Kyle Rayner is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character is depicted as being associated with the Green Lantern Corps, an extraterrestrial police force of which he has been a member. Rayner's original design was based on actor Keanu Reeves. In 2013, Kyle Rayner was placed 14th on IGN's list of the "Top 25 Heroes of DC Comics". Created by writer Ron Marz and artist Darryl Banks, Kyle Rayner first appeared in Green Lantern vol. 3, #48, as part of the "Emerald Twilight" storyline, in which DC Comics replaced Green Lantern Hal Jordan with Rayner, the sole Green Lantern for years until the late 1990s. He was DC's star Green Lantern into the mid-2000s. During this period he was briefly known as Ion. Following Jordan’s return to Green Lantern status in the 2004–2005 limited series Green Lantern: Rebirth, the 2005 crossover storyline "Infinite Crisis", Rayner returned to his alias of Ion. After the events of the "Sinestro Corps War", Rayner returned to his original role as a Green Lantern officer, along with a promotion to Honor Guard Illustres of the Corps.
On, he becomes a White Lantern following the mastery of all seven lantern rings. Before he acquired a Green Lantern power ring, Kyle Rayner was a struggling-but-gifted freelance comic book artist, raised in North Hollywood and lived and worked in Los Angeles. Kyle was raised by his mother as an only child, it was revealed that his father was a Mexican-American CIA agent named Gabriel Vasquez and that Aaron Rayner was an alias. Kyle and his mother lived a modest lifestyle until he reached adulthood. After Hal Jordan, grief-stricken over the destruction of his home town of Coast City, went on a mad rampage killing various members of the Green Lantern Corps and the Guardians of the Universe, Rayner was found by the last surviving Guardian of the Universe, Ganthet. Ganthet gave Kyle the last working Green Lantern power ring that would allow him to conjure any form of matter or energy through sheer force of will. Ganthet's reasons for choosing Kyle to bear the ring have never been made apparent, aside from Rayner having been in the right place at the right time: prior to bequeathing the ring upon Rayner, Ganthet utters, "You will have to do."
Ganthet revealed that humans make great Green Lanterns. Several sources, imply that Ganthet was following a deeper reason: Kyle Rayner was not chosen because he was fearless but because he was able to feel and overcome fear, thus making him, all the future Lanterns, less susceptible to Parallax's influence; the New Guardians retelling goes so far as to replace the scowling "You will have to do" with a smiling "It would seem I chose well." At first Kyle took possession of the ring lightly. His girlfriend, Alexandra DeWitt, encouraged him to be more responsible, create his own version of the Green Lantern uniform, helped him train for his new role as a superhero, but she was murdered and stuffed in a refrigerator by the supervillain Major Force; the guilt over this event drove Rayner to take his role more and as a result he strove to be the best Green Lantern he could be in honor of Alex's memory. Rayner moved to New York City, since Los Angeles reminded him of Alex and he needed a fresh start.
Rayner grew up enamored with Superman and Batman, though he had only a passing knowledge of Earth's various Green Lanterns. This soon changed, he found that the Green Lantern ring was the ultimate expression of his fertile imagination. While in battle, he used the ring's power to create constructs of just about anything his artistic mind could imagine: other superheroes, anime characters, mystical characters, futuristic weapons, original characters from his comic books. While other members of the Green Lantern Corps questioned the practicality of those constructs, they made Rayner an unpredictable and formidable opponent. After relocating to New York City, Rayner joined the superhero group the Titans for a brief time, during which he dated Donna Troy, but became a member of the Justice League, he clashed with the Flash early in his career. West had worked with Jordan since childhood and had reservations about Kyle as the new Green Lantern, but he became one of Rayner's best friends and biggest supporters.
