American black bear
The American black bear is a medium-sized bear native to North America. It is the continent's smallest and most distributed bear species. American black bears are omnivores, with their diets varying depending on season and location, they live in forested areas, but do leave forests in search of food. Sometimes they become attracted to human communities because of the immediate availability of food; the American black bear is the world's most common bear species. It is listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as a least-concern species, due to its widespread distribution and a large population estimated to be twice that of all other bear species combined. Along with the brown bear, it is one of only two of the eight modern bear species not considered by the IUCN to be globally threatened with extinction. American black bears mark trees using their teeth and claws as a form of communication with other bears, a behavior common to many species of bears. Despite living in North America, American black bears are not related to brown bears and polar bears.
American and Asian black bears are considered sister taxa and are more related to each other than to the other modern species of bears. According to recent studies, the sun bear is a recent split from this lineage. A small primitive bear called Ursus abstrusus is the oldest known North American fossil member of the genus Ursus, dated to 4.95 mya. This suggests that U. abstrusus may be the direct ancestor of the American black bear, which evolved in North America. Although Wolverton and Lyman still consider U. vitabilis an "apparent precursor to modern black bears", it has been placed within U. americanus. The ancestors of American black bears and Asian black bears diverged from sun bears 4.58 mya. The American black bear split from the Asian black bear 4.08 mya. The earliest American black bear fossils, which were located in Port Kennedy, Pennsylvania resemble the Asian species, though specimens grew to sizes comparable to grizzly bears. From the Holocene to the present, American black bears seem to have shrunk in size, but this has been disputed because of problems with dating these fossil specimens.
The American black bear lived during the same period as the giant and lesser short-faced bears and the Florida spectacled bear. These tremarctine bears evolved from bears -- 8 ma; the giant and lesser short-faced bears are thought to have been carnivorous and the Florida spectacled bear more herbivorous, while the American black bears remained arboreal omnivores, like their Asian ancestors. The American black bear's generalist behavior allowed it to exploit a wider variety of foods and has been given as a reason why, of these three genera, it alone survived climate and vegetative changes through the last Ice Age while the other, more specialized North American predators became extinct. However, both Arctodus and Tremarctos had survived several previous ice ages. After these prehistoric ursids became extinct during the last glacial period 10,000 years ago, American black bears were the only bear present in much of North America until the migration of brown bears to the rest of the continent.
American black bears are reproductively compatible with several other bear species and have produced hybrid offspring. According to Jack Hanna's Monkeys on the Interstate, a bear captured in Sanford, was thought to have been the offspring of an escaped female Asian black bear and a male American black bear. In 1859, an American black bear and a Eurasian brown bear were bred together in the London Zoological Gardens, but the three cubs that were born died before they reached maturity. In The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, Charles Darwin noted: In the nine-year Report it is stated that the bears had been seen in the zoological gardens to couple but to 1848 most had conceived. In the reports published since this date three species have produced young... An American black bear shot in autumn 1986 in Michigan was thought by some to be an American black bear/grizzly bear hybrid, due to its unusually large size and its proportionately larger braincase and skull. DNA testing was unable to determine whether it was a grizzly bear.
Listed alphabetically. American black bears occupied the majority of North America's forested regions. Today, they are limited to sparsely settled, forested areas. American black bears inhabit much of their original Canadian range, though they occur in the southern farmlands of Alberta and Manitoba; the total Canadian black bear population is between 396,000 and 476,000, based on surveys taken in the mid-1990s in seven Canadian provinces, though this estimate excludes American black bear populations in New Brunswick, the Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan. All provinces indicated stable populations of American black bears over the last decade; the current range of American black bears in the United States is constant throughout most of the northeast and within the Appalachian Mountains continuously from Maine to northern Georgia, the northern Midwest, the Rocky Mountain region, the West Coast and Alaska. However, it becomes fragmented or absent in other regions. Despite this, American black bears in those areas seem to have expanded their range during the last decade, such as with recent sightings in Ohio an
Addison County, Vermont
Addison County is a county located in the U. S. state of Vermont. At the 2010 census, the population was 36,821, its shire town is Middlebury. Iroquois settled in the county before European arrived in 1609. French settlers in Crown Point, New York extended their settlements across Lake Champlain. A few individuals or families came up the lake from Canada and established themselves at Chimney Point in 1730. In 1731, Fort Frederic was erected at Cross Point. In 1759, General Amherst occupied British settlers came in; the Battle of Bennington in Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, brought a turning point for the American independence against British. Addison County was established by act of the Legislature October 18, 1785, during the period of Vermont Republic. In 1791, Vermont joined the federal union after the original thirteen colonies; the main product of the county was wheat. In the 1820s farmers began to raise sheep; the Champlain Canal was opened on 1823, making it possible for ships to navigate from the Hudson River.
