Ionian School (music)
The term Ionian School of Music denotes the musical production of a group of Heptanesian composers, whose heyday was from the early 19th century till the 1950s. Conventionally, it is divided in two periods: the First Generation from 1815, till the end of the 1860s, the Second Generation from 1871 and onwards. Prominent representatives of this genre include Nikolaos Mantzaros, Spyridon Xyndas, Spyridon Samaras, Pavlos Carrer and Dionysios Lavrangas; the Music Museum of the Philharmonic Society of Corfu has in its collections several scores by these and other 19th and 20th century Ionian composers. The major inspiration for the Ionian School was considered to be the Italian musical tradition. However, as late as the 1820s composers from Ionian Islands succeeded in shaping their own path towards'national music' by using the Greek vernacular language, by incorporating folklore elements both from the local tradition and from that of mainland Greece; the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London 2001, ISBN 0-333-60800-3 Stanley I.
Sadie: The New Grove dictionary of Opera, London 1992, ISBN 0-333-48552-1 Friedrich Blume: Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, München und Kassel 1989, ISBN 3-7618-5913-9 Xepapadakou, Avra. "Pavlos Carrer ". Grove Music Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press
The Pontic Greeks known as Pontian Greeks, are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia. Many migrated to other parts of Eastern Anatolia, to the former Russian province of Kars Oblast in the Transcaucasus, to Georgia in various waves between the Ottoman conquest of the Empire of Trebizond in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829; those from southern Russia and Crimea are referred to as "Northern Pontic ", in contrast to those from "South Pontus", which speaking is Pontus proper. Those from Georgia, northeastern Anatolia, the former Russian Caucasus are in contemporary Greek academic circles referred to as "Eastern Pontic " or as Caucasian Greeks, but include the Turkic-speaking Urums. Pontic Greeks have Greek ancestry and speak the Pontic Greek dialect, a distinct form of the standard Greek language which, due to the remoteness of Pontus, has undergone linguistic evolution distinct from that of the rest of the Greek world.
The Pontic Greeks had a continuous presence in the region of Pontus and Eastern Anatolia from at least 700 BC until 1922. Nowadays, due to extensive intermarriage, the exact number of Greeks from the Pontus, or people with Greek ancestry still living there, is unknown. After 1988, Pontian Greeks in the Soviet Union started to migrate to Greece settling in and around Athens and Thessaloniki, Macedonia; the largest communities of Pontian Greeks around the world are: In Greek mythology the Black Sea region is the region where Jason and the Argonauts sailed to find the Golden Fleece. The Amazons, female warriors in Greek Mythology lived in Pontus and minority lived in Taurica known as Crimea, the minor unique settlement of Pontic Greeks; the warlike characteristics of Pontic Greeks had once said to have been derived of Amazons of Pontus. The first recorded Greek colony, established on the northern shores of ancient Anatolia, was Sinope on the Black Sea, circa 800 BC; the settlers of Sinop were merchants from the Ionian Greek city state of Miletus.
After the colonization of the shores of the Black Sea, known until to the Greek world as Pontos Axeinos, the name changed to Pontos Euxeinos. In time, as the numbers of Greeks settling in the region grew more colonies were established along the whole Black Sea coastline of what is now Turkey, Georgia, Russia and Romania; the region of Trapezus was mentioned by Xenophon in his famous work Anabasis, describing how he and other 10,000 Greek mercenaries fought their way to the Euxine Sea after the failure of the rebellion of Cyrus the Younger whom they fought for, against his older brother Artaxerxes II of Persia. Xenophon mentions that when at the sight of sea they shouted "Thalatta! Thalatta!" – "The sea! The sea!", the local people understood them. They were Greeks too and, according to Xenophon, they had been there for over 300 years. A whole range of trade flourished among the various Greek colonies, but with the indigenous tribes who inhabited the Pontus inland. Soon Trebizond established a leading stature among the other colonies and the region nearby become the heart of the Pontian Greek culture and civilization.