Another of Kyle's biggest supporters amongst the League was Batman, who treated him with more respect than he showed certain other League members, most due to the fact that Kyle was willing to learn from others where other Lanterns focused on their rings and pre-existing skills. Rayner entered a romantic relationship with Jade and formed friendships with the Golden Age Green Lantern, Green Arrow, Arsenal and John Stewart. During his superhero career Rayner accumulated a rogues gallery that included characters from his predecessors' pasts such as Dr. Polaris and Dr. Light. During the Fifth-week event "Circle of Fire", it is discovered that a cosmic entity named Oblivion is coming to Earth after he attacked the planet Rann; this shocked Rayner because the villain is strikingly identical to the character of a story Rayner made when he was seven during his period of struggling with his fear and anger of growing up without a father, as a nemesis to the adventurer the Cannoneer. The Justice League tries to stop Oblivion, during the battle, Kyle
A nova or classical nova is a transient astronomical event that causes the sudden appearance of a bright "new" star, that fades over several weeks or many months. Novae involve an interaction between two stars that cause the flareup, perceived as a new entity, much brighter than the stars involved. Causes of the dramatic appearance of a nova vary, depending on the circumstances of the two progenitor stars. All observed novae involve located binary stars, either a pair of red dwarfs in the process of merging, or a white dwarf and another star; the main sub-classes of novae are classical novae, recurrent novae, dwarf novae. They are all considered to be cataclysmic variable stars. Luminous red novae share the name and are cataclysmic variables, but are a different type of event caused by a stellar merger. With similar names are the much more energetic supernovae and kilonovae. Classical nova eruptions are the most common type of nova, they are created in a close binary star system consisting of a white dwarf and either a main sequence, sub-giant, or red giant star.
When the orbital period falls in the range of several days to one day, the white dwarf is close enough to its companion star to start drawing accreted matter onto the surface of the white dwarf, which creates a dense but shallow atmosphere. This atmosphere is hydrogen and is thermally heated by the hot white dwarf, which reaches a critical temperature causing rapid runaway ignition by fusion. From the dramatic and sudden energies created, the now hydrogen-burnt atmosphere is dramatically expelled into interstellar space, its brightened envelope is seen as the visible light created from the nova event, was mistaken as a "new" star. A few novae produce short-lived nova remnants, lasting for several centuries. Recurrent nova processes are the same as the classical nova, except that the fusion ignition may be repetitive because the companion star can again feed the dense atmosphere of the white dwarf. Novae most occur in the sky along the path of the Milky Way near the observed galactic centre in Sagittarius.
They occur far more than galactic supernovae, averaging about ten per year. Most are found telescopically only one every year to eighteen months reaching naked-eye visibility. Novae reaching first or second magnitude occur only several times per century; the last bright nova was V1369 Centauri reaching 3.3 magnitude on 14 December 2013. During the sixteenth century, astronomer Tycho Brahe observed the supernova SN 1572 in the constellation Cassiopeia, he described it in his book De nova stella. In this work he argued that a nearby object should be seen to move relative to the fixed stars, that the nova had to be far away. Although this event was a supernova and not a nova, the terms were considered interchangeable until the 1930s. After this, novae were classified as classical novae to distinguish them from supernovae, as their causes and energies were thought to be different, based in the observational evidence. Despite the term "stella nova" meaning "new star", novae most take place as a result of white dwarfs: remnants of old stars.
Evolution of potential novae begins with two main sequence stars in a binary system. One of the two evolves into a red giant, leaving its remnant white dwarf core in orbit with the remaining star; the second star—which may be either a main sequence star or an aging giant—begins to shed its envelope onto its white dwarf companion when it overflows its Roche lobe. As a result, the white dwarf captures matter from the companion's outer atmosphere in an accretion disk, in turn, the accreted matter falls into the atmosphere; as the white dwarf consists of degenerate matter, the accreted hydrogen does not inflate, but its temperature increases. Runaway fusion occurs when the temperature of this atmospheric layer reaches ~20 million K, initiating nuclear burning, via the CNO cycle. Hydrogen fusion may occur in a stable manner on the surface of the white dwarf for a narrow range of accretion rates, giving rise to a super soft X-ray source, but for most binary system parameters, the hydrogen burning is unstable thermally and converts a large amount of the hydrogen into other, heavier chemical elements in a runaway reaction, liberating an enormous amount of energy.