In 1840, the county produced more wool than any other county in the United States. When Vermont was admitted into the Union in 1791, there were 9,267 people living in Addison County. By 1830, the population had grown to 26,503 people. In 2008, the federal government declared the county a disaster area after severe storms and flooding June 14–17. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 808 square miles, of which 766 square miles is land and 41 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in Vermont by total area. The county of Addison is situated on the west line of Vermont state and nearly in the center north and south; the primary stream of the county is Otter Creek, which runs through the county from the south to the north. Chittenden County - north Washington County - northeast Orange County - east Windsor County - southeast Rutland County - south Washington County, New York - southwest Essex County, New York - west Green Mountain National Forest At the 2000 census, there were 35,974 people, 13,068 households and 9,108 families residing in the county.
The population density was 47 per square mile. There were 15,312 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.86% White, 0.54% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. 1.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.5% were of English, 12.7% American, 12.0% French, 10.8% French Canadian, 10.8% Irish and 6.7% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.0 % spoke 1.8 % French and 1.2 % Spanish as their first language. There were 13,068 households of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 8.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 23.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.02. Age distribution was 24.90% under the age of 18, 12.50% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 97.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The median household income was $43,142, the median family income was $49,351. Males had a median income of $31,836 versus $24,416 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,539. About 5.10% of families and 8.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.10% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. For historical populations since 1900, see Historical U. S. Census totals for Addison County, Vermont As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 36,821 people, 14,084 households, 9,340 families residing in the county; the population density was 48.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,760 housing units at an average density of 21.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% white, 1.4% Asian, 0.8% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 18.1% were English, 17.2% were Irish, 12.0% were German, 7.5% were American, 7.2% were French Canadian, 5.9% were Italian, 5.3% were Scottish. Of the 14,084 households, 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families, 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 41.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,800 and the median income for a family was $67,721. Males had a median income of $43,643 versus $34,486 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,599. About 5.7% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. In 1828, the county voted for National Republican Party candidate John Quincy Adams.
In 1832, the county voted for Anti-Masonic Party candidate William Wirt. From William Henry Harrison in 1836 to Winfield Scott in 1852, the state would vote the Whig Party candidates. From John C. Frémont in 1856 to Richard Nixon in 1960, the Republican Party would have a 104 year winning streak in the county. In 1964, the county was won by Democratic Party incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson, who became the firs
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
White Mountain National Forest
The White Mountain National Forest is a federally managed forest contained within the White Mountains in the northeastern United States. It was established in 1918 as a result of the Weeks Act of 1911, it has a total area of 750,852 acres. Most of the WMNF is in New Hampshire. While casually referred to as a park, this is a National Forest, used not only for hiking and skiing, but for logging and other limited commercial purposes; the WMNF is the only National Forest located in either Maine. Most of the major peaks over 4,000 feet high for peak-bagging in New Hampshire are located in the National Forest. Over 100 miles of the Appalachian Trail traverses the White Mountain National Forest. In descending order of land area the forest lies in parts of Grafton and Carroll counties in New Hampshire, Oxford County in Maine; the Forest Supervisor's office is located in Campton, there are three ranger districts: the Pemigewasset District, with offices in Campton. Furthermore, there are several visitor centers, including those located at Lincoln and Lincoln Woods.