A notable inhabitant of the region was Philetaerus, born to a Greek father in the small town of Tieion, situated on the Black Sea coast of the Pontus Euxinus, he founded the Attalid dynasty and the Anatolian city of Pergamon in the second century BC. This region was organized circa 281 BC as a kingdom by Mithridates I of Pontus, whose ancestry line dated back to Ariobarzanes I, a Persian ruler of the Greek town of Cius; the most prominent descendant of Mithridates I was Mithridates VI of Pontus, who between 90 and 65 BC fought the Mithridatic Wars, three bitter wars against the Roman Republic, before being defeated. Mithridates VI the Great, as he was left in memory, claiming to be the protector of the Greek world against the barbarian Romans, expanded his kingdom to Bithynia and Propontis before his downfall after the Third Mithridatic War; the kingdom survived as a Roman vassal state, now named Bosporan Kingdom and based in Crimea, until the 4th century AD, when it succumbed to the Huns.
The rest of the Pontus became part of the Roman Empire, while the mountainous interior was incorporated into the Eastern Roman Empire during the 6th century. Pontus was the birthplace of the Komnenos dynasty, which ruled the Byzantine Empire from 1082 to 1185, a time in which the empire resurged to recover much of Anatolia from the Seljuk Turks. In the aftermath of the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the Empire of Trebizond was established by Alexios I of Trebizond, a descendant of Alexios I Komnenos, the patriarch of the Komnenos dynasty; the Empire was ruled by this new branch of the Komenos dynasty which bore the name Megas Komnenos Axouch as early rulers intermarried with the family of Axouch, a Byzantine noble house of Turkic origin which included famed politicians such as John Axouch This empire lasted for more than 250 years until it fell at the hands of Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire in 1461. However it took the Ottomans 18 more years to defeat the Greek resistance in Pontus.
During this long period of resistance
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b
Pizzica is a popular Italian folk dance from the Salento peninsula in Apulia and spreading throughout the rest of Apulia and the regions of Calabria and eastern Basilicata. It is part of the larger family of tarantella dances; the traditional pizzica is a couple dance. This couple need not involve two individuals of opposite sexes, two women can be seen dancing together. Nowadays it has become rare to see two men dancing an entire pizzica. An exception with a pizzica between two men can still be found in the town of Ostuni, where one of the two men who dance jokingly pretends to be a woman. Another exception is; the most important book about Pizzica and the ritual of Tarantismo is The Land of Remorse, write by the italian philosopher and historian of religions Ernesto De Martino. There are several traditional pizzica groups, the oldest being Officina Zoé, Uccio Aloisi gruppu, Canzoniere Grecanico Salentino, I Tamburellisti di Torrepaduli. Since 1998 there has been a summer Notte della Taranta, consisting of a whole night where many famous musicians alternate their performances with pizzica orchestras.
Some of them include Stewart Copeland, Franco Battiato, Gianna Nannini, Lucio Dalla, Carmen Consoli. The 11th Festival was held in Lecce in August 2008. Alessandra Belloni Alla Bua Anna Cinzia Villani Antonio Castrignanò Arakne Mediterranea Canzoniere Grecanico Salentino Mascarimirì Officina Zoè Enza Pagliara Pizzica's videos Pizzica's texts La pizzica in the 1779
MTV (Greek TV channel)
MTV Greece was a Greek free-to-air television channel launched on 1 September 2008. Owned by Viacom International, it closed down on 11 January 2016 due to low ratings because of its reality shows-centric programming, it was replaced by Rise on terrestrial television. It OTE TV and NOVA subscription providers, it was replaced by MTV Europe and MTV Live HD. MTV Greece used to air British and Greek music, MTV original shows like Date My Mom, Nitro Circus, RoomRaiders, America's Most Smartest Model, etc. subtitled in Greek, as well as three Greek shows. It was available on terrestrial television in Athens and via satellite to the rest of the country and Cyprus. MTV launched MTV Plus, a regional spin-off channel based in Thessaloniki. MTV Greece's launch event took place in Panathenaic Stadium on 5 October 2008 with live performances from R. E. M. Kaiser Chiefs, Gabriella Cilmi, C Real; the concert was broadcast live in Italy, France and Spain on MTV. On 9 October 2009 MTV organized a celebration for the 1 year of airing in Greece.
