Hauz Khas Complex
It was part of Siri, the second medieval city of India of the Delhi Sultanate of Allauddin Khilji Dynasty. The etymology of the name Hauz Khas in Farsi is derived from the words ‘Hauz’, “water tank” and ‘Khas’, the large water tank or reservoir was first built by Khilji to supply water to the inhabitants of Siri. The tank was de–silted during the reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq, several buildings and tombs were built overlooking the water tank or lake. Firuz Shah’s tomb pivots the L–shaped building complex overlooks the tank. It is now a relatively expensive tourist cum commercial area with numerous art galleries, upscale boutiques and ducks are among the attractions at Hauz Khas Lake - which is part of the attraction to visitors. But Firuz Shah Tughlaq of the Tughlaq dynasty re–excavated the silted tank, the tank was originally of about 50 ha area with dimensions of 600 m width and 700 m length with 4 m depth of water. When built, its capacity at the end of each monsoon season was reported to be 0.8 Mcum.
Now the tank size has reduced due to encroachment and siltation but is well maintained in its present state. Feruz Shah who ruled from his new city called the Firozabad – the fifth city of Delhi – was an enlightened ruler and he was known for “his keen sense of historical precedent, statements of dynastic legitimacy and the power of monumental architecture”. At Hauz Khas, he raised several monuments on the southern and eastern banks of the reservoir, to rectify the situation, a plan was implemented in 2004 to store storm water generated at the southern ridge of Delhi behind an embankment and diverting it into the lake. An outside source has tapped by feeding the water from the treatment plant at Sanjay Van into the lake. With these efforts initiated by The Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, more recently the Hauz Khas lake and the surrounding park has been actively developed e. g. the pavement area where people walk and jog around has been renovated recently. Madrasa Established in 1352, the Madrasa was one of the institutions of Islamic learning in the Delhi Sultanate.
It was considered the largest and best equipped Islamic seminary anywhere in the world, there were three main Madrasas in Delhi during Firuz Shahs time. One of them was the Firuz Shahi madrasa at Hauz Khas, after the sacking of Baghdad, Delhi became the most important place in the world for Islamic education. The village surrounding the Madarsa was called Tarababad in view of its affluent and culturally rich status, the madrasa structure has an innovative design. It was built in L-Shape as one structure on the south. One arm of the L-shape structure runs in the North–South direction measuring 76 m, the two arms are pivoted at the large Tomb of Firuz Shah
Greater Kailash 1 is a residential area in South Delhi, comprising several neighborhoods and multiple markets. It is one of the most posh neighbourhoods of Delhi and is home to some of the most affluent families of Delhi and it is divided into two zones, namely Parts 1 and 2, located around a section of the Outer Ring Road. It is sought both in commercial and residential category. In 2009 Greater Kailash was rated as the safest place in Delhi by Times of India, GK1 markets in M and N Block are some of the most popular markets among Delhites and tourists because of its wide range of shopping, bars etc. Greater Kailash-II is considered to be one of the areas in South Delhi. The development of Greater Kailash-I was followed by the expansion of Greater Kailash Part II, M-Block, GK II is a popular market, with many restaurants and coffee shops and sanitary shops. It is one of the largest hubs for sanitary ware in Northern India, recently the market has experienced heavy foot fall due to several posh restaurants and Banks.
The area has benefited with a lot of restaurants, bakeries such as Red Moon, Defence Bakery and coffee houses such as Costa Coffee, Chocolateria San Churro, the International Airport is 22 km from Greater Kailash
Delhi, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east, the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to 2011 census, Delhis city population was about 11 million, Delhis urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the worlds second largest urban area. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a wealth of $450 billion. Delhi has been inhabited since the 6th century BC. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and it has been captured and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.
New Delhi is jointly administered by the government of India and the local government of Delhi. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, which is a unique interstate regional planning area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985, Delhi ranks among the cities with the worst air pollution in the world. There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi, one of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself. The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal, according to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali, another theory suggests that the citys original name was Dhillika. The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas, the city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages.
Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring, aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty. The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC, the city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called Khandavaprastha which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha, the earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period, in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight cities have been discovered in Delhi
Kanpur (/ˈkɑːnpʊər/ pronunciation, formerly Cawnpore, is the 12th most populous city in India. It is the headquarters of Kanpur Nagar district and Kanpur division. The name is believed to have derived from Karnapur, another theory is that it came from the nearby town of Makanpur, earlier known as Khairabad, where the Sufi saint of the Madariya Sufi order, Badiuddin Zinda Shah Madar, settled. In 1207, Raja Kanh Deo of the Kanhpuria clan established the village of Kanhpur, in the 19th century, Kanpur was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857,900 British men and children were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa. They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad. Some of the British officers claimed that the rebels had, on purpose, placed the boats as high in the mud as possible and they claimed that Nana Sahibs camp had previously arranged for the rebels to fire upon and kill all the English.
Although the East India Company accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, some historians believe that the Satti Chaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion, and not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib and his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four survivors of the massacre. Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were back to shore. After some time, the commanders of the decided to kill their hostages. The rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders and butchers from the town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on 18 July. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a well nearby. The British under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel Sepoys, the Kanpur Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance. Lucknow =100 