Kent Music Report
The Kent Music Report was a weekly record chart of Australian music singles and albums, compiled by music enthusiast David Kent from May 1974 through to 1988. After 1988, the Australian Recording Industry Association, using the report under licence for a number of years, chose to produce their own listing as the ARIA Charts. Before the Kent Report, Go-Set magazine published weekly Top-40 Singles from 1966, Album charts from 1970 until the magazine's demise in August 1974. David Kent publicised the Australian charts from 1940–1973 in a retrospective fashion using state by state chart data obtained from various Australian radio stations. Kent had spent a number of years working in the music industry at both EMI and Phonogram records and had developed the report as a hobby. The'Kent Music Report' was first released on a commercial basis in July 1974 and was offered for subscription; the report data was based on radio station charts from around the country, which were amalgamated using a points based ranking system that Kent had developed.
These radio station charts were compiled using data collected from local record stores and, as such, were based on retail sales. In 1976, as funding from subscriptions grew, Kent himself started collecting sales data from retail stores to supplement the radio station charts, his operation grew and staff were employed to assist with research. Within a year or so, the major record companies started using the Report for their own marketing programs and it had established itself as the leading national chart publication. From 1982, retail sales data collected by Kent and his staff were used and radio station charts were dropped from the primary tabulations; some radio station chart. At about the same time, the Australian Recording Industry Association was established by the major record companies, being EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram. From 1983 until 1988 ARIA had a licensing arrangement with Kent to use the Report under their own banner; the Kent Report continued however and in 1987 was rebadged as the'Australian Music Report'.
In 1988 the arrangement with ARIA ended and the ARIA Charts were produced in-house by the Association. In April 1998, the AMR charts ceased publishing, leaving the ARIA charts as the only nationally recognised chart publication. In 1993, David Kent published his Australian Chart Book 1970 - 1992; this was based on his chart data published as the "Kent Music Report" from May 1974 onwards. He specially "retro-calculated" charts based on state-based Australian radio station charts available to him dated before May 1974, to fill in the missing years. On this basis, he put together Australian national charts from 1940 - 1969, published as Australian Chart Book 1940 - 1969 in 2005. Before 1949, radio station music charts in Australia were only available on a monthly basis, this is reflected in his published data. Although ARIA published the official Australian National charts from 1988 onwards, Kent continued to calculate charts from this date, data from which were published in a third book in his Australian Chart Book series.
David Kent. Australian Chart Book 1970 - 1992. Australian Chart Book, St Ives, N. S. W. ISBN 0-646-11917-6. David Kent. Australian Chart Book 1940 - 1969. Australian Chart Book Pty Ltd, Turramurra, N. S. W. ISBN 0-646-44439-5. David Kent. Australian Chart Book 1993 - 2005. Australian Chart Book Pty Ltd, Turramurra, N. S. W. ISBN 0-646-45889-2. David Kent's Australian Chart Book website
Roger Dean Miller was an American singer-songwriter and actor known for his honky-tonk-influenced novelty songs and his chart-topping country and pop hits "King of the Road", "Dang Me", "England Swings", all from the mid-1960s Nashville sound era. After growing up in Oklahoma and serving in the United States Army, Miller began his musical career as a songwriter in the late 1950s, writing such hits as "Billy Bayou" and "Home" for Jim Reeves and "Invitation to the Blues" for Ray Price, he began a recording career and reached the peak of his fame in the mid-1960s, continuing to record and tour into the 1990s, charting his final top 20 country hit "Old Friends" with Willie Nelson in 1982. He wrote and performed several of the songs for the 1973 Disney animated film Robin Hood. In his life, he wrote the music and lyrics for the 1985 Tony-award winning Broadway musical Big River, in which he acted. Miller died from lung cancer in 1992 and was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame three years later.
