Griffith J. Griffith
Griffith Jenkins Griffith was a Welsh industrialist and philanthropist, convicted of assaulting his wife with a deadly weapon. After amassing a significant fortune from a mining syndicate in the 1880s, Griffith donated 3,015 acres to the City of Los Angeles which became Griffith Park, he bequeathed the money to build the park's Greek Theatre and Griffith Observatory. Griffith's legacy was marred by his notorious shooting of his wife in 1903, a crime for which he served two years in prison. Griffith J. Griffith was born in Bettws, Wales, on January 4, 1850, he immigrated to the United States in 1865, settling in Pennsylvania. In 1873 he moved to San Francisco and became manager of the Herald Publishing Company. In 1887 he married Mary Agnes Christina Mesmer. In 1878 G. J. Griffith became mining correspondent for the Alta California, a San Francisco newspaper; as a reporter he gained extensive knowledge of the mining industry on the Pacific Coast and in Nevada, which led to his employment by various mining syndicates.
As a mining expert, Griffith acquired a fortune. In 1882 Griffith moved to Los Angeles and purchased 4,000 acres of the Rancho Los Feliz Mexican land grant. On December 16, 1896, Griffith and his wife Christina presented 3,015 acres of the Rancho Los Feliz to the city of Los Angeles for use as a public park. Griffith called it "a Christmas present." After accepting the donation, the city passed an ordinance to name the property Griffith Park, in honor of the donor."It must be made a place of rest and relaxation for the masses, a resort for the rank and file, for the plain people," Griffith told the Los Angeles City Council when he donated the land. "I consider it my obligation to make Los Angeles a happy and finer city. I wish to pay my debt of duty in this way to the community in which I have prospered." Griffith donated another 1,000 acres along the Los Angeles River. While vacationing in Santa Monica on September 3, 1903, Griffith shot his wife in the presidential suite of the Arcadia Hotel, as she knelt on the floor before him.
The shot did not kill her. Griffith was charged with assault with a deadly weapon with intent to commit murder; the prosecution was led by former governor of California. Griffith was defended by attorney Earl Rogers, whose cross-examination of the veiled Mrs. Griffith revealed that her husband—generally thought to be a teetotaler—was in fact a secret drunk, subject to paranoid delusions. Griffith was convicted of assault with a deadly weapon; the judge sentenced him to two years in San Quentin State Prison, instructing that he be given "medical aid for his condition of alcoholic insanity". On November 4, 1904, while he was in prison, Mrs. Griffith was granted a divorce on the grounds of cruelty, she was awarded custody of their 16-year-old son Vandell; the court stated that G. J. Griffith would pay for his son's education at Stanford University; the decree was made in the record time of four and a half minutes. G. J. Griffith was released from prison December 1906, after serving nearly two years.
His conduct at the penitentiary was called exemplary. Griffith began lecturing on prison reform. In December 1912 Griffith offered a second "Christmas present" to Los Angeles, in the form of a Greek Theater and a Hall of Science to be built at his expense in Griffith Park; the offer was accepted by the City Council, but members of the Park Commission objected and instituted a court action to block the donation. Griffith left the offer in his will, he died of liver disease on July 6, 1919. The bulk of his $1.5 million estate was bequeathed to the city for the building of the Greek Theater and Griffith Observatory. He is interred at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery in Los Angeles in the northwest corner of Section 7, a.k.a. "The Griffith Lawn". Griffith used the title of Colonel, but official records of military service which support this rank have not been found. Evidence suggests the only military title he held was Major of rifle practice with the California National Guard. BBC biography Griffith Park Narrative Griffith Observatory History Glendale College biography Millionaire Under Arrest.
