Do it yourself
"Do it yourself" is the method of building, modifying, or repairing things without the direct aid of experts or professionals. Academic research describes DIY as behaviors where "individuals engage raw and semi-raw materials and parts to produce, transform, or reconstruct material possessions, including those drawn from the natural environment". DIY behavior can be triggered by various motivations categorized as marketplace motivations, identity enhancement; the term "do-it-yourself" has been associated with consumers since at least 1912 in the domain of home improvement and maintenance activities. The phrase "do it yourself" had come into common usage by the 1950s, in reference to the emergence of a trend of people undertaking home improvement and various other small craft and construction projects as both a creative-recreational and cost-saving activity. Subsequently, the term DIY has taken on a broader meaning. DIY is associated with the international alternative rock, punk rock, indie rock music scenes, indymedia networks, pirate radio stations, the zine community.
In this context, DIY is related to the Arts and Crafts movement, in that it offers an alternative to modern consumer culture's emphasis on relying on others to satisfy needs. It has become prevalent in the personal finance; when investing in the stock one can utilize a professional advisor or partake in do-it-yourself investing. Italian archaeologists unearthed the ruins of a 6th-century BC Greek structure in southern Italy that came with detailed assembly instructions and is being called an "ancient IKEA building"; the structure was a temple-like building discovered at Torre Satriano, near the southern city of Potenza, in Basilicata, a region where local people mingled with Greeks who settled along the southern coast known as Magna Graecia and in Sicily from the 8th century BC onwards. Professor Christopher Smith, director of the British School at Rome, said that the discovery was "the clearest example yet found of mason's marks of the time, it looks as if someone was instructing others how to mass-produce components and put them together in this way".
Much like the instruction booklets, various sections of the luxury building were inscribed with coded symbols showing how the pieces slotted together. The characteristics of these inscriptions indicate they date back to around the 6th century BC, which tallies with the architectural evidence suggested by the decoration; the building was built by Greek artisans coming from the Spartan colony of Taranto in Apulia. In North America, there was a DIY magazine publishing niche in the first half of the twentieth century. Magazines such as Popular Mechanics and Mechanix Illustrated offered a way for readers to keep current on useful practical skills, techniques and materials; as many readers lived in rural or semi-rural regions much of the material related to their needs on the farm or in a small town. The DIY movement is a re-introduction of the old pattern of personal involvement and use of skills in the upkeep of a house or apartment, making clothes; the philosopher Alan Watts reflected a growing sentiment: Our educational system, in its entirety, does nothing to give us any kind of material competence.
In other words, we don't learn how to cook, how to make clothes, how to build houses, how to make love, or to do any of the fundamental things of life. The whole education that we get for our children in school is in terms of abstractions, it trains you to be some kind of cerebral character. In the 1970s, DIY spread through the North American population of college- and recent-college-graduate age groups. In part, this movement involved the renovation of affordable, rundown older homes, but it related to various projects expressing the social and environmental vision of the 1960s and early 1970s. The young visionary Stewart Brand, working with friends and family, using the most basic of typesetting and page-layout tools, published the first edition of The Whole Earth Catalog in late 1968; the first Catalog, its successors, used a broad definition of the term "tools". There were informational tools, such as books, professional journals, courses and the like. There were specialized, designed items, such as carpenters' and masons' tools, garden tools, welding equipment, fiberglass materials and so on — early personal computers.