This blows the remaining gases away from the surface of the white dwarf surface and produces an bright outburst of light. The rise to peak brightness may be rapid, or gradual; this is related to the speed class of the nova. The time taken for a nova to decay by around 2 or 3 magnitudes from maximum optical brightness is used for classification, via its speed class. Fast novae will take fewer than 25 days to decay by 2 magnitudes, while slow novae will take more than 80 days. In spite of their violence the amount of material ejected in novae is only about 1⁄10,000 of a solar mass, quite small relative to the mass of the white dwarf. Furthermore, only five percent of the accreted mass is fused during the power outburst. Nonetheless, this is enough energy to accelerate nova ejecta to velocities as high as several thousand kilometers per second—higher for fast novae than slow ones—with a concurrent rise in luminosity from a few times solar to 50,000–100,000 times solar. In 2010 scientists using NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered that a nova can emit gamma-rays.
A white dwarf can generate multiple novae over t
Gil Kane was a Latvian-born American comics artist whose career spanned the 1940s to the 1990s and every major comics company and character. Kane co-created the modern-day versions of the superheroes Green Lantern and the Atom for DC Comics, co-created Iron Fist with Roy Thomas for Marvel Comics, he was involved in such major storylines as that of The Amazing Spider-Man #96–98, which, at the behest of the U. S. Department of Health and Welfare, bucked the then-prevalent Comics Code Authority to depict drug abuse, spurred an update of the Code. Kane additionally pioneered an early graphic novel prototype, His Name Is... Savage, in 1968, a seminal graphic novel, Blackmark, in 1971. In 1997, he was inducted into both the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame and the Harvey Award Jack Kirby Hall of Fame. Gil Kane was born Eli Katz on April 6, 1926, in Latvia to a Jewish family that immigrated to the U. S. in 1929, settling in New York City. His father was a struggling poultry merchant. Kane attended high school at Manhattan's School of Industrial Art, but left in his senior year when he saw an opportunity to work at MLJ Comics.
He recalled in a 1996 interview, rom the time I was 15, I was going up to the comics offices.... My first job came the next year at 16. During my summer vacation, I went up and got a job working at MLJ in 1942... I was in my last year in high school. I was 16 and I'd started my last year but I'd gotten my job the summer before at MLJ, so I didn't want to give up my job. I quit school in the last grade; until being fired after three weeks, Kane worked in production, "putting borders on pages. The letterers would only put in the lettering, not the balloons, so I would put in the borders, I'd finish up artwork — whatever had to be done on a lesser scale." Within "a couple of days" of being let go, "I got a job with Jack Binder's agency. Jack Binder had a loft on Fifth Avenue and it just looked like an internment camp. There must have been 60 guys up there, all at drawing tables. You had to account for the paper that you took." Kane began penciling professionally there, but, "They weren't happy with what I was doing.
But when I was rehired by MLJ three weeks not only did they put me back into the production department and give me an increase, they gave me my first job, which was'Inspector Bentley of Scotland Yard' in Pep Comics, they gave me a whole issue of The Shield and Dusty, one of their leading books". He would do spot illustrations for other studios, his earliest known credit is inking Carl Hubbell on the six-page Scarlet Avenger superhero story "The Counterfeit Money Code" in MLJ's Zip Comics #14, on which he signed the name "Gil Kane". Other early credits include some issues of the company's Pep Comics, sometimes under pseudonyms including Stack Til and Stacktil, and, in conjunction with artist Pen Shumaker, Pen Star, he used his birth name on rare occasions, including on at least one story each in the Temerson / Helnit / Continental publishing group's Terrific Comics and Cat-Man Comics. In 1944 he did his first work for the future Marvel Comics, as one of two inkers on the 28-page "The Spawn of Death" in the wartime kid-gang comic Young Allies #11, the future DC Comics, as the uncredited ghost artist for Jack Kirby on the Sandman superhero story "Courage a la Carte" in Adventure Comics #91.