Pittsburg: Dorrance Publishing Co. ISBN 0-8059-4172-X Reminiscing: Trial of Griffith J. Griffith Draws Wide Attention. Metropolitan News-Enterprise, July 10, 2008
The Griffith Observatory is a facility in Los Angeles, sitting on the south-facing slope of Mount Hollywood in Los Angeles' Griffith Park. It commands a view of the Los Angeles Basin, including Downtown Los Angeles to the southeast, Hollywood to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest; the observatory is a popular tourist attraction with a close view of the Hollywood Sign and an extensive array of space and science-related displays. Admission has been free since the observatory's opening in 1935, in accordance with the will of Griffith J. Griffith, the benefactor after whom the observatory is named. On December 16, 1896, 3,015 acres of land surrounding the observatory was donated to the City of Los Angeles by Griffith J. Griffith. In his will Griffith donated funds to build an observatory, exhibit hall, planetarium on the donated land. Griffith's objective was to make astronomy accessible by the public, as opposed to the prevailing idea that observatories should be located on remote mountaintops and restricted to scientists.
Griffith drafted detailed specifications for the observatory. In drafting the plans, he consulted with Walter Adams, the future director of Mount Wilson Observatory, George Ellery Hale, who founded the first astrophysical telescope in Los Angeles; as a Works Progress Administration project, construction began on June 20, 1933, using a design developed by architect John C. Austin based on preliminary sketches by Russell W. Porter; the observatory and accompanying exhibits were opened to the public on May 14, 1935, as the country's third planetarium. In its first five days of operation the observatory logged more than 13,000 visitors. Dinsmore Alter was the museum's director during its first years; the building combines Greek and Beaux-Arts influences, the exterior is embellished with the Greek key pattern. During World War II the planetarium was used to train pilots in celestial navigation; the planetarium was again used for this purpose in the 1960s to train Apollo program astronauts for the first lunar missions.
The observatory closed in 2002 for a major expansion of exhibit space. It reopened to the public on November 2006, retaining its art deco exterior; the $93 million renovation, paid by a public bond issue, restored the building, as well as replaced the aging planetarium dome. The building was expanded underground, with new exhibits, a café, gift shop, the new Leonard Nimoy Event Horizon Theater. A wildfire in the hills came dangerously close to the observatory on May 10, 2007. On October 15, 2017, brush fires approached the Observatory Trail, but were extinguished before causing any structural damage. On July 10, 2018, the Griffith Park Observatory was evacuated after a brush fire burned 25 acres and damaged cars but was extinguished before it damaged any buildings. On May 25, 2008, the Observatory offered. Ed Krupp is the current director of the Observatory; the first exhibit visitors encountered in 1935 was the Foucault pendulum, designed to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. The exhibits included a 12-inch Zeiss refracting telescope in the east dome, a triple-beam coelostat in the west dome, a thirty-eight foot relief model of the moon's north polar region.
Col. Griffith requested that the observatory include a display on evolution, accomplished with the Cosmochron exhibit which included a narration from Caltech Professor Chester Stock and an accompanying slide show; the evolution exhibit existed from 1937 to the mid-1960s. Included in the original design was a planetarium under the large central dome; the first shows covered topics including the Moon, worlds of the solar system, eclipses. The planetarium theater was renovated in 1964 and a Mark IV Zeiss projector was installed; the Café at the End of the Universe, an homage to Restaurant at the End of the Universe, is one of the many cafés run by celebrity chef Wolfgang Puck. One wall inside the building is covered with the largest astronomically accurate image constructed, called "The Big Picture", depicting the Virgo Cluster of galaxies; the 1964-vintage Zeiss Mark IV star projector was replaced with a Zeiss Mark IX Universarium. The former planetarium projector is part of the underground exhibit on ways in which humanity has visualized the skies.