MTV held a concert at the Olympic Indoor Hall, in Athens, with quests Myronas Stratis, Professional Sinnerz, Aloha From Hell and Tokio Hotel. The concert was recorded and was shown on the MTV World Stage. A high-definition feed of the channel was launched on 17 October 2011; the channel combined local and international music, aired international MTV shows including Jackass, Pimp My Ride, When I Was 17, If You Really Knew Me, My Super Sweet 16, Viva La Bam, Room Raiders, Life of Ryan and 16 and Pregnant, as well as some original content produced for Greece. MTV News - Music and entertainment news updates. Your Noise Live - Daily variety program with music, news and interviews. MTV Take 20 - Weekly show focuses on movie news, interviews and a look at the latest new releases. MTV Headbangers Ball - Heavy metal music videos and news. MTV Game On - Weekly show focuses on video games; every Day Girls! - Weekly show focuses on girls, horoscopes and celebrity news and interviews. MTV New Generation Yo! MTV Raps myMTV Mission Lydia - Entertainment program hosted by Lydia Papaioannou MTV Summer Clash MTV SHOW US YOUR STYLE MTV Greeklips Wake Up with MTV MTV Coolwave Challenges Only Hits Clip Of The Week Your Noise Daily MTV City Life Party Zone Nafsika Lalioti Katerina Tsavalou Lydia Papaioannou Konstantinos Koutsoumpas Vanessa Christodoulou Orfeas Spiliotopoulos Thomas Protopapas Vasiliki Arvanitaki Estel Marianthi Mpairaktari Myrtw Kazi George Satsidis Spiros Margaritis Launched on 18 October 2009, MTV Plus was a regional channel available in Thessaloniki.
Its programming was similar to its sister channel MTV Greece. On 13 December 2011 it was replaced by Nickelodeon Plus. Launched on 7 October 2009, MTV Music was a 24-hour music channel playing non-stop music videos, live performances and artist interviews, it closed on 2011 and was replaced by MTV Greece and, from 17 October 2011, MTV HD. MTV HD was launched on 17 October 2011 on OTE TV. Viacom International Media Networks Europe Music of Greece Official site
Greek folk music
Greek folk music includes a variety of Greek styles played by ethnic Greeks in Greece, Australia, the United States and elsewhere. Apart from the common music found all-around Greece, there are distinct types of folk music, sometimes related to the history or the taste of the specific places; the Greek folk music, in Greek Demotiko or Paradosiako, refers to the traditional Greek popular songs and music of mainland Greece and islands dated to the Byzantine times. It was the sole popular musical genre of the Greek people until the spread of rebetiko and laiko in the early 20th century, spread by the Greek refugees from Asia Minor; this kind of music evolved from the ancient and the medieval Greek era and was established until the present day. The lyrics are based on Demotiki poetry and popular themes are love, humor, nature, sea, about klephts, various war fighters or battles etc The songs are played in the following tempos: Syrtos, Tsamiko and Pentozali; some notable folk songs include "Itia", "Milo mou kokkino", "Kontoula lemonia", "Mou parigile to aidoni", "Enas aetos", "Kira Vangelio", "Gerakina", "Saranta palikaria" and from nisiotika "Ikariotikos", "Samiotisa", "Thalassaki", "Armenaki", "Amorgos Sousta", "Dirlada", "Lygaria", "Psaropoula", such as "Tilirkiotissa" and "Psintri Vasilitsia mou".