That same year Kane either was drafted or enlisted in the Army and served in the World War II Pacific theater of operations. After 19 months in the service, he returned to in December 1945. All-American Publications editor Sheldon Mayer hired him in 1947, for a stint that lasted six months, he contributed again to the "Sandman" feature in Adventure Comics and, as penciler Gil Stack and inker Phil Martel, to the "Wildcat" feature in Sensation Comics. Around this time, he said, he "worked with director Garson Kanin when he was involved in TV," drawing storyboards. In 1949, Kane began a longtime professional relationship with Julius Schwartz, an editor at National Comics, the future DC Comics. Kane drew stories for several DC series in the 1950s including All-Star Western and The Adventures of Rex the Wonder Dog. In the late 1950s, freelancing for DC Comics precursor National Comics, Kane illustrated works in what fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books, creating character designs for the modern-day version of the 1940s superhero Green Lantern, for which he pencilled most of the first 75 issues of the reimagined character's comic.
Comics historian Les Daniels praised Kane's work on the character, stating "The design was part of an approach that emphasized grace as well as strength, an approach notable in Kane's flying scenes... Green Lantern appeared to soar effortlessly across the cosmos." DC Comics writer and executive Paul Levitz noted in 2010 that Kane "modeled the Guardians on Israeli founding father David Ben-Gurion as the human figures in the cast tended to mimic Kane's own tall, elongated build." Kane and writer John Broome's stories for the Green Lantern series included transforming Hal Jordan's love interest, Carol Ferris, into the Star Sapphire in issue #16. Black Hand, a character featured prominently in the "Blackest Night" storyline in 2009-2010, debuted in issue #29 by Broome and Kane; the creative team created Guy Gardner in the story "Earth's Other Green Lantern!" in issue #59. Kane co-created an updated version of the Atom with writer Gardner Fox. Kane — who by 1960 was living in Jericho, New York, on Long Island — drew the youthful superhero team the Teen Titans, a revival of Plastic Man, and, in
Kilowog is the name of a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character is a member of the Green Lantern Corps; the character appeared in the 2011 Green Lantern film with his voice provided by Michael Clarke Duncan. Kilowog first was created by Steve Englehart and Joe Staton. A towering alien with a brutish cross of porcine and bull-doggish appearance, Kilowog is renowned throughout the Green Lantern Corps as the primary trainer of the Corps' newest recruits; the Guardians of the Universe recruited Kilowog, a gifted genetic scientist, from the planet Bolovax Vik, located in Space Sector 674. Kilowog was trained by Lantern Ermey, who would use the word "poozer", which means "useless rookie". In the middle of a arduous training session, Ermey had Kilowog and his fellow rookies help stop an attack on a group of Lanterns, one of whom was the future renegade Sinestro. Ermey, fatally wounded in battle, commended Kilowog on his abilities, telling him that he had the makings of a great leader.
In addition to serving with distinction as the Green Lantern of that sector, Kilowog began to spend extensive periods of time on the Green Lantern Corps' home planet of Oa instructing new recruits on how to handle and best utilize their power rings. In this capacity, Kilowog acted as the first trainer to a young Hal Jordan, the ring-recruited successor to the slain Abin Sur of Ungara, the Green Lantern of Space Sector 2814. Kilowog and his new recruit helped the Guardians confront Abin Sur's murderer, the hive mind interstellar malefactor known as Legion. During the Crisis on Infinite Earths, Bolovax Vik was destroyed; this was a powerful blow to the giant Green Lantern, as his race lived a communal lifestyle, to be alone was one of the worst things imaginable. Owing somehow to this genetic similarity to and affinity for each other that all Bolovax Vikians possessed, Kilowog was able to rescue the entire population of his homeworld by storing their collective life essences within his ring upon that world's annihilation.
The Crisis saw the immortal Guardians ethically divided and their ranks depleted for the first time in millions of years. The Corps as well suffered hundreds of casualties; the Guardians decided to end their direct leadership of the Corps, left for another dimension with their former mates, the Zamarons. Before leaving, the Guardians informed the remaining Green Lanterns that the Corps was now theirs to administer. Adrift following the destruction of his Sector and the end of his role training new Green Lanterns for the Guardians, Kilowog relocated to Earth with his former pupil Jordan and the group of Green Lanterns that had decided to make their base there, they became the Green Lantern Corps of Earth. While his appearance at first frightened most humans, Kilowog became a celebrity following his defeat of the villain Black Hand on live television in a battle over Anaheim Stadium; this goodwill was soon squandered, when he was approached by a KGB agent and invited to live in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as the society of Bolovax Vik was somewhat similar to a communist system.