Centered in the Universe features a high-resolution immersive video projected by an innovative laser system developed by Evans and Sutherland Corporation, along with a short night sky simulation projected by the Zeiss Universarium. A team of animators worked more than two years to create the 30-minute program. Actors, holding a glowing orb, perform the presentation, under the direction of Chris Shelton. Tickets for the show are purchased separately at the box office within the observatory. Tickets are sold on a first-served basis. Children under 5 are admitted to only the first planetarium show of the day. Only members of the observatory's support group, Friends Of The Observatory, may reserve tickets for the planetarium show; the observatory is split up into six sections: The Wilder Hall of the Eye, the Ahmanson Hall of the Sky, the W. M. Keck Foundation Central Rotunda, the Cosmic Connection, the Gunther Depths of Space Hall, the Edge of Space Mezzanine; the Wilder Hall of the Eye, located in the east wing of the main level focuses on astronomical tools like telescopes and how they evolved over time so people can see further into space.
Interactive features there include a Tesla coil and a "Camera Obscura", which uses mirrors and lenses to focus
A music venue is any location used for a concert or musical performance. A music venue range in size and location, from an outdoor bandshell or bandstand or a concert hall to an indoor sports stadium. Different types of venues host different genres of music. Opera houses and concert halls host classical music performances, whereas public houses and discothèques offer music in contemporary genres, such as rock, dance and pop. Music venues may be either or publicly funded, may charge for admission. An example of a publicly funded music venue is a park bandstand. A nightclub is a funded venue. Music venues do not host live acts. Depending on the type of venue, the opening hours and length of performance may differ, as well as the technology used to deliver the music in the venue. Other attractions, such as performance art or social activities, may be available, either while music is playing or at other times. For example, at a bar or pub, the house band may be playing live songs while drinks are being served, between songs, recorded music may be played.
Some classes of venues may play live music in the background, such as a performance on a grand piano in a restaurant. Music venues can be categorised in a number of ways; the genre of music played at the venue, whether it is temporary and who owns the venue decide many of the other characteristics. The majority of music venues are permanent. An example of a temporary venue would be one constructed for a music festival. Music venues may be the result of public enterprises; some venues only promote acts of one particular genre and example of this are opera houses. Music venues can be categorised by capacity. Music venues are either indoor. Examples of outdoor venues include bandshells. A temporary music festival is an outdoor venue. Examples of indoor venues include public houses, coffee bars and stadia. Venues can play live music, recorded music, or a combination of the two, depending on the event or time of day. A characteristic of every live music venue is that one or more stages are present. Venues may advance tickets only.
A dress code may not apply. Amphitheaters are round- or oval-shaped and unroofed. Permanent seating at amphitheaters is tiered. A bandshell is a large, outdoor performing structure used by concert bands and orchestras; the roof and the back half of the shell protect musicians from the elements and reflect sound through the open side and out towards the audience. Bandstand is a small outdoor structure. A concert hall is a performance venue constructed for instrumental classical music. A concert hall may exist as part of a larger performing arts center. Jazz clubs are an example of a venue, dedicated to a specific genre of music. In Japan, small live music clubs are known as live houses featuring rock, jazz and folk music, have existed since the 1970s, now being found across the country. An opera house is a theatre venue constructed for opera. An opera house has a spacious orchestra pit, where a large number of orchestra players may be seated at a level below the audience
CEFCU Stadium known as Spartan Stadium from 1933 to 2015, is an outdoor athletic stadium in the western United States, located in San Jose, California. Owned by San José State University, the venue is the longtime home of Spartan football; the stadium hosts occasional high school football games and the university commencement ceremony every year on Memorial Day weekend. Known as Spartan Stadium for over eight decades, it was renamed in 2016. CEFCU Stadium was the home of the San Jose Earthquakes of Major League Soccer from the league's inception in 1996 through the 2005 season. Other tenants have included the original San Jose Earthquakes of the North American Soccer League from 1974 to 1984, the San Jose CyberRays of the Women's United Soccer Association from 2001 to 2003, the San Francisco Dragons of Major League Lacrosse in 2008. Soccer Bowl'75 was held at Spartan Stadium. During the winter and spring of 2009, the stadium's natural turf was removed and replaced with FieldTurf, a new generation of artificial turf with a crumb rubber and sand infill.
