HBO is an American premium cable and satellite television network owned by the namesake unit Home Box Office, Inc. a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. The program which featured on the network consists of theatrically released motion pictures and original television shows, along with made-for-cable movies and occasional comedy and concert specials. HBO is the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, having been in operation since November 8, 1972. In 2016, HBO had an adjusted operating income of US$1.93 billion, compared to the US$1.88 billion it accrued in 2015. HBO has 130 million subscribers worldwide as of 2016; the network provides seven 24-hour multiplex channels, including HBO Comedy, HBO Latino, HBO Signature, HBO Family. It launched the streaming service HBO Now in April 2015 and has over 2 million subscribers in the United States as of February 2017; as of July 2015, HBO's programming is available to 36,493,000 households with at least one television set in the United States, making it the second largest premium channel in the United States.
In addition to its U. S. subscriber base, HBO distributes content in at least 151 countries, with 130 million subscribers worldwide. HBO subscribers pay for an extra tier of service that includes other cable- and satellite-exclusive channels before paying for the channel itself. However, a regulation imposed by the Federal Communications Commission requires that cable providers allow subscribers to get just "limited" basic cable and premium services such as HBO, without subscribing to expanded service. Cable providers can require the use of a converter box—usually digital—in order to receive HBO. HBO provides its content through digital media. HBO maintains near-ubiquitous distribution in hotels across the United States through agreements with DirecTV, Echostar, SONIFI Solutions, Satellite Management Services, Inc. Telerent Leasing Corporation, Total Media Concepts and World Cinema as well as cable providers that maintain hospitality service arrangements with individual hotels and local franchises of national hotel/motel chains.
Since June 2018, through a content partnership with Enseo, HBO Go is distributed to some Marriott International hotels around the U. S.. Many HBO programs have been syndicated to other networks and broadcast television stations, a number of HBO-produced series and films have been released on DVD. Since HBO's more successful series air on over-the-air broadcasters in other countries, HBO's programming has the potential of being exposed to a higher percentage of the population of those countries compared to the United States; because of the cost of HBO, many Americans only view HBO programs through DVDs or in basic cable or broadcast syndication—months or years after these programs have first aired on the network—and with editing for both content and to allow advertising, although several series have filmed alternate "clean" scenes intended for syndication runs. In 1965, Charles Dolan—who had done pioneering work in the commercial use of cables and had developed Teleguide, a closed-circuit tourist information television system distributed to hotels in the New York metropolitan area—won a franchise to build a cable television system in the Lower Manhattan section of New York City.
The new system, which Dolan named "Sterling Information Services", became the first urban underground cable televisi
A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film; the crew is separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and film-making cultures. Motion picture projects have three discrete stages: development and distribution. Within the production stage there are three defined sequential phases — pre-production, principal photography and post-production — and many film crew positions are associated with only one or two of the phases.
Distinctions are made between above-the-line personnel who begin their involvement during the project's development stage, the below-the-line "technical" crew involved only with the production stage. A film director is a person; the director most has the highest authority on a film set. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of film-making. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, film editors or actors.
Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners; some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. Production is not considered a department as such, but rather as a series of functional groups; these include the film's producers and executive producers and production office staff such as the production manager, the production coordinator, their assistants. Producer A film producer creates the conditions for film-making; the producer initiates, coordinates and controls matters such as fund raising, hiring key personnel, arranging for distributors. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the film making process from development to completion of a project.
There may be several producers on a film who may take a role in a number of areas, such as development, financing or production. Executive producer An executive producer is a producer, not involved in the technical aspects of the film-making process in the original definition, but has played a financial or creative role in ensuring that the project goes into production. Today, the title has become ambiguous in feature films. Since the 1980s, it has become common for the line producer to be given the title of executive producer, while the initiating producer takes the "produced by" credit. On other projects, the reverse happens, with the line producer taking the "produced by" credit. So the two credits have become interchangeable, with no precise definition. Line producer The line producer is the liaison between the studio or producer and the production manager, responsible for managing the production budget; the title is associated with the idea that they are the person, "on the line" on a day-to-day basis, responsible for lining up the resources needed.