The designer J. Baldwin acted as editor writing many of the reviews; the Catalog's publication both emerged from and spurred the great wave of experimentalism, convention-breaking, do-it-yourself attitude of the late 1960s. Copied, the Catalog appealed to a wide cross-section of people in North America and had a broad influence. DIY home improvement books burgeoned in the 1970s, first created as collections of magazine articles. An early, extensive line of DIY how-to books was created by Sunset Books, based upon published articles from their magazine, based in California. Time-Life, Better Homes and Gardens, Balcony Garden Web and other publishers soon followed suit. In the mid-1990s, DIY home-improvement content began to find its way onto the World Wide Web. HouseNet was the earliest bulletin-board style sit
Fredy Perlman was a Czech-born, naturalized American author, publisher and activist. His most popular work, the book Against His-Story, Against Leviathan!, details the rise of state domination with a retelling of history through the Hobbesian metaphor of the Leviathan. Though Perlman detested ideology and would claim that the only "-ist" he would respond to was cellist, his work both as an author and publisher has been influential on modern anarchist thought. Perlman was born in Czechoslovakia, he emigrated with parents to Bolivia in 1938 just ahead of the Nazi takeover. The Perlman family came to the United States in 1945 and settled in Lakeside Park, Kentucky. In 1952 he attended Morehead State College in Kentucky and UCLA from 1953–55. Perlman was on the staff of the school newspaper; when the university administration interfered in the editor election process and other staff left and published an independent paper, The Observer, which they distributed at the edge of campus. In 1956–59 he attended Columbia University, where he met his lifelong companion and future wife, Lorraine Nybakken.
He enrolled as a student of English literature but soon concentrated his efforts in philosophy, political science and European literature. One influential teacher for him at this time was C. Wright Mills. In late 1959, Perlman and his wife took a cross-country motor scooter trip on two-lane highways traveling at 25 miles per hour. From 1959 to 1963, they lived on the lower east side of Manhattan while Perlman worked on a statistical analysis of the world's resources with John Ricklefs, they participated in anti-bomb and pacifist activities with others. Perlman was arrested after a sit-down in Times Square in the fall of 1961, he became the printer for the Living Theatre and during that time wrote The New Freedom, Corporate Capitalism and a play, which he published himself. In 1963, the husband and wife left the U. S. and moved to Yugoslavia after living some months in Copenhagen and Paris. Perlman received a master's degree in economics and a PhD at the University of Belgrade's Law School. During his last year in Yugoslavia, he was a member of the Planning Institute for Kosovo and Metohija.
During 1966 -- 69 the couple lived in Michigan. Perlman taught social science courses at Western Michigan University and created outrage among some members of the faculty when he had students run their own classes and grade themselves. During his first year in Kalamazoo, he and Miloš Samardžija, one of his professors from Belgrade, translated Isaac Illych Rubin's Essays on Marx's Theory of Value. Perlman wrote an introduction to the book: "An Essay on Commodity Fetishism." In May 1968, after lecturing for two weeks in Turin, Perlman went to Paris on the last train before rail traffic was shut down by some of the strikes that were sweeping Western Europe that season. He participated in the May unrest in Paris and worked at the Censier center with the Citroen factory committee. After returning to Kalamazoo in August, he collaborated with Roger Gregoire in writing Worker-Student Action Committees, May 68. During his last year in Kalamazoo, Perlman had left the university and together with several other people students, inaugurated the Black and Red magazine, of which six issues appeared.
Typing and layout was done at the Perlman house and the printing at the Radical Education Project in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In January 1969 Perlman completed The Reproduction of Daily Life. While traveling in Europe in the spring of 1969, he spent several weeks in Yugoslavia and there wrote Revolt in Socialist Yugoslavia, suppressed by the authorities, who called it a CIA plot. In August 1969 he and his wife moved to Detroit, where he wrote The Incoherence of the Intellectual and with others translated Guy Debord's The Society of the Spectacle. In 1970 Perlman was one of a large group that set up the Detroit Printing Co-op with equipment from Chicago. For the next decade, Black & Red publications were printed there, along with countless other projects ranging from leaflets to newspapers to books. For several years and the cooperative were members of the Industrial Workers of the World. Between 1971 and 1976 he worked on several books, originals as well as translations, including Manual for Revolutionary Leaders, Letters of Insurgents, Peter Arshinov's History of the Makhnovist Movement, Voline's The Unknown Revolution, Jacques Camatte's The Wandering of Humanity.