The Greek islands of Kárpathos, Khálki, Kássos and Crete form an arc where the Cretan lyra is the dominant instrument. Kostas Mountakis is the most respected master of the lyra, accompanied by the laouto which resembles a mandolin. Bagpipes are played on Kárpathos. Crete has a well known folk dance tradition, which comes from ancient Greece and includes swift dances like pentozalis and other like sousta, trizali, chaniotikos, pidichtos Lasithou, tsiniaris and laziotikos; the Aegean islands of Greece are known for Nisiótika songs. Although the basis of the sound is characteristically secular-Byzantine, the relative isolation of the islands allowed the separate development of island-specific Greek music. Most of the nisiótika songs are accompanied by lyra, clarinet and violin. Notable singers include the Konitopouloi. Folk dances include the ballos, sousta, kalymniotikos, lerikos, michanikos, trata and ikariotikos. In the Aegean Cyclades, the violin is more popular than Cretan lyra, has produced several respected musicians, including Nikos Oikonomidis, Leonidas Klados and Stathis Koukoularis.
Folk dances in Cyclades include lerikos, syrtos Serifou, syrtos Naxou, syrtos Kythnou, Amorgos dance and ballos. One of the most famous singers of cycladic music is Domna Samiou. In Dodacanese there are prominent elements of Cretan music. Dodecanese folk dances include the trata, syrtos, issos, syrtos Rodou and kalymnikos, with origin from the island of Kalymnos. In central Greece many folk songs make references to the klephts and their role during the Greek war of independence. Folk dances in central Greece include: antikrystos, kalamatianos, kamilierikos choros, syrtos, choros tis tratas and syrtokalamatianos; the musical tradition of the region is influenced by the Arvanites. In Epirus, folk songs are polyphonic, sung by both male and female singers. Distinctive songs include vocals with skáros accompaniment and tis távlas; the clarinet is the most prominent folk instrument in Epirus, used to accompany dances slow and heavy, like the tsamikos, menousis, podia, sta dio, sta tria, kentimeni and iatros.
Folk dances from the Peloponnese include the kalamatianos, monodiplos, syrtos, Ai Georgis and diplos horos. In the songs there are references to the klephts. In Mani there is the tradition of the "μοιρολόγια" mirolóyia, sung by the old women of Mani; the Ionian Islands were never under Ottoman control and their songs and kantadhes are based a lot on the western European style. Greek kantadhes are performed by three male singers accompanied by guitar; these romantic songs developed in Kefalonia in the early 19th century but spread throughout Greece after the liberation of Greece. An Athenian form of kantadhes arose accompanied by violin and laouto; however the style is accepted as uniquely Heptanesean. The island of Zakynthos has a diverse musical history with influences from Crete. Folk dances include the tsirigotikos, ballos, syrtos, Ai Georgis, Kerkyraikos. Notable songs are "Kato sto yialo", "S'ena paporo mesa", "Apopse tin kithara mou"; the Church music of the islands is different from the rest of Greece, with a lot of western and Catholic influences on the Orthodox rite.