Production assistant Production assistants, referred to as PAs, assist in the production office or in various departments with general tasks, such as assisting the first assistant director with set operations. Production manager The production manager supervises the physical aspects of the production including personnel, technology and scheduling, it is the production manager's responsibility to make sure the filming stays on schedule and within its budget. The PM helps manage the day-to-day budget by managing operating costs such as salaries, production costs, everyday equipment rental costs; the PM works under the supervision of a line producer and directly supervises the production coordinator. Assistant production manager The assistant production manager is the assistant to the production manager and carries out various jobs for the PM. Only big budget Hollywood feature films have an assistant PM. Unit manager The unit manager fulfils the same role as the production manager but for secondary "unit" shooting.
In some functional structures, the unit manager subsumes the role of the transport coordinator. Production coordinator The production coordinator is the information nexus of the production, responsible for organizing all the logistics from hiring crew, renting equipment, booking talent; the PC is an int
A soundtrack written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, television program, or video game. In movie industry terminology usage, a sound track is an audio recording created or used in film production or post-production; the dialogue, sound effects, music in a film each has its own separate track, these are mixed together to make what is called the composite track, heard in the film. A dubbing track is later created when films are dubbed into another language; this is known as a M & E track containing all sound elements minus dialogue, supplied by the foreign distributor in the native language of its territory. The contraction soundtrack came into public consciousness with the advent of so-called "soundtrack albums" in the late 1940s. First conceived by movie companies as a promotional gimmick for new films, these commercially available recordings were labeled and advertised as "music from the original motion picture soundtrack", or "music from and inspired by the motion picture."
These phrases were soon shortened to just "original motion picture soundtrack." More such recordings are made from a film's music track, because they consist of the isolated music from a film, not the composite track with dialogue and sound effects. The abbreviation OST is used to describe the musical soundtrack on a recorded medium, such as CD, it stands for Original Soundtrack. Types of soundtrack recordings include: Musical film soundtracks are for the film versions of musical theatre; the soundtrack to the 1937 Walt Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first commercially issued film soundtrack. It was released by RCA Victor Records on multiple 78 RPM discs in January 1938 as Songs from Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and has since seen numerous expansions and reissues; the first live-action musical film to have a commercially issued soundtrack album was MGM’s 1946 film biography of Show Boat composer Jerome Kern, Till the Clouds Roll By. The album was issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records.
Only eight selections from the film were included in this first edition of the album. In order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation; this was before tape existed, so the record producer needed to copy segments from the playback discs used on set copy and re-copy them from one disc to another adding transitions and cross-fades until the final master was created. Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original and the sound quality suffered for it; the playback recordings were purposely recorded "dry". This made these albums boxy. MGM Records called these "original cast albums" in the style of Decca Broadway show cast albums because the material on the discs would not lock to picture, thereby creating the largest distinction between `Original Motion Picture Soundtrack' which, in its strictest sense would contain music that would lock to picture if the home user would play one alongside the other and `Original Cast Soundtrack' which in its strictest sense would refer to studio recordings of film music by the original film cast, but, edited or rearranged for time and content and would not lock to picture.
In reality, soundtrack producers remain ambiguous about this distinction, titles in which the music on the album does lock to picture may be labeled as OCS and music from an album that does not lock to picture may be referred to as OMPS. The phrase "recorded directly from the soundtrack" was used for a while in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s to differentiate material that would lock to picture from that which would not, but again, in part because many'film takes' consisted of several different attempts at the song and edited together to form the master, that term as well became nebulous and vague over time when, in cases where the master take used in the film could not be found in its isolated form, the aforementioned alternate masters and alternate vocal and solo performances which could be located were included in their place; as a result of all this nebulo
Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, radio production and photography. Post-production includes all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments. Traditional post-production has been replaced by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system. Post-production is many different processes grouped under one name; these include: Video editing the picture of a television program using an edit decision list Writing and editing the soundtrack. Adding visual special effects - computer-generated imagery and digital copy from which release prints will be made. Sound design, sound effects, ADR, music, culminating in a process known as sound re-recording or mixing with professional audio equipment. Transfer of color motion picture film to video or DPX with a telecine and color grading in a color suite; the post-production phase of creating a film takes longer than the actual shooting of the film and can take several months to complete because it includes the complete editing, color correction, the addition of music and sound.