During his time in the USSR, Kilowog was instrumental in the creation of the Soviet Union's first super-powered force, the Rocket Red Brigade. Kilowog became disenchanted with the U. S. S. R. and the flawed communist nations of Earth. While adventuring with the Green Lantern Corps of Earth, Kilowog found a world in Space Sector 872 which would make a suitable "Bolovax Vik II". Moved to action, he tapped into his ring and reconstituted the entire population of his world, some 16 billion beings. No sooner had he done this, than the world was obliterated by the renegade Green Lantern Sinestro, all 16 billion Bolovax Vikians were permanently killed; the trauma of this drove Kilowog temporarily insane, but he was helped back to his senses by fellow Green Lantern Arisia, to whom he confessed his love. He was supported by other Green Lanterns, who made an effort to be near him, as they knew Kilowog's race enjoyed being in crowds. Shortly after this adventure, the Corps was and destroyed when they voted as a body to execute the captured Sinestro for crimes against the universe.
Around this time, Kilowog is allowed to be one of the honor guard at Superman's funeral. When the Corps began to expand again, Kilowog returned to Oa to train the new generation of Green Lanterns. During the Emerald Twilight arc, numerous Green Lanterns were sent to stop the insane Hal Jordan; the last Green Lantern to oppose Jordan was Kilowog himself, on Oa. He attempted to prevent his old pupil from entering and absorbing the power of the Great Battery itself, which destroyed the Corps. Kilowog was disintegrated with a blast by Jordan's ring, leaving nothing but a seared skull and ashes, a shaken but undeterred Jordan stole the energies of the Great Battery; the remaining guardians sacrificed themselves by merging their life forces into the final green lantern ring. The only Guardian left to bestow
Dennis J. "Denny" O'Neil is an American comic book writer and editor, principally for Marvel Comics and DC Comics from the 1960s through the 1990s, Group Editor for the Batman family of titles until his retirement. His best-known works include Green Lantern/Green Arrow and Batman with Neal Adams, The Shadow with Michael Kaluta and The Question with Denys Cowan; as an editor, he is principally known for editing the various Batman titles. As of 2013, he sits on the board of directors of the charity The Hero Initiative and serves on its Disbursement Committee. O'Neil was born into a Catholic household in Missouri. On Sunday afternoons he would accompany his father or his grandfather to the store for some light groceries and an occasional comic book. O'Neil graduated from St. Louis University around the turn of the 1960s with a degree centered on English literature, creative writing, philosophy. From there he joined the U. S. Navy just in time to participate in the blockade of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
After leaving the Navy, O'Neil moved on to a job with a newspaper in Missouri. O'Neil wrote bi-weekly columns for the youth page, during the slow summer months he filled the space with a series on the revival of the comics industry; this attracted the attention of Roy Thomas, who would himself become one of the great names in the history of the medium. When Roy Thomas left DC Comics to work for Stan Lee at Marvel Comics, he suggested that O'Neil take the Marvel writer's test, which involved adding dialogue to a wordless four-page excerpt of a Fantastic Four comic. O'Neil's entry resulted in Lee offering O'Neil a job. O'Neil had never considered writing for comics, said he'd done the test "kind of as a joke. I had a couple of hours on a Tuesday afternoon, so instead of doing crossword puzzles, I did the writer's test."When Marvel's expansion made it impossible for Lee to continue writing the company's entire line of books, Lee passed as much on to Roy Thomas as he could, but still needed writers, so O'Neil took the reins for a short-term run of Doctor Strange stories in Strange Tales, penning six issues.
He wrote dialog for such titles as Rawhide Kid and Millie the Model, as well as scripting the final 13 pages of Daredevil #18 over a plot by Lee, when Lee went on vacation. O'Neil and artist Neal Adams revived the Professor X character in X-Men #65 in one of the creative team's earliest collaborations; the available jobs writing for Marvel petered out quickly, O'Neil took a job with Charlton Comics under the pseudonym of Sergius O'Shaugnessy. There he received regular work for a half from Charlton's editor Dick Giordano. In 1968 Dick Giordano was offered an editorial position at DC Comics and took a number of Charlton freelancers with him, including O'Neil. Charlton talent arrived at DC from a different culture of comics. At DC, the office seemed like a snapshot from 1950, with a crowd of short-haired men in white shirts and ties; the jeans-wearing, hippy trended Charlton crowd visibly represented a different generation. O'Neil's first assignments involved two strategies for bolstering DC's sales.
One approach centered on the creation of new characters, O'Neil scripted several issues of Beware the Creeper, a series starring a new hero, The Creeper, created by artist Steve Ditko. From there, DC moved O'Neil to Justice League of America. With artist Mike Sekowsky, he took away Wonder Woman's powers, exiled her from the Amazon community, set her off, into international intrigues with her blind mentor, I Ching; these changes did not sit well with Wonder Woman's older fans feminists, O'Neil acknowledged that de-powering DC's most well-known superheroine had unintentionally alienated readers. In Justice League, he had more success, introducing into that title the first and politically themed stories, setting the stage for work on Green Lantern/Green Arrow, he and artist Dick Dillin made several changes to the membership of the JLA by removing founding members the Martian Manhunter and Wonder Woman. Following the lead set by Bob Haney and Neal Adams in a Brave and the Bold story that visually redefined Green Arrow into the version that appeared in comics between 1969 and 1986, O'Neil stripped him of his wealth and playboy status, making him an urban hero.
This redefinition would culminate in the character that appeared in Green Lantern/Green Arrow, with many stories drawn by Adams, a conscious, left-wing creation that took over Green Lantern's book to use him as a foil and straw man in sounding out the political concepts that would define that work. It was during this period that the most famous Green Arrow story appeared, in Green Lantern #85–86, when it was revealed that Green Arrow's ward Speedy was addicted to heroin; as a result of his work on Green Lantern and Green Arrow, O'Neil recounted, "I went from total obscurity to seeing my name featured in The New York Times and being invited to do talk shows. It's by no means an unmixed blessing; that messed up my head pretty for a couple of years.... Deteriorating marriage, bad habits, deteriorating relationships with human beings – with anything that wasn't a typewriter, in fact, it was a bad few years there."O'Neil's 1970s run on the Batman titles, under the direction of editor Julius Schwartz, is his best-known endeavor, getting back to the character's darker roots after a period dominated by the campiness of the 1960s TV series.
Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "O'Neil's interpretation of Batman as a vengeful obsessive-compulsive, which he modestly describes as a return to the roots, was an act of creative imagination that has influenced every subsequent version of the Dark Knight." O'Neil and Adams'
Green Lantern: Rebirth
Green Lantern: Rebirth was a six-issue monthly American comic book limited series written by Geoff Johns and illustrated by Ethan Van Sciver. Published by DC Comics between October 2004 and May 2005, the series featured characters from throughout the sixty-year history of Green Lantern comics; the storyline follows the "rebirth" of the Silver Age Green Lantern Hal Jordan as he overcomes fear itself in the form of the cosmic entity Parallax. The series starred various members of the intergalactic police force known as the Green Lantern Corps, Kyle Rayner, John Stewart and Guy Gardner, it revived elements of the Green Lantern mythos including the Guardians of the Universe and the villain Sinestro, while introducing new concepts such as the emotional spectrum. In addition, the GLC power ring's flaw of being unable to directly affect the color yellow is weakened, allowing experienced Corps members to overcome it if they can conquer their fear. In 1994, DC Comics decided to do away with Hal Jordan, the primary Green Lantern of Earth since his first DC Comics appearance in 1959, replace him with a new character to carry on the Green Lantern legacy, Kyle Rayner.