This improvement has resulted in significant savings to the university in water use and seed. This project was completed in time for the May 2009 commencement ceremony; the stadium received significant upgrades to the scoreboard and sound system in 2011. This included installation of a high-definition video board by Daktronics at the south end of the stadium. Built 86 years ago in 1933 as a 4,000-seat facility, CEFCU Stadium has been renovated and expanded over the years to its present seating capacity of 30,456; the most recent additions came in the 1980s when the capacity of the stadium was expanded from 18,000 to 33,000 by adding boxes and an upper deck on the west side. In the early 2000s, renovations were carried out for the San Jose Earthquakes in order to make the field wide enough for a FIFA regulation size field; as a result of these renovations, parts of the stands closest to the playing field were removed, thus lowering available seating for all sports to the stadium's present capacity of 30,456.
The maximum capacity for MLS games is 26,525. In August 2016, Citizens Equity First Credit Union purchased naming rights to Spartan Stadium for $8.7 million. The deal between CEFCU and San José State University will last for 15 years. SJSU is the only university in the California State University system to sell naming rights to its football stadium. At the time, SJSU was one of three member universities in the Mountain West Conference to strike such a deal, with one other MW member playing in a municipally owned stadium, named through such a deal. Two more MW schools have since made similar naming rights deals for their football stadiums; the $8.7 million raised by the agreement will be used for athletic scholarships, athletics operations, athletics facilities. A CEFCU Stadium east-side building addition is in the planning stages and will cost $40 million; the proposed facility will house a new operations center, which will include locker rooms, offices, an auditorium and seating on the 50-yard line.
The project will include a major renovation of the stadium's entire east side. The now defunct NCAA Silicon Valley Football Classic bowl game was held at CEFCU Stadium from 2000 to 2004. CEFCU Stadium has hosted numerous FIFA events. Most notably the stadium was used as one of the venues for the 1999 Women's World Cup; the stadium hosts the commencement ceremonies of San José State University every spring, as well as musical concerts throughout the year. CEFCU Stadium is only one block from San Jose Municipal Stadium, home of the San Jose Giants, the High A minor league baseball affiliate of the San Francisco Giants. List of NCAA Division I FBS football stadiums SJSU Spartans.com – official athletics site
Eastside Los Angeles
The Eastside of Los Angeles County, California, is a geographic region that includes the neighborhoods of Boyle Heights, El Sereno and Lincoln Heights within the city of Los Angeles and East Los Angeles, California, an unincorporated area. East Los Angeles was founded in 1870 by John Strother Griffin, called "the father of East Los Angeles", he was said to have created the first suburb of the city of Los Angeles in Lincoln Heights after he purchased 2,000 acres of ranch land for $1,000 and in 1870, with his nephew, Hancock Johnson, erected houses on the site. That land was a rancho called La Rosa de Castilla, on the east side of the Los Angeles River, taking in the deserted hills between Los Angeles and Pasadena. In late 1874 the two men offered an additional thirty-five acres, divided into 65x165-foot lots, for $150 each, they planned the laying out of streets of the present community of East Los Angeles and gifted East Side Park to the city of Los Angeles. In 2000, a total of 286,222 people lived in the 20.66 square miles of the Eastside region, amounting to 13,852 people per square mile.