The process of editing a movie is seen as the second directing because through post-production it is possible to change the intention of the movie. Furthermore, through the use of color grading tools and the addition of music and sound, the atmosphere of the movie can be influenced. For instance, a blue-tinted movie is associated with a cold atmosphere and the choice of music and sound increases the effect of the shown scenes to the audience. Post-production was named a "dying industry" by Phil Izzo; the once exclusive service offered by high-end post-production facilities have been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system. As such, traditional post-production services are being surpassed by digital, leading to sales of over $6 billion annually. In television, the phases of post-production include: editing, video editing, sound editing and visual effects insertions and the start of the airing process, it is imperative that post-production executes and oversees the Professional post-producers apply a certain range of image editing operations to the raw image format provided by a photographer or an image-bank.
There is a range of proprietary and free and open-source software, running on a range of operating systems available to do this work. The first stage of post-production requires loading the raw images into the post-production software. If there is more than one image, they belong to a set, ideally post-producers try to equalize the images before loading them. After that, if necessary, the next step would be to cut the objects in the images with the Pen Tool for a perfect and clean cut; the next stage would be cleaning the image using tools such as the healing tool, clone tool, patch tool. The next stages depend on. If it's a photo-montage, the post-producers would start assembling the different images into the final document, start to integrate the images with the background. In advertising, it requires assembling several images together in a photo-composition. Types of work done: Advertising that requires one background and one or more models. Product-photography that requires several images of the same object with different lights, assembled together, to control light and unwanted reflections, or to assemble parts that would be difficult to get in one shot, such as a beer glass for a beer advertising.
Fashion photography that requires a heavy post-production for editorial or advertising. Techniques used in music post-production include comping and pitch correction, adding effects; this process is referred to as mixing and can involve equalization and adjusting the levels of each individual track to provide an optimal sound experience. Contrary to the name, post-production may occur at any point during recording and production process and is non-linear and nonveridic
A rehearsal is an activity in the performing arts that occurs as preparation for a performance in music, theatre and related arts, such as opera, musical theatre and film production. It is undertaken as a form of practising, to ensure that all details of the subsequent performance are adequately prepared and coordinated; the term "rehearsal" refers to ensemble activities undertaken by a group of people. For example, when a musician is preparing a piano concerto in their music studio, this is called "practicing", but when they practice the concerto with an orchestra, this is called a "rehearsal"; the music rehearsal takes place in a music rehearsal space. A rehearsal may involve as few as two people, as with a small play for two actors, an art song by a singer and pianist or a folk duo of a singer and guitarist. On the other end of the spectrum, a rehearsal can be held for a large orchestra with over 100 performers and a choir. A rehearsal can involve only performers of one type, as in an a cappella choir show, in which a group of singers perform without instrumental accompaniment or a play involving only theatre actors.
Rehearsals of small groups, such as small rock bands, jazz quartets or organ trios may be held without a leader. Some small groups may have their rehearsals led by a bandleader. All mid- to large-group performances have a person who leads the rehearsals. While the term is most used in the performing arts to refer to preparation for a public presentation, the term is used to refer to the preparation for other anticipated activities, such as wedding guests and couples practicing a wedding ceremony, paramedics practicing responding to a simulated emergency, or troops practicing for an attack using a mock-up of the building; the dress rehearsal is a full-scale rehearsal where the actors and/or musicians perform every detail of the performance. For a theatrical performance, cast members wear their costumes; the actors may use backdrops. For a musical performance, the dress rehearsal does not require wearing formal concert outfits. In music, the dress rehearsal is the final rehearsal before the performance.
In theatre, a performing arts ensemble rehearses a work in preparation for performance before an audience. Rehearsals that occur early in the production process are sometimes referred to as "run-throughs". A run-through does not contain many of the technical aspects of a performance, is used to assist performers in learning dialogue and to solidify aspects of blocking and stage movement. A "Q-2-Q" or "cue to cue" is a type of technical rehearsal and is intended for the lighting and audio technicians involved in a performance, although they are of great value to the entire ensemble, it is intended to allow the technicians and stage manager to rehearse the technical aspects of a performance—when lights have to be turned on, sound effects triggered, items rolled on and off the stage—and identify and resolve any glitches that might arise. Performers do not rehearse entire scenes during Q-2-Q's, but instead only perform dialogue or actions that are used by the stage manager as a marker for when to initiate technical sequences or cues.