The region is notable for the birth of the first School of modern Greek classical music, established in 1815. Folk dances in Macedonia include Makedonia, leventikos, endeka Kozanis, stankena, baidouska, Macedonikos antikristos, mikri Eleni, kleftikos Makedonikos, kastorianos, tromakton, o Nikolos, sirtos Macedonias and Kapitan Louka. There are folk songs which make references to the Macedonian Struggle, while it is notable the use of trumpet
It seems that Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire, but political history is rather complicated and the heritage of Byzantine music developed and continued outside its territory. It consisted of songs and hymns composed to Greek texts used for courtly ceremonials, during festivals, or as paraliturgical and liturgical music; the ecclesiastical forms of Byzantine music are the best known forms today, because different Orthodox traditions still identify with the heritage of Byzantine music, when their cantors sing monodic chant out of the traditional chant books such as sticherarion, which in fact consisted of five books, the heirmologion. Byzantine music did not disappear after the fall of Constantinople, its traditions continued under the Patriarchate of Constantinople, which after the Ottoman conquest in 1453 was granted administrative responsibilities over all Orthodox Christians. During the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, burgeoning splinter nations in the Balkans declared autonomy or "autocephaly" against the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
The new self-declared patriarchates were independent nations defined by their religion. In this context, Christian religious chant practiced in the Ottoman empire, Bulgaria and Greece among other nations, was based on the historical roots of the art tracing back to the Byzantine Empire, while the music of the Patriarchate created during the Ottoman period was regarded as "post-Byzantine"; this explains why Byzantine music refers to several Orthodox Christian chant traditions of the Mediterranean and of the Caucasus practiced in recent history and today, this article cannot be limited to the music culture of the Byzantine past. The tradition of eastern liturgical chant, encompassing the Greek-speaking world, developed in the Byzantine Empire from the establishment of its capital, Constantinople, in 330 until its fall in 1453, it is undeniably of composite origin, drawing on the artistic and technical productions of the classical Greek age and inspired by the monophonic vocal music that evolved in the early Greek Christian cities of Alexandria, Jerusalem and Ephesus.
It was imitated by musicians of the 7th century to create Arab music as a synthesis of Byzantine and Persian music, these exchanges were continued through the Ottoman Empire until Istanbul today. The term Byzantine music is sometimes associated with the medieval sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Constantinopolitan Rite. There is an identification of "Byzantine music" with "Eastern Christian liturgical chant", due to certain monastic reforms, such as the Octoechos reform of the Quinisext Council and the reforms of the Stoudios Monastery under its abbots Sabas and Theodore; the triodion created during the reform of Theodore was soon translated into Slavonic, which required the adaption of melodic models to the prosody of the language. After the Patriarchate and Court had returned to Constantinople in 1261, the former cathedral rite was not continued, but replaced by a mixed rite, which used the Byzantine Round notation to integrate the former notations of the former chant books.
This notation had developed within the book sticherarion created by the Stoudios Monastery, but it was used for the books of the cathedral rites written in a period after the fourth crusade, when the cathedral rite was abandoned at Constantinople. It is being discussed that in the Narthex of the Hagia Sophia an organ was placed for use in processions of the Emperor’s entourage. According to the chant manual "Hagiopolites", the earliest that has survived until today, chanters of the Hagia Sophia used a system 16 church tones, while the author of this treatise introduces to a tonal system of 10 echoi. Both schools have in common a set of 4 octaves, each of them had a kyrios echos with the finalis on the degree V of the mode, a plagios echos with the final note on the degree I. According to Latin theory, the resulting eight tones had been identified with the seven modes and tropes; the names of the tropes like “Dorian” etc. had been used in Greek chant manuals, but the names Lydian and Phrygian for the octaves of devteros and tritos had been sometimes exchanged.
The Ancient Greek harmonikai was a Hellenist reception of the Pythagorean education programme defined as mathemata. Harmonikai was one of them. Today, chanters of the Christian Orthodox churches identify with the heritage of Byzantine music whose earliest composers are remembered by name since the 5th century. Compositions had been related to them, but they must be reconstructed by notated sources which date centuries later; the melodic neume notation of Byzantine music developed late since the 10th century, with the exception of an earlier ekphonetic notation, interpunction signs used in lectionaries, but modal signatures for the eight echoi can be found in fragments of monastic hymn books dating back to the 6th century. Amid the rise of Christian civilization within Hellenism, many concepts of knowledge and education survived during the imperial age, when Christianity became the official religion; the Pythagorean sect and music as part of the four "cyclical exercises" that preceded the Latin quadrivium and science today based on mathematics, established among Greeks in southern Italy.
Greek anachoretes of the early Middle Ages did still follow this education. The Calabrian Cassiodorus founded Vivarium where he translated Greek texts, John of Damascus who learnt Greek from a Ca