The National Forest consists of three discontinuous areas. The area to the west of Franconia Notch consists of the regions surrounding Cannon Mountain, Kinsman Mountain, Mount Moosilauke; the main body of the National Forest includes the Presidential Range and many other ranges - most notably, the Franconia, Bond, Sandwich and Carter-Moriah ranges. An exclave of the Forest lies to the north of U. S. Route 2 in Stark and Randolph, New Hampshire, it is home to wildlife species including bald eagle, beaver, white-tailed deer, black bear, peregrine falcon, Canadian lynx, river otter, bobcat and red foxes, fisher and porcupine. Six designated Federal Wilderness Areas exist within the Forest: the 27,380-acre Presidential Range/Dry River Wilderness, the 5,552-acre Great Gulf Wilderness, the 45,000-acre Pemigewasset Wilderness, the 35,800-acre Sandwich Range Wilderness, the 12,000-acre Caribou/Speckled Mountain Wilderness, the 23,700-acre Wild River Wilderness; these areas are protected from logging and commercial industries and are used for recreational and scientific purposes.
They were formed under the Federal Wilderness Protection Act of 1984, its amendments. The New England Wilderness Protection Act of 2006 increased the Sandwich Range Wilderness to its present size and created the Wild River Wilderness area; because of its beauty, its proximity to major metropolitan areas, its 1,200 miles of hiking trails, 23 campgrounds, the presence of a large number of ski areas within or near its boundaries, the WMNF is one of the most visited outdoor recreation sites east of the Mississippi. Winter season lengths are projected to decline across the WMNF due to the effects of global warming, to continue the historic contraction and consolidation of the ski industry and threaten individual ski businesses and communities that rely on ski tourism. US Forest Service signs on hiking trails at tree line state that the mountain summit areas have "the worst weather in America"; the claim is used by the observatory near the summit of Mount Washington which once recorded a surface wind speed of 231 miles per hour.
Since 1849 over 135 people have died on Mount Washington. New England/Acadian forests John W. Weeks, sponsor of the Weeks Act White Mountain National Forest travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to White Mountain National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Official website Hike the Whites, detailed personal website SectionHiker's Backpacking Blog, detailed personal website NE Wilderness Act press release
Mount Snow is a mountain resort and ski area in southern Vermont located in the Green Mountains. It is Vermont's closest big mountain to many Northeast metropolitan areas; the mountain is within the Green Mountain National Forest and operates under a special use permit from the U. S. Forest Service; the resort is operated by Peak Resorts, which bought it along with Attitash, in February 2007. Mount Snow is home to the East Coast's first All Park Mountain Face, Carinthia at Mount Snow, which debuted in the 2008-2009 season. Carinthia is home with both natural and man-made features and a half-pipe. Mount Snow was co-host of the first Extreme Games in 1995 and host of the Winter X-Games in 2000 and 2001. Carinthia at Mount Snow claimed home to the second stop of the first annual Winter Dew Tour as well as many other events including the Freeski Open. In the summer of 2011, Mount Snow installed a brand new Leitner-Poma high-speed detachable six-pack bubble chair; this new lift transports skiers to the top of the mountain in 7 minutes.
The bubble keeps them warm. If it is a warm skiing day you can choose to leave the bubble up. Mount Snow now has two high-speed detachable lifts from the base to summit and a total of four high-speed detachable lifts. Summit Elevation: 3,600 ft Vertical Drop: 1,700 ft Skiable area: 600 acres Annual Average Snowfall: 158 inchesTrails: 86 Lifts: 20: 1 High-Speed Six-Pack Bubble, 3 High Speed Quads, 1 Fixed Quads, 6 Triples, 3 Doubles, 5 Conveyors, 1 Rope TowSnowmaking: 80% Total Snowguns: 917 of which 250 are Fan Guns the most of any resort in North America Terrain Park Acres: 100 Gladed Tree Acreage: 124Tubing: YesNight Skiing: No Mount Pisgah is the mountain, known by many as Mount Snow and was named after the Biblical Mount Pisgah. A large amount of land on Mount Pisgah was purchased from the estate of Reuben Snow, in early 1953 and on December 12, 1954, the mountain, renamed Mount Snow, after the Snow family, opened to the public. Entrepreneur and dreamer Walt Schoenknecht owned the ski resort for many years and led its development into one of the largest ski areas in the country at the time.