Abbreviated Q-2-Q's in which only the opening and closing sequences of each act or scene are performed is sometimes referred to as "tops and tails". It is rare for any but the most technically complex performances to have Q-2-Q rehearsals outside of technical week. Cue to cues are preceded by a "dry tech", in which the technicians rehearse their technical cues without the actual performers present at the rehearsal. A "dress rehearsal" is a rehearsal or series of rehearsals in which the ensemble dresses in costume, as they will dress at the performance for the audience; the entire performance will be run from beginning to end as the real performances will be, including pauses for intermissions. An "open dress" is a dress rehearsal to which specific individuals have been invited to attend as audience members, they may include patrons and friends of the ensemble, or reviewers from the media. The dress rehearsal is the last set of rehearsals before the concert performance and falls at the end of technical week.
A "preview", although technically a performance as there is a full audience, including individuals who have paid for admission, is arguably a rehearsal in as far as it is not uncommon in complex performances for the production to stop, or return to an earlier point in the performance if there are unavoidable or unresolvable problems. Audience members pay a lower price to attend a preview performance. In traditional Japanese Noh theatre, performers rehearse separately, only rehearsing together once, a few days before the show; this is to emphasize the transience of the show, in the philosophy of "ichi-g
Traffic lights known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights and traffic control signals, are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, other locations to control flows of traffic. The world's first traffic light was short lived, it was a manually operated gas-lit signal installed in London in December 1868. It exploded less than a month. Traffic control started to seem necessary in the late 1890s and Earnest Sirrine from Chicago patented the first automated traffic control system in 1910, it used the words "STOP" and "PROCEED". Traffic lights alternate the right of way accorded to users by illuminating lamps or LEDs of standard colours following a universal colour code. In the typical sequence of colour phases: The green light allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do so and there is room on the other side of the intersection; the amber light warns. In a number of countries – among them the United Kingdom – a phase during which red and yellow are displayed together indicates that the signal is about to change to green.
Actions required by drivers on a yellow light vary, with some jurisdictions requiring drivers to stop if it is safe to do so, others allowing drivers to go through the intersection if safe to do so. A flashing amber indication is a warning signal. In the United Kingdom, a flashing amber light is used only at pelican crossings, in place of the combined red–amber signal, indicates that drivers may pass if no pedestrians are on the crossing; the red signal prohibits any traffic from proceeding. A flashing red indication is treated as a stop sign. In some countries traffic signals will go into a flashing mode if the conflict monitor detects a problem, such as a fault that tries to display green lights to conflicting traffic; the signal may display flashing yellow to the main road and flashing red to the side road, or flashing red in all directions. Flashing operation can be used during times of day when traffic is light, such as late at night. Before traffic lights, traffic police controlled the flow of traffic.
A well-documented example is that on London Bridge in 1722. Three men were given the task of directing traffic coming out of either London or Southwark; each officer would help direct traffic coming out of Southwark into London and he made sure all traffic stayed on the west end of the bridge. A second officer would direct traffic on the east end of the bridge to control the flow of people leaving London and going into Southwark. On 9 December 1868, the first non-electric gas-lit traffic lights were installed outside the Houses of Parliament in London to control the traffic in Bridge Street, Great George Street, Parliament Street, they were proposed by the railway engineer J. P. Knight of Nottingham who had adapted this idea from his design of railway signalling systems and constructed by the railway signal engineers of Saxby & Farmer; the main reason for the traffic light was that there was an overflow of horse-drawn traffic over Westminster Bridge which forced thousands of pedestrians to walk next to the Houses of Parliament.
The design combined three semaphore arms with red and green gas lamps for night-time use, on a pillar, operated by a police constable. The gas lantern was manually turned by a traffic police officer with a lever at its base so that the appropriate light faced traffic; the signal was 22 feet high. The light was called the semaphore and had arms that would extend horizontally that commanded drivers to "Stop" and the arms would lower to a 45 degrees angle to tell drivers to proceed with "Caution". At night a red light would command "Stop" and a green light would mean use "Caution". Although it was said to be successful at controlling traffic, its operational life was brief, it exploded on 2 January 1869 as a result of a leak in one of the gas lines underneath the pavement and injured the policeman, operating it. In the first two decades of the 20th century, semaphore traffic signals like the one in London were in use all over the United States with each state having its own design of the device.