Letters of Insurgents was written by Perlman in the form of letters between two eastern European comrades, one of whom had escaped to the West. It presents critical anti-authoritarian perspectives on life in both the so-called democratic West and the so-called communist East during the era of the cold war. Perlman spent most of his life in North America, but he lived and developed friendships in Yugoslavia over three years spent there; the form of letter exchange enables the writer to present the experiences and thoughts of several characters without pretending to get inside any individual's head. During the 1970s, Perlman began playing the'cello in chamber music sessions twice a week. In 1971 he and his wife traveled to Alaska by car. In 1976 Perlman underwent surgery to replace a damaged heart valve. After, he helped write and perform Who's Zerelli? A play critiquing the authoritarian aspects of the medical establishment. During 1977–80 he studied world history. During these years, he traveled to Turkey, Egypt and regions of the U.
S. to visit historic sites with Lorraine. In 19
Murray Bookchin was an American social theorist, orator and political philosopher. A pioneer in the ecology movement, Bookchin formulated and developed the theory of social ecology and urban planning, within anarchist, libertarian socialist, ecological thought, he was the author of two dozen books covering topics in politics, history, urban affairs, ecology. Among the most important were Our Synthetic Environment, Post-Scarcity Anarchism, The Ecology of Freedom and Urbanization Without Cities. In the late-1990s he became disenchanted with the apolitical lifestylism of the contemporary anarchist movement, stopped referring to himself as an anarchist, founded his own libertarian socialist ideology called Communalism, which seeks to reconcile Marxist and anarchist thought. Bookchin was a prominent anti-capitalist and advocate of society's decentralisation along ecological and democratic lines, his ideas have influenced social movements since the 1960s, including the New Left, the anti-nuclear movement, the anti-globalization movement, Occupy Wall Street, more the democratic confederalism of Rojava.
He was a central figure in the Burlington Greens. Bookchin was born in New York City to Russian Jewish immigrants Nathan Rose Bookchin, he grew up in the Bronx, where his grandmother, Zeitel, a Socialist Revolutionary, imbued him with Russian populist ideas. After her death in 1930, he joined the Young Pioneers, the Communist youth organization and the Young Communist League in 1935, he attended the Workers School near Union Square. In the late 1930s he broke with Stalinism and gravitated toward Trotskyism, joining the Socialist Workers Party. In the early 1940s he worked in a foundry in Bayonne, New Jersey where he was an organizer and shop steward for the United Electrical Workers as well as a recruiter for the SWP. Within the SWP he adhered to the Goldman-Morrow faction, he was an auto worker and UAW member at the time of the great General Motors strike of 1945-46. In 1949, while speaking to a Zionist youth organization at City College, Bookchin met a mathematics student, Beatrice Appelstein, whom he married in 1951.
They were married for 12 years and lived together for 35, remaining close friends and political allies for the rest of his life. They had two children and Joseph. From 1947, he collaborated with a fellow lapsed Trotskyist, the German expatriate Josef Weber, in New York in the Movement for a Democracy of Content, a group of 20 or so post-Trotskyists who collectively edited the periodical Contemporary Issues – A Magazine for a Democracy of Content. Contemporary Issues embraced utopianism; the periodical provided a forum for the belief that previous attempts to create utopia had foundered on the necessity of toil and drudgery. To achieve this "post-scarcity" society, Bookchin developed a theory of ecological decentralism; the magazine published Bookchin's first articles, including the pathbreaking "The Problem of Chemicals in Food". In 1958, Bookchin defined himself as an anarchist, seeing parallels between ecology, his first book, Our Synthetic Environment, was published under the pseudonym Lewis Herber in 1962, a few months before Rachel Carson's Silent Spring.
The book described a broad range of environmental ills but received little attention because of its political radicalism. In 1964, Bookchin joined the Congress of Racial Equality, protested racism at the 1964 World's Fair. During 1964-67, while living on Manhattan's Lower East Side, he cofounded and was the principal figure in the New York Federation of Anarchists, his groundbreaking essay "Ecology and Revolutionary Thought" introduced ecology as a concept in radical politics. In 1968, he founded another group that published the influential Anarchos magazine, which published that and other innovative essays on post-scarcity and on ecological technologies such as solar and wind energy, on decentralization and miniaturization. Lecturing throughout the United States, he helped popularize the concept of ecology to the counterculture, his republished 1969 essay "Listen, Marxist!" Warned Students for a Democratic Society against an impending takeover by a Marxist group. "Once again the dead are walking in our midst," he wrote, "ironically, draped in the name of Marx, the man who tried to bury the dead of the nineteenth century.