The storyline, ”Emerald Twilight”, which began in Green Lantern #48, involved Hal Jordan descending into madness following the complete destruction of his home town, Coast City, by the villain the Cyborg Superman. This caused Jordan to become the villain Parallax. Jordan went on a rampage on the planet Oa, the planetary citadel of the Guardians of the Universe, who oversee and administer the Green Lantern Corps, he killed some fellow Green Lanterns who opposed him and all the Guardians save for one, Ganthet. He destroyed the Central Power Battery, with which all Green Lanterns recharge their power rings, killed the renegade former GL, whom Jordan himself had exposed as a criminal who used his power ring to enslave his planet and whom the Guardians freed from his imprisonment in their Central Power Battery in a failed attempt to stop Jordan. Jordan attempted to destroy all of existence so that he could recreate it to his liking in the 1994 miniseries and crossover storyline, Zero Hour. "Emerald Twilight", as scripted by Ron Marz, provoked severe outrage amongst many Green Lantern fans.
While retaining Kyle Rayner as the sole remaining Green Lantern, DC responded with more than one attempt to redeem Jordan's image and placate the irate fans, first in the 1996 Final Night miniseries and crossover storyline, in which Jordan sacrificed his life in order to re-ignite Earth's Sun, in the 1999 Day of Judgment miniseries, in which his soul, languishing in Purgatory, was chosen as the newest host for God’s “Spirit of Vengeance”, known as the Spectre. These attempts, failed to placate the fans. In 2004, following the cancellation of The Spectre featuring Hal Jordan, a dropoff in sales of the Green Lantern comic, as well as the character's prominent appearance in the popular DC: The New Frontier, DC decided to return Hal Jordan as a Green Lantern. First, the Green Lantern monthly series was canceled with issue #181 and Geoff Johns was assigned to write Green Lantern: Rebirth, which would pave the way for Jordan's return as a Green Lantern; the series would answer lingering questions about Jordan's character, as well as reveal the decades-long mystery of why the Green Lantern power rings, the powerful weapons assigned to each Lantern that allow them to conjure any form of matter or energy, were unable to affect anything yellow in color.
Geoff Johns first announced his plans to resurrect Hal Jordan in an April 2004 issue of Wizard, noting that he had been working on the five-issue miniseries for a year and that it was due for an October release. As research for the story, Johns spent time with the test pilot department at Edwards Air Force Base and cleared his facts with a major; the Green Lantern of Earth, Kyle Rayner, crashes at Highway Hill on Earth in a spacecraft, mumbling to the two hikers who find him, "It has a name". His power ring begins speaking, "Parallax is coming…" A series of strange and disturbing incidents begins to occur. Jordan, pronouncing judgment on the villain Black Hand, becomes unable to focus and senses that something is wrong, telling his friend Oliver Queen, "None of this should have happened; this isn't me. This isn't who I am." The shape-shifting Vuldarian physiology of former GL Guy Gardner begins going haywire. Coast City, long destroyed reappears to two pilots flying over it, though the only building, restored is Hal Jordan's old home.
When confronted, Jordan tells the Justice League that he is not responsible for the restored Coast City. Stewart, however goes berserk, attacking the other heroes, his ring now intoning, "Parallax is coming". Meanwhile, at the Justice League Watchtower on the Moon, the emergency power ring that Jordan once gave Green Arrow duplicates itself, places itself on Guy Gardner's finger, restoring him as a Green Lantern. Back at Highway Hill, the extraterrestrial Green Lantern Kilowog appears, inexplicably attacks Kyle Rayner. However, one of the Guardians of the Universe, appears to stop Kilowog, attempting to protect the coffin, which it is revealed holds the corpse of Hal Jordan, he and Kilowog engage in a fierce battle, Rayner himself feels something within his ring attempting to take over his will, much as with Stewart and Kilowog. Ganthet teleports Jordan's corpse to the Watchtower. Meanwhile, Jordan investigates the appearance of his old apartment building, where he is confronted by the Parallax version of himself, who engages in a battle of wills with the Spirit of Vengeance bonded to Jordan's soul.