His songs continued to be recorded by other singers, with covers of "Tall, Tall Trees" by Alan Jackson and "Husbands and Wives" by Brooks & Dunn. The Roger Miller Museum in his home town of Erick, was a tribute to Miller. Roger Miller was born in Fort Worth, the third son of Jean and Laudene Miller. Jean Miller died from spinal meningitis. Unable to support the family during the Great Depression, Laudene sent her three sons to live with three of Jean's brothers. Thus, Miller grew up on a farm outside Erick, with Elmer and Armelia Miller; as a boy, Miller did farm work, such as plowing. He would say he was "dirt poor" and that as late as 1951 the family did not own a telephone, he received his primary education at a one-room schoolhouse. Miller was an introverted child, would daydream or compose songs. One of his earliest compositions went: "There's a picture on the wall. It's the dearest of them all, Mother."Miller was a member of the National FFA Organization in high school. He listened to the Grand Ole Opry and Light Crust Doughboys on a Fort Worth station with his cousin's husband, Sheb Wooley.
Wooley bought him a fiddle. Wooley, Hank Williams, Bob Wills were the influences that led to Miller's desire to be a singer-songwriter, he began to perform in Oklahoma and Texas. At 17, he stole a guitar out of desperation to write songs, he chose to enlist in the United States Army to avoid jail. He quipped, "My education was Korea, Clash of'52." Near the end of his military service, while stationed in Atlanta, Miller played fiddle in the "Circle A Wranglers," a military musical group started by Faron Young. While Miller was stationed in South Carolina, an army sergeant whose brother was Kenneth C. "Jethro" Burns, from the musical duo Homer and Jethro, persuaded him to head to Nashville after his discharge. On leaving the Army, Miller traveled to Nashville to begin his musical career, he met with Chet Atkins, who asked to hear him sing, loaning him a guitar since Miller did not own one. Out of nervousness, Miller sang a song in two different keys. Atkins advised him to come back when he had more experience.
Miller found work as a bellhop at Nashville's Andrew Jackson Hotel, he was soon known as the "singing bellhop." He was hired by Minnie Pearl to play the fiddle in her band. He met George Jones, who introduced him to music executives from the Starday Records label who scheduled an audition. Impressed, the executives set up a recording session with Jones in Houston. Jones and Miller collaborated to write "Tall, Tall Trees" and "Happy Child." After marrying and becoming a father, Miller put aside his music career to be a fireman in Amarillo, Texas. A fireman by day, he performed at night. Miller said that as a fireman he saw only two fires, one in a "chicken coop" and another he "slept through," after which the department "suggested that... seek other employment." Miller met Ray Price, became a member of his Cherokee Cowboys. He returned to Nashville and wrote "Invitation to the Blues,", covered by Rex Allen and by Ray Price, whose recording was a number three hit on country charts. Miller signed with Tree Publishing on a salary of $50 a week.
He wrote: "Half a Mind" for Ernest Tubb, "That's the Way I Feel" for Faron Young. Miller became one of the biggest songwriters of the 1950s, he was known to give away lines, inciting many Nashville songwriters to follow him around since, according to Killen, "everything he said was a potential song." Miller signed a recording deal with Decca Records in 1958. He was paired with singer Donny Lytle, who gained fame under the name Johnny Paycheck, to perform the Miller-written "A Man Like Me," and "The Wrong Kind of Girl." Neither of these honky-tonk-style songs charted. His second single with the label, featuring the B-side "Jason Fleming," foreshadowed Miller's future style. To make money, Miller went on tour with Faron Young's band as a drummer, although he had never drummed. During this period, he signed a record deal with Chet Atkins at RCA Victor, for whom Miller recorded "You Don't Want My Love" in 1960, which marked his first appearance on country charts, peaking at N
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
Vincent Moon is an independent filmmaker and sound artist from Paris. He was the main director of the Blogotheque's Take Away Shows, a web-based project recording field work music videos of indie rock related musicians as well as some notable mainstream artists like Tom Jones, R. E. M. or Arcade Fire. Vincent Moon is known for traveling around the globe with a camera in his backpack, documenting local folklores, sacred music and religious rituals, for his label Collection Petites Planètes, he works alone or with people he finds on the road, most of the time without money involved in the projects. He shares much of his work and music recordings, for free on internet, under Creative Commons license. In 2009 his documentary on artist Kazuki Tomokawa, La Faute Des Fleurs, won the Sound & Vision Award at the Copenhagen International Documentary Festival, his film Esperando el Tsunami was nominated for the same award in 2011. Growing up in Paris, Vincent Moon studied photography for 3 years at the Atelier Reflexe in Montreuil, where he met the photographers Michael Ackerman and Antoine d’Agata, who informed Vincent Moon’s experiments of style//approach and visual experiments.