So the revolution of our own day can do nothing better than parody, in turn, the October Revolution of 1917 and the civil war of 1918-1920, with its'class line,' its Bolshevik Party, its'proletarian dictatorship,' its puritanical morality, its slogan,'Soviet power'". These and other influential 1960s essays are anthologized in Post-Scarcity Anarchism. In 1969-1970, he taught at Alternate U, a counter-cultural radical school based on 14th Street in Manhattan. In 1971, he moved to Burlington, Vermont with a group of friends, to put into practice his ideas of decentralization. In the fall of 1973, he was hired by Goddard College to lecture on technology. In 1974, he was hired by Ramapo College in Mahwah, New Jersey, where he became a full professor; the ISE was a hub for study of appropriate technology in the 1970s. In 1977-78 he was a member of the Spruce Mountain Affinity Group of the Clamshell Alliance. In 1977, he publ
Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. According to anarcho-primitivism, the shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural subsistence gave rise to social stratification, coercion and overpopulation. Anarcho-primitivists advocate a return of non-"civilized" ways of life through deindustrialization, abolition of the division of labor or specialization, abandonment of large-scale organization technologies. Many traditional anarchists reject the critique of civilization while some, such as Wolfi Landstreicher, endorse the critique but do not consider themselves anarcho-primitivists. Anarcho-primitivists are distinguished by their focus on the praxis of achieving a feral state of being through "rewilding". In the U. S. anarchism started to have an ecological view in the writings of Henry David Thoreau. In his book Walden, he advocates simple living and self-sufficiency among natural surroundings in resistance to the advancement of industrial civilization.
"Many have seen in Thoreau one of the precursors of ecologism and anarcho-primitivism represented today by John Zerzan. For George Woodcock, this attitude can be motivated by the idea of resistance to progress and the rejection of the increasing materialism that characterized North American society in the mid-19th century." Zerzan himself included the text "Excursions" by Thoreau in his edited compilation of anti-civilization writings called Against Civilization: Readings and Reflections from 1999. In the late 19th century, anarchist naturism appeared as the union of anarchist and naturist philosophies, it was important within individualist anarchist circles in Spain and Portugal. Important influences in it were Leo Tolstoy and Elisee Reclus. Anarcho-naturism advocated vegetarianism, free love, nudism and an ecological world view within anarchist groups and outside them. Anarcho-naturism promoted an ecological worldview, small ecovillages, most prominently nudism as a way to avoid the artificiality of the industrial mass society of modernity.
Naturist individualist anarchists saw the individual in his biological and psychological aspects and avoided and tried to eliminate social determinations. Their ideas were important in individualist anarchist circles in France but in Spain where Federico Urales, promotes the ideas of Gravelle and Zisly in La Revista Blanca; this tendency was strong enough as to call the attention of the CNT–FAI in Spain. Daniel Guérin, in Anarchism: From Theory to Practice, reports how "Spanish anarcho-syndicalism had long been concerned to safeguard the autonomy of what it called "affinity groups". There were many adepts of naturism and vegetarianism among its members among the poor peasants of the south. Both these ways of living were considered suitable for the transformation of the human being in preparation for a stateless society. At the Zaragoza congress, the members did not forget to consider the fate of groups of naturists and nudists, "unsuited to industrialization." As these groups would be unable to supply all their own needs, the Congress anticipated that their delegates to the meetings of the Confederation of communes would be able to negotiate special economic agreements with the other agricultural and industrial communes.