One example was from Toledo, Ohio in 1908. The words "Stop" and "Go" were in white on a green background and the lights had red and green lenses illuminated by kerosene lamps for night travelers and the arms were 8 feet above ground, it was controlled by a traffic officer who would blow a whistle before changing the commands on this signal to help alert travelers of the change. The design was used in Philadelphia and Detroit; the example in Ohio was the first time America tried to use a more visible form of traffic control that evolved the use of semaphore. The device, used in Ohio was designed based on the use of railroad signals. In 1912, a traffic control device was placed on top a tower in Paris at the Rue Montmartre and Grande Boulevard; this tower signal was manned by a police woman and she operated a revolving four-sided metal box on top of a glass showcase where the word "Stop" was painted in red and the word "Go" painted in white. An electric traffic light was developed in 1912 by Lester Wire, a policeman in Salt Lake City, who used red-green lights.
On 5 August 1914, the American Traffic Signal Company installed a traffic signal system on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. It had two colours and green, a buzzer, based on the design of James Hoge, to provide a warning for colour changes; the design by James Hoge allowed police and fire stations to control the signals in case of emergency
A sound effect is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, video games, music, or other media. These are created with foley. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music; the term refers to a process applied to a recording, without referring to the recording itself. In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects though the processes applied to such as reverberation or flanging effects are called "sound effects"; the term sound effect ranges back to the early days of radio. In its Year Book 1931 the BBC published a major article about "The Use of Sound Effects", it considers sounds effect linked with broadcasting and states: "It would be a great mistake to think of them as anologous to punctuation marks and accents in print.
They should never be inserted into a programme existing. The author of a broadcast play or broadcast construction ought to have used Sound Effects as bricks with which to build, treating them as of equal value with speech and music." It lists six "totally different primary genres of Sound Effect": Realistic, confirmatory effect Realistic, evocative effect Symbolic, evocative effect Conventionalised effect Impressionistic effect Music as an effectAccording to the author, "It is axiomatic that every Sound Effect, to whatever category it belongs, must register in the listener's mind instantaneously. If it fails to do so its presence could not be justified." In the context of motion pictures and television, sound effects refers to an entire hierarchy of sound elements, whose production encompasses many different disciplines, including: Hard sound effects are common sounds that appear on screen, such as door alarms, weapons firing, cars driving by. Background sound effects are sounds that do not explicitly synchronize with the picture, but indicate setting to the audience, such as forest sounds, the buzzing of fluorescent lights, car interiors.
The sound of people talking in the background is considered a "BG," but only if the speaker is unintelligible and the language is unrecognizable. These background noises are called ambience or atmos. Foley sound effects are sounds that synchronize on screen, require the expertise of a foley artist to record properly. Footsteps, the movement of hand props, the rustling of cloth are common foley units. Design sound effects are sounds that do not occur in nature, or are impossible to record in nature; these sounds are used to suggest futuristic technology in a science fiction film, or are used in a musical fashion to create an emotional mood. Each of these sound effect categories is specialized, with sound editors known as specialists in an area of sound effects. Foley is another method of adding sound effects. Foley is more of a technique for creating sound effects than a type of sound effect, but it is used for creating the incidental real world sounds that are specific to what is going on onscreen, such as footsteps.
With this technique the action onscreen is recreated to try to match it as as possible. If done it is hard for audiences to tell what sounds were added and what sounds were recorded. In the early days of film and radio, foley artists would add sounds in realtime or pre-recorded sound effects would be played back from analogue discs in realtime. Today, with effects held in digital format, it is easy to create any required sequence to be played in any desired timeline. In the days of silent film, sound effects were added by the operator of a theater organ or photoplayer, both of which supplied the soundtrack of the film. Theater organ sound effects are electric or electro-pneumatic, activated by a button pressed with the hand or foot. Photoplayer operators activate sound effects either by flipping switches on the machine or pulling "cow-tail" pull-strings, which hang above. Sounds like bells and drums are made mechanically and horns electronically. Due to its smaller size, a photoplayer has less special effects than a theater organ, or less complex ones.
The principles involved with modern video game sound effects are the same as those of motion pictures. A game project requires two jobs to be completed: sounds must be recorded or selected from a library and a sound engine must be programmed so that those sounds can be incorporated into the game's interactive environment. In earlier computers and video game systems, sound effects were produced using sound synthesis. In modern systems, the increases in storage capacity and playback quality has allowed sampled sound to be used; the modern systems frequently utilize positional audio with hardware acceleration, real-time audio post-processing, which can be tied to the 3D graphics development. Based on the internal state of the game, multiple different calculations can be made; this will allow for, for example, realistic sound dampening and doppler effect. The simplicity of game environments reduced the required number of sounds needed, thus only one or two people were directly responsible for the sound recording and design.
As the video game business has grown and computer sound reproductio