It is that the Spectre expla
Green Lantern is the name of several superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. They fight evil with the aid of rings that grant them a variety of extraordinary powers, all of which comes from imagination and/or emotions; the first Green Lantern character, Alan Scott, was created in 1940 by Martin Nodell during the initial popularity of superheroes. Alan Scott fought common criminals in New York City with the aid of his magic ring; the Green Lanterns are among DC Comics' longer lasting sets of characters. They have been adapted to television, video games, motion pictures. Martin Nodell created the first Green Lantern, he first appeared in the Golden Age of comic books in All-American Comics #16, published by All-American Publications, one of three companies that would merge to form DC Comics. This Green Lantern's real name was Alan Scott, a railroad engineer who, after a railway crash, came into possession of a magic lantern which spoke to him and said it would bring power.
From this, he crafted a magic ring. The limitations of the ring were that it had to be "charged" every 24 hours by touching it to the lantern for a time, that it could not directly affect objects made of wood. Alan Scott fought ordinary human villains, but he did have a few paranormal ones such as the immortal Vandal Savage and the zombie Solomon Grundy. Most stories took place in New York; as a popular character in the 1940s, the Green Lantern featured both in anthology books such as All-American Comics and Comic Cavalcade, as well as his own book, Green Lantern. He appeared in All Star Comics as a member of the superhero team known as the Justice Society of America. After World War II the popularity of superheroes in general declined; the Green Lantern comic book was cancelled with issue #38, All Star Comics #57 was the character's last Golden Age appearance. When superheroes came back in fashion in decades, the character Alan Scott was revived, but he was forever marginalized by the new Hal Jordan character, created to supplant him.
He made guest appearances in other superheroes' books, but got regular roles in books featuring the Justice Society. He never got another solo series. Between 1995 and 2003, DC Comics changed Alan Scott's superhero codename to "Sentinel" in order to distinguish him from the newer and more popular science fiction Green Lanterns. In 2011, the Alan Scott character was revamped, his costume was redesigned and the source of his powers was changed to that of the mystical power of nature. In 1959, Julius Schwartz reinvented the Green Lantern character as a science fiction hero named Hal Jordan. Hal Jordan's powers were more or less the same as Alan Scott's, but otherwise this character was different than the Green Lantern character of the 1940s, he had a new name, a redesigned costume, a rewritten origin story. Hal Jordan received his ring from a dying alien and was commissioned as an officer of the Green Lantern Corps, an interstellar law enforcement agency overseen by the Guardians of the Universe.
Hal Jordan was introduced in Showcase #22. Gil Kane and Sid Greene were the art team most notable on the title in its early years, along with writer John Broome. With issue #76, the series made a radical stylistic departure. Editor Schwartz, in one of the company's earliest efforts to provide more than fantasy, worked with the writer-artist team of Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams to spark new interest in the comic book series and address a perceived need for social relevance, they added the character Green Arrow and had the pair travel through America encountering "real world" issues, to which they reacted in different ways — Green Lantern as fundamentally a lawman, Green Arrow as a liberal iconoclast. Additionally during this run, the groundbreaking "Snowbirds Don't Fly" story was published in which Green Arrow's teen sidekick Speedy developed a heroin addiction that he was forcibly made to quit; the stories were critically acclaimed, with publications such as The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Newsweek citing it as an example of how comic books were "growing up".
However, the O'Neil/Adams run was not a commercial success, the series was cancelled after only 14 issues, though an additional unpublished three installments were published as backups in The Flash #217-219. The title would know a number of cancellations, its title would change to Green Lantern Corps at one point as the popularity waned. During a time there were two regular titles, each with a Green Lantern, a third member in the Justice League. A new character, Kyle Rayner, was created to become the feature while Hal Jordan first became the villain Parallax died and came back as the Spectre. In the wake of The New Frontier, writer Geoff Johns returned Hal Jordan as Green Lantern in Green Lantern: Rebirth. Johns began to lay groundwork for "Blackest Night", viewing it as the third part of the trilogy started by Rebirth. Expanding on the Green Lantern mythology in the second part, "Sinestro Corps War", with artist Ethan van Sciver, found wide critical acclaim and commercial success with the series, which promised the introduction of a spectrum of colored "lanterns".
The series and its creators have received several awards over the years, including the 1961 Alley Award for Best Adventure Hero/Heroine with Own Book and the Academy of Comic Book Arts Shazam Award for Best Conti