Working as a photographer at the time, he used to put his photos in motion, using simple slideshow techniques and music to tell stories. In 2003, he started the photography blog Les Nuits de Fiume; as a result of his encounter with the work of experimental filmmakers Peter Tscherkassky and Stephen Dwoskin, Vincent Moon started to move toward films in 2005. He made short films, mixing intimate storytelling experiment with various techniques, from super 8 to cellphone cameras, he was quick to grasp the various possibilities the internet offered for releasing and sharing his work online and freely. Getting closer and closer to the music world, he encountered the band The National in one of their shows in Paris, their friendship gave birth to various projects, his photos being used on the cover of The National’s third album,'Alligator', he made for them 2 music videos. At this time, he initiated other projects related to music, directing lo-fi videos for Clogs, Sylvain Chauveau and Barzin. In 2006, inspired by the film Step Across the Border on the English guitarist Fred Frith and pushed by its desire to record music in a more creative way, Vincent Moon created with Christophe'Chryde' Abric the'Concert à Emporter / Take Away Shows' project, La Blogotheque's popular video podcast.
The Take Away Shows is a series of improvised outdoor video sessions with musicians, set in unexpected locations and broadcast on the web. In four years, they managed to shoot over two hundred videos with bands like REM, Arcade Fire, Sufjan Stevens, Tom Jones, Grizzly Bear, Sigur Ros and many more, always in the field of rock and pop music focused on north-American music. Vincent Moon perfected his style: an recognizable intimacy, always with fragile and dancing long shots filmed in one take without rehearsal; the Take Away Shows gathered a large online following and The New York Times presented its impact as'Vincent Moon reinvented the music video'. An entire new generation of young filmmakers around the world recognized the influence of the whole concept, this natural organic approach to music. A study from 2010 showed that more than 100 online film projects were directly inspired by La Blogothèque's Take Away Shows; the large amount of clips is the result of a fast filming process with one take recordings in a way comparable to the Dogme 95 concept.
Comparable with the field recordings of Alan Lomax or the Peel Sessions of John Peel, Moon has set up a large collection of unique single take recordings enhanced with artistic filmed video footage. The fast filming process he uses is a form of guerrilla film making; the sessions are two or three tracks filmed improvised in an unusual environment and as such they had a rough and ready, demo-like feel, somewhere between a live performance and a finished music video. These live, unusually staged performances differ from the artifice of traditional music videos in favor of single-take and acoustic sessions. Following the success of the Blogotheque project, many artists, more established, asked Moon to work on longer films. Most of those projects became new explorations in relationship between music and sound, a defiance towards pre-established formats of music films. Michael Stipe became aware of the works of Moon and as a fan he asked him to make a film project for his band. In 2007 and 2008, Moon collaborated with Michael Stipe and R.
E. M. on several video and web projects related to their album'Accelerate.' The various experimental projects that came out of this collaboration include the 48min essay 6 DAYS, the experimental ninety-days-long web project called 90 NIGHTS, the video and the website for the single SUPERNATURAL SUPERSERIOUS, the acclaimed THIS IS NOT A SHOW, a live movie on their Dublin performances in the summer of 2007. The project ninetynights.com was a website dedicated to reveal little by little the new R. E. M. Album, in the beginning of 2008. Over a period of 90 days, one shot would appear everyday on the website, at first mysterious and without music little by little showing the band members and the songs; each video was downloadable in high resolution. Moon and Jeremiah's edit resulted in SIX DAYS, a semi-experimental approach of the music of REM. For the "Supernatural Superserious" project and Jeremiah shot a series of 12 clips published on a special website for free download as well as on YouTube; the music video was shot in various locations around New York City.