On the eve of a vast, social transformation, the CNT did not think it foolish to try to meet the infinitely varied aspirations of individual human beings." Anarchists contribute to an anti-authoritarian push, which challenges all abstract power on a fundamental level, striving for egalitarian relationships and promoting communities based upon mutual aid. Primitivists, extend ideas of non-domination to all life, not just human life, going beyond the traditional anarchist's analysis. Using the work of anthropologists, primitivists look at the origins of civilization so as to understand what they are up against and how current society formed in order to inform a change in direction. Inspired by the Luddites, primitivists rekindle an anti-technological orientation. Insurrectionalists do not believe in waiting for critiques to be fine-tuned, instead spontaneously attacking civilization's current institutions. Primitivists may owe much to the Situationists and their critique of the ideas in The Society of the Spectacle and alienation from a commodity-based society.
Deep ecology informs the primitivist perspective with an understanding that the well-being of all life is linked to the awareness of the inherent worth and intrinsic value of the non-human world, independent of its economic value. Primitivists see deep ecology's appreciation for the richness and diversity of life as contributing to the realization that present human interference with the non-human world is coercive and excessive. Bioregionalists bring the perspective of living within one's bioregion, being intimately connected to the land, climate, plants and general patterns of their bioregion; some primitivists have been influenced by the various indigenous cultures. Primitivists attempt to learn and incorporate sustainable techniques for survival and healthier ways of interacting with life; some are inspired by the feral subculture, where people abandon domestication and have re-integrate themselves with the wild. Some anarcho-primitivists state that prior to the advent of agriculture, humans lived in small, nomadic bands which were politically, economically egalitarian.
Being without hierarchy, these bands are sometimes viewed as embodying a form of anarchism. Primitivists hold that following the emergence of agriculture the growing masses of humanity became evermore beholden to technology and abstract power structures arising from the division of labor and h
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years in 1980, he won the nomination and defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U. S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the 531 electoral votes.
Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives.
Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, he was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon. After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did".
She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love and sense of attachment to a homeland and alliance with other citizens who share the same sentiment. This attachment can be a combination of many different feelings relating to one's own homeland, including ethnic, political or historical aspects, it encompasses a set of concepts related to, but mutually exclusive from those of nationalism. Some manifestations of patriotism emphasise the "land" element in love for one's native land and use the symbolism of agriculture and the soil – compare Blut und Boden. An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called chauvinism; the English term patriot is first attested in the Elizabethan era. The abstract noun patriotism appears in the early 18th century; the general notion of civic virtue and group dedication has been attested in culture globally throughout the historical period. For the Enlightenment thinkers of 18th-century Europe, loyalty to the state was chiefly considered in contrast to loyalty to the Church.
It was argued that clerics should not be allowed to teach in public schools since their patrie was heaven, so that they could not inspire love of the homeland in their students. One of the most influential proponents of this classical notion of patriotism was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Enlightenment thinkers criticized what they saw as the excess of patriotism. In 1774, Samuel Johnson published a critique of what he viewed as false patriotism. On the evening of 7 April 1775, he made the famous statement, "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel." James Boswell, who reported this comment in his Life of Johnson, does not provide context for the quote, it has therefore been argued that Johnson was in fact attacking the false use of the term "patriotism" by contemporaries such as John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and his supporters. However, there is no direct evidence to contradict the held belief that Johnson's famous remark was a criticism of patriotism itself. Patriotism may be strengthened by adherence to a national religion.
This is the opposite of the separation of church and state demanded by the Enlightenment thinkers who saw patriotism and faith as similar and opposed forces. Michael Billig and Jean Bethke Elshtain have both argued that the difference between patriotism and faith is difficult to discern and relies on the attitude of the one doing the labelling. Christopher Heath Wellman, professor of philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis, describes that a popular view of the "patriotist" position is robust obligations to compatriots and only minimal samaritan responsibilities to foreigners. Wellman calls this position "patriotist" rather than "nationalist" to single out the members of territorial, political units rather than cultural groups. George Orwell, in his influential essay Notes on Nationalism distinguished patriotism from the related concept of nationalism: "By'patriotism' I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force upon other people.
Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power; the abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality." "It is lamentable, that to be a good patriot one must become the enemy of the rest of mankind." Marxists have taken various stances regarding patriotism. On one hand, Karl Marx famously stated that "The working men have no country" and that "the supremacy of the proletariat will cause them to vanish still faster." The same view is promoted by present-day Trotskyists such as Alan Woods, "in favour of tearing down all frontiers and creating a socialist world commonwealth."On the other hand and Maoists are in favour of socialist patriotism based on the theory of socialism in one country. In the European Union, thinkers such as Jürgen Habermas have advocated a "Euro-patriotism", but patriotism in Europe is directed at the nation-state and more than not coincides with "Euroscepticism".
Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons, such as the Correlates of War project which found some correlation between war propensity and patriotism. The results from different studies are time dependent. For example, patriotism in Germany before World War I ranked at or near the top, whereas today it ranks at or near the bottom of patriotism surveys. Since 1981, the World Values Survey explores people's national values and beliefs and refer to the average answer "for high income residents" of a country to the question "Are you proud to be?". It ranges from 1 to 4. Charles Blatberg, From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-829688-6. Craig Calhoun, Is it Time to Be Postnational?, in Ethnicity and Minority Rights, Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. Pp. 231–56. Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igor Primoratz, ed. Patriotism, Humanity Books, 2002, pp. 105–12.
ISBN 1-57392-955-7. Jürgen Habermas, “Appendix II: Citizenship and National Identity,” in Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa, a core philosophy in Hinduism and Jainism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement, its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the civil rights movement. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition to any organization of society through governmental force, rejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals, the obliteration of force, opposition to violence under any circumstance defence of self and others.
Historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism "in the sense accepted in English-speaking areas" as "an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare". Philosopher Jenny Teichman defines the main form of pacifism as "anti-warism", the rejection of all forms of warfare. Teichman's beliefs have been summarized by Brian Orend as "... A pacifist believes there are no moral grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong." In a sense the philosophy is based on the idea. Pacifism may be based on moral principles or pragmatism. Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists reject theories of Just War; some pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that nonviolent action is morally superior and/or most effective.
Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others. Others support destruction of property in such emergencies or for conducting symbolic acts of resistance like pouring red paint to represent blood on the outside of military recruiting offices or entering air force bases and hammering on military aircraft. Not all nonviolent resistance is based on a fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances. Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists. Sometimes, as with the civil rights movement's march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, they have called for armed protection; the interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are complex. An absolute pacifist is described by the British Broadcasting Corporation as one who believes that human life is so valuable, that a human should never be killed and war should never be conducted in self-defense.
The principle is described as difficult to abide by due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person, being harmed or killed. It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to more undesirable results than non-violence. Although all pacifists are opposed to war between nation states, there have been occasions where pacifists have supported military conflict in the case of civil war or revolution. For instance, during the American Civil War, both the American Peace Society and some former members of the Non-Resistance Society supported the Union's military campaign, arguing they were carrying out a "police action" against the Confederacy, whose act of Secession they regarded as criminal. Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, French pacifist René Gérin urged support for the Spanish Republic. Gérin argued that the Spanish Nationalists were "comparable to an individual enemy" and the Republic's war effort was equivalent to the action of a domestic police force suppressing crime.
In the 1960s, some pacifists associated with the New Left supported wars of national liberation and supported groups such as the Viet Cong and the Algerian FLN, arguing peaceful attempts to liberate such nations were no longer viable, war was thus the only option. Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in literature. During the Warring States period, the pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states, they took this belief into action by using their famed defensive strategies to defend smaller states from invasion from larger states, hoping to dissuade feudal lords from costly warfare. The Seven Military Classics of ancient China view warfare negatively, as a last resort. For example, the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong says: "As for the military, it is not an auspicious instrument; the Taoist scripture "Classic of Great Peace" foretells "the coming Age of Great Peace". The Taiping Jing advocates "a world full of peace"; the Lemba religion of southern Frenc