The neighborhood was "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of Latinos. The ethnic breakdown was Latinos, 91.2%. Just 5.1% of residents aged 25 and older had a four-year college degree. More than two-thirds of the inhabitants lived in shared housing, 33.2% were homeowners. Boyle Heights East Los Angeles El Sereno Lincoln Heights University Hills Latino Walk of Fame - East Los Angeles Mariachi Plaza - Boyle Heights El Mercado de Los Angeles - Boyle Heights Calvary Cemetery - East Los Angeles Home of Peace Cemetery - East Los Angeles Evergreen Cemetery - Boyle Heights Estrada Courts Murals - Boyle Heights El Pino - East Los Angeles The Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times defines the Eastside as comprising Boyle Heights, El Sereno, Lincoln Heights, East Los Angeles. However, the boundaries are a matter of perennial discussion and debate among the residents of Los Angeles; the Mapping L. A. definition corresponds to the traditional boundaries, beginning in the early 21st century, residents of some of the gentrifying neighborhoods west of Downtown Los Angeles but on the eastern side of Central Los Angeles, such as Echo Park and Silver Lake, began to refer to their neighborhoods as part of the Eastside.
This debate has generated some friction, according to Ali Modarres, an expert on the geography of Los Angeles from the University of Washington Tacoma, is to be expected because neighborhood names are "full of meaning, history and political relationships". Eric Garcetti, the mayor of Los Angeles and a fourth generation resident, is a traditionalist, stating that "true east is east of downtown"; the trend led the Silver Lake Neighborhood Council to declare in February 2014 that Silver Lake is not part of the Eastside. The Sixth Street Viaduct known as the Sixth Street Bridge was demolished. Prior to the demolition, Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti recorded the rap song "101SlowJam", backed by musicians from Roosevelt High School, issued it via a video on his own YouTube channel; the public service announcement video advertised the closure of parts of the 101 Freeway to accommodate the demolition of the viaduct. My Family/Mi Familia, Motion Picture of life in East Los Angeles Born in East L. A. motion picture Chicano, ethnic term East LA Classic, football game Blood In Blood Out, motion picture City Times in Los Angeles Times suburban sections Zoot Suit Riots, 1943 Ten Latino neighborhoods in Los Angeles County Romo, Ricardo.
East Los Angeles: History of a Barrio. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72041-6; the Eastsider LA East Los Angeles travel guide from Wikivoyage East LA Guide
Silver Lake, Los Angeles
Silver Lake is a residential and commercial neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, United States. Named Ivanhoe in the 1900s by a resident from Scotland, it was built around what was a city reservoir which gives the district its name; the "Silver" in Silver Lake is not because of the water's color, but named for a local politician who helped create the reservoir. The area is known for its restaurants and hipster hangouts, many notable people have made their homes there; the neighborhood has several private schools. Silver Lake is flanked on the northeast by Atwater Village and Elysian Valley, on the southeast by Echo Park, on the southwest by Westlake, on the west by East Hollywood and on the northwest by Los Feliz. Street and other boundaries are: the Los Angeles River between Glendale Boulevard and Fletcher Drive and Riverside Drive on the northeast, the Glendale Freeway on the east, Effie Street, Coronado Street, Berkeley Avenue and Fletcher Drive on the southeast, the Hollywood Freeway on the south, Virgil Avenue on the west and Fountain Avenue and Hyperion Avenue on the northwest.
The prime real estate around the lake is known by realtors as the "Moreno Highlands." The Silver Lake neighborhood council has mapped the boundaries of its council region. During the 1930s, Walt Disney built his first large studio in Silver Lake at the corner of Griffith Park Boulevard and Hyperion Avenue the site of Gelson's Market; as consequence, the name "Hyperion" is used by Walt Disney Company and its subsidiaries, with company entities past and present carrying the name, such as Hyperion Books and the Hyperion Theater at Disney California Adventure Park. The fictional Seattle neighborhood of Hyperion Heights in the final season of the Disney-owned ABC series Once Upon a Time traces its name to the same origin. Several blocks away on Glendale Boulevard was the studio of early Western films' star Tom Mix; the location is now occupied by the Mixville Shopping Center. It is rumored that Mix buried his steed "the Wonder Horse" on the property; the neighborhood is crisscrossed by numerous municipal staircases that provide pedestrian access up and down the neighborhood's signature hills.