On 12 February 20
RPM was a Canadian music industry publication that featured song and album charts for Canada. The publication was founded by Walt Grealis in February 1964, supported through its existence by record label owner Stan Klees. RPM ceased publication in November 2000. RPM stood for "Records, Music"; the magazine was reported to have variations in its title over the years such as RPM Weekly and RPM Magazine. RPM maintained several format charts, including Top Singles, Adult Contemporary, Urban, Rock/Alternative and Country Tracks for country music. On 21 March 1966, RPM expanded its Top Singles chart from 40 positions to 100. On December 6, 1980 the main chart became a Top 50 chart and remained this way until August 4, 1984 whereupon it returned to being a Top 100 Singles chart. For the first several weeks of its existence, the magazine did not compile a national chart, but printed the current airplay lists of several major market Top 40 stations. A national chart was introduced beginning with the June 22, 1964 issue, with its first-ever national #1 single being "Chapel of Love" by The Dixie Cups.
Prior to the introduction of RPM's national chart, the CHUM Chart from Toronto radio station CHUM was considered the de facto national chart. The final #1 single in the magazine was "Music" by Madonna; the modern Juno Awards had their origins in an annual survey conducted by RPM since its founding year. Readers of the magazine were invited to mail in survey ballots to indicate their choices under various categories of people or companies; the RPM Awards poll was transformed into a formal awards ceremony, The Gold Leaf Awards in 1970. These became the Juno Awards in following years; the RPM Awards for 1964 were announced in the 28 December 1964 issue: Top male vocalist: Terry Black Top female singer: Shirley Matthews Most promising male vocalist: Jack London Most promising female vocalist: Linda Layne Top vocal instrumental group: The Esquires Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: The Courriers Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Pat Hervey Industry man of the year: Johnny Murphy of Cashbox Canada Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Ed Lawson, Quality Records Top album of the year: That Girl by Phyllis MarshallA column on page 6 of that issue noted that the actual vote winner for Top Canadian Content record company was disqualified due to a conflict of interest involving an employee of that company, working for RPM.
Therefore, runner-up Capitol Records was declared the category's winner. The Annual RPM Awards for 1965 were announced in the 17 January 1966 issue, with more country music categories than the previous year: Top male vocalist: Bobby Curtola Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Barry Allen Most promising female vocalist: Debbie Lori Kaye Top vocal/instrumental group: The Guess Who Top female vocal group: Girlfriends Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: Malka and Joso Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "My Girl Sloopy", Little Caesar and the Consuls Best produced album: Voice of an Angel by Catherine McKinnon Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Angus Walker Most promising country female singer: Sharon Strong Top country instrumental vocal group: Rhythm Pals Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Al Fisher, CFGM Toronto Top Canadian disc jockey: Chuck Benson, CKYL Peace River Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Charlie Camilleri, Quality Records The winners were: Top male vocalist: Barry Allen Top female singer: Catherine McKinnon Most promising male vocalist: Jimmy Dybold Most promising female vocalist: Lynda Lane Top vocal/instrumental group: Staccatos Top female vocal group: Allan Sisters Top instrumental group: Wes Dakus & The Rebels Top folk group: 3's a Crowd Top folk singer: Gordon Lightfoot Best produced single: "Let's Run Away", Staccatos Top country male singer: Gary Buck Top country female singer: Dianne Leigh Most promising country male singer: Johnny Burke Most promising country female singer: Debbie Lori Kaye Top country instrumental vocal group: Mercey Brothers Top country instrumentalist: Roy Penney Top country radio personality: Ted Daigle Top country radio station: CFGM Top record company: Capitol Records of Canada Top Canadian Content record company: Red Leaf Records Top national record promoter: Paul White, Capitol Records of Canada Top regional record promoter: Al Nair Top Canadian music industry man of the year: Stan Klees List of number-one singles in Canada List of RPM number-one alternative rock singles List of RPM number-one country singles List of RPM number-one dance singles RPM archive charts RPM Library and Archives Canada: "The RPM Story" The Canadian Encyclopedia: RPM Charts archive from 1964 to 1999 on worldcharts.co.uk Megan Thow.
"Critical Miss". Ryerson Review of Journalism. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2007
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis