern coast of the Black Sea. Some genetics studies explain Armenian diversity by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3,000 and ~2,000 BC, but genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1,200 BC when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran.
In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire and Hayasa-Azzi. Soon after Hayasa-Azzi came Arme-Shupria, the Nairi and the Kingdom of Urartu, who successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland; each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people. Under Ashurbanipal, the Assyrian empire reached the Caucasus Mountains. Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BC by king Argishti I; the first geographical entity, called Armenia by neighboring peoples was established in the late 6th century BC u