Among these are the Descanso Stairs, Redcliffe Stairs and the Music Box Stairs. The famous flight of stairs in Laurel and Hardy's film The Music Box are located between lower Descanso Drive and Vendome Street, as it winds up and around the hill. In the 1950s and 60s Silver Lake, like Echo Park, was home to a middle class Latino community; the community was formed by people who worked in the then-bustling manufacturing hub of downtown Los Angeles. In the 1970s, outsourcing brought to an end the group's prosperity, as they saw their jobs shipped overseas to Taiwan and China along with manufacturing; the neighborhood lost its prominence amid urban decay. Beginning in the 1970s, the neighborhood became the nexus of Los Angeles' gay leather subculture, the equivalent of the SoMA neighborhood in San Francisco. Since the late 1990s, gentrification has changed the area by pushing out public sex and "gay cruising", by facilitating the opening of many independent upscale boutiques, coffee shops, fitness studios, restaurants.
The neighborhood was named for Water Board Commissioner Herman Silver, instrumental in the creation of the Silver Lake Reservoir in the neighborhood, one of the water storage reservoirs established in the early 1900s. This is one of ten. In the community of Silver Lake lies the namesake reservoir composed of two basins, with the lower named Silver Lake and the upper named Ivanhoe; the lower body of water was named in 1906 for Herman Silver. The reservoirs are owned and maintained by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, could provide water to 600,000 homes in downtown and South Los Angeles. At capacity, they hold 795 million gallons of water; the Silver Lake Reservoir's water resources will be replaced by the Headworks Reservoir, an underground reservoir north of Griffith Park, slated for completion by December 2017. Within the grounds of the reservoir are several popular recreational facilities: the Silver Lake Recreation Center, which includes an adjacent city park. On the northeast corner of the property is the Neighborhood Nursery School, which since 1976 has been at the corner of Tesla Avenue and Silver Lake Boulevard.
It is a parent-participation cooperative preschool, affiliated with the California Council of Parent Participation Nursery Schools. As of 2015, Silver Lake is represented by Los Angeles City Council Members Mitch O'Farrell and David Ryu and the Silver Lake Neighborhood Council; the Silver Lake Neighborhood Council was formed in the early 2000s and certified as part of the City of Los Angeles Neighborhood Council system in February 2003. Its 21-member governing board is elected for two-year terms in September. Recent projects have included "Street Medallions" created by artist Cheri Gaulke, "ArtCans", the "Electrical Art Box Project", the second annual "Make Music LA" created by several different artists and the SLNC Arts & Culture Committee, whose current co-chairs are Renee Dawson and Jenifer Palmer Lacy; the Silver Lake Residents Association, the Silver Lake Improvement Association, the Silver Lake Reservoirs Conservancy, the Silver Lake Chamber of Commerce are all active in the area. The 2000 U.
S. census counted 30,972 residents in the 2.75 square miles neighborhood—an average of 11,266 people per square mile, about the
San Fernando Valley
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the more populous Los Angeles Basin. Nearly two thirds of the valley's land area is part of the city of Los Angeles; the other incorporated cities in the valley are Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas. The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast; the northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek and Bell Creek, between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. in Canoga Park.
These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace, it flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, Verdugo Wash; the elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft to 1,200 ft above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeastern corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwestern corner, San Fernando, surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeastern valley.
Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside; the valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs and general garden crops; the San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities are governed by the County of Los Angeles; the Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12.
Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate; the valley falls into four congressional districts: the 28th, 29th, 30th, 33rd, represented by Adam Schiff, Tony Cárdenas, Brad Sherman, Ted Lieu. In the Los Angeles County board of supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Kathryn Barger; the San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is true in the southern areas, which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank; the Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices.
Northridge is home to Northridge. Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles neighborhood councils The Tongva known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years, they had numerous settlements, trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley. The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley was called "Rancho Encino", in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so that a mission could be built there