In 1986, the Carinthia ski area was connected to the Mount Snow Trails. Five years nearby Haystack Mountain Ski Area was purchased and subsequently marketed as being part of Mount Snow. Haystack was sold and closed in 2005. In 1992, the first snowboard park in the East was established at Mount Snow, named Un Blanco Gulch; the park featured jumps, a half-pipe, quarter hits, wedges, banked turns, a buried van. The park was built by Tyler Doucette under the supervision of Chris Bluto. "The Gulch" remained a staple of Mount Snow's freestyle terrain until the 2008-2009 season when all terrain parks were moved to the Carinthia area of the mountain where a new park named "The Gulch" was established along with seven additional parks and a "Superpipe" referred to collectively as Carinthia Parks at Mount Snow. In 2000, Mount Snow hosted the 4th Annual Winter X-Games; the Games drew in athletes from around the world. The Games returned to Mount Snow the following year. Mount Snow's own Kelly Clark, bronze medalist of 2014 Olympic Women's half-pipe, won the first American gold medal of the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City in women's half-pipe.
She is a graduate of the Mount Snow Academy and the first athlete from Mount Snow to win an Olympic gold medal. Another Mount Snow Academy graduate, Devin Logan, won the silver medal of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi in the Olympic debut of slopestyle. Eliza Outtrim, who placed 6th in women's moguls attended MSA. In January 2009, Mount Snow hosted the Winter Dew Tour, it was the first action sports tour for winter sports and is owned and operated by Alli, the Alliance of Action Sports. Many of the top athletes in action sports from around the world participated in the Winter Dew Tour. Athletes such as Shaun White, Hannah Teter, Tanner Hall, Andreas Wiig, Gretchen Bleiler, Simon Dumont, Sarah Burke, Travis Rice all vied for the Dew Cup, awarded at season’s end. Trails and Lifts Trail ratings Green Circle: 14% Blue Square: 73% Black Diamond: 13% Mount Snow is made up of four separate mountain areas: Main Face, North Face and Carinthia; the main Face can be divided into smaller areas named after its main chairlifts, including Sundance, Ego Alley, Grand Summit, Canyon.
At the base of Main Face is Launch Pad, a learning area adjacent to the main base area's clock tower and ski school. There is a learning area by the Sundance Lodge; the North Face, fittingly located to the north of Main Face, is home to some of Mount Snow's most advanced terrain. Opposite of the North Face, on the southern face of the mountain, is Sunbrook which offers scenic trails, great on bluebird days. Carinthia, an re-designed mountain face, accessed via Long John and Deer Run, is home to 12 terrain parks hosting 125+ features including a mini-pipe and its Legendary Superpipe boasting 18-foot walls; the parks range from expert to beginner level features. Main Face Beginners and experts alike will find suitable terrain on Mount Snow's Main Face. Most beginner trails are located at the lower mountain, which includes the Discovery Shuttle at Launch Pad, as well as the Seasons Double and Tumbleweed Triple chairlifts; these are purely novice chairs. The Seasons chair services a pleasant yet short green circle.
Tumbleweed services the bottom part of Long John, Mount Snow's marquee novice trail, Somerset Road, another easy route. To the skier's right of Tumbleweed is Sweet S
The Long Trail is a hiking trail located in Vermont, running the length of the state. It is the oldest long-distance trail in the United States, constructed between 1910 and 1930 by the Green Mountain Club; the club remains the primary organization responsible for the trail, is recognized by the state legislature as "the founder, sponsor and protector" of the Long Trail System. The Long Trail was conceived in 1909 by James P. Taylor, at the time the Assistant Headmaster of Vermont Academy in Saxtons River, Vermont. Taylor lobbied other Vermont residents who shared his dream of a mission to "make the Vermont mountains play a larger part in the life of the people by protecting and maintaining the Long Trail system and fostering, through education, the stewardship of Vermont's hiking trails and mountains". In 1910, work began on the construction of America's first long-distance hiking path; the GMC completed the Long Trail in 1930. The Long Trail runs 273 miles through the state of Vermont, it starts at the Massachusetts state line, runs north to the Canada–US border.
It runs along the main ridge of the Green Mountains, coinciding with the Appalachian Trail for 100 miles in the southern third of the state. Additionally, over 175 miles of side trails complete the Long Trail System; the Long Trail traverses all of the Green Mountains' major summits, including Glastenbury Mountain, Stratton Mountain, Killington Peak, Mount Abraham, Mount Ellen, Camel's Hump, Mount Mansfield, Jay Peak. The Long Trail is maintained by the Green Mountain Club and its volunteers. Twelve club sections maintain assigned sections of the Long Trail – two other club sections maintain the trails in Vermont's Northeast Kingdom and the Appalachian Trail from Maine Junction in Killington to the Connecticut River. Although 1,000 volunteers perform most of the club's trail work, the club employs a staff to handle day-to-day operations and a seasonal staff of summit caretakers and the Long Trail Patrol which works on heavy duty projects on the trail; the Green Mountain Club receives assistance from the Vermont Department of Forests and Recreation, U.
S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Appalachian Trail Conservancy, private landowners. During the mud season in late Spring, some sections of the trail are closed to hikers, to protect the trail from both erosion and to protect nearby flora from being damaged; the section of the Long Trail between Woodford and Glastenbury Mountain some 10 miles farther north has gained notoriety because six people vanished in that area between 1945 and 1950. Only one body was found and the fates of the other missing persons remain a mystery; the case that gained the most media attention at the time was the disappearance of 18-year-old Bennington College sophomore Paula Jean Welden, of Stamford, Connecticut. On the afternoon of Sunday, December 1, 1946, she set out on a hike by herself on the Long Trail from Woodford Hollow heading northbound in the direction of Glastenbury Mountain. Despite repeated and extensive searches of the area by local police, the National Guard and many volunteers, nothing was found.
Foul play is suspected in her disappearance. Appalachian Trail Long Trail State Forest Long Path Green Mountain Club Historic photographs of Vermont's Long Trail, Center for Digital Initiatives, University of Vermont Library Journals and photographs from people hiking The Long Trail. Vermont's Long Trail - A detailed trip report with logistical information
The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U. S. state of Vermont. The range runs south to north and extends 250 miles from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada; the part of the same range, in Massachusetts and Connecticut is known as The Berkshires or the Berkshire Hills and the Quebec portion is called the Sutton Mountains, or Monts Sutton in French. All mountains in Vermont are referred to as the "Green Mountains". However, other ranges within Vermont, including the Taconics—in southwestern Vermont's extremity—and the Northeastern Highlands, are not geologically part of the Green Mountains; the best-known mountains—for reasons such as high elevation, ease of public access by road or trail, or with ski resorts or towns nearby—in the range include: Mount Mansfield, 4,393 feet, the highest point in Vermont Killington Peak, 4,241 feet Mount Ellen, 4,083 feet Camel's Hump, 4,083 feet Mount Abraham, 4,017 feet Pico Peak, 3,957 feet Stratton Mountain, 3,940 feet, the mountain at which the initial ideas of both the Long Trail and the Appalachian Trail were born Jay Peak, 3,862 feet, receives the most snowfall on average in the eastern United States.
Bread Loaf Mountain, 3,835 feet Mount Wilson, 3,780 feet Glastenbury Mountain, 3,748 feet The Green Mountains are part of the Appalachian Mountains, a range that stretches from Quebec in the north to Alabama in the south. The Green Mountains are part of the New England/Acadian forests ecoregion. Three peaks—Mount Mansfield, Camel's Hump, Mount Abraham—support alpine vegetation; some of the mountains are developed for skiing and other snow-related activities. Others have hiking trails for use in summer. Mansfield, Killington and Ellen have downhill ski resorts on their slopes. All of the major peaks are traversed by the Long Trail, a wilderness hiking trail that runs from the southern to northern borders of the state and is overlapped by the Appalachian Trail for 1⁄3 of its length; the Vermont Republic known as the Green Mountain Republic, existed from 1777 to 1791, at which time Vermont became the 14th state. Vermont not only takes its state nickname from the mountains, it is named after them.
The French Monts Verts or Verts Monts is translated as "Green Mountains". This name was suggested in 1777 by Dr. Thomas Young, an American revolutionary and Boston Tea Party participant; the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College is referred to as UVM, after the Latin Universitas Viridis Montis. The Green Mountains are a physiographic section of the larger New England province, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division. Lemon Fair runs through the towns of Orwell, Shoreham and Cornwall, before flowing into Otter Creek; the story is that its name derives from early English-speaking settlers' phonetic approximation of'Les Monts Vert'. Green Mountain National Forest Green Mountain Boys—paramilitary infantry led by Ethan Allen that took Fort Ticonderoga during the American Revolution Green Mountain Club Griffith Lake U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Green Mountains "Green Mountains"; the New Student's Reference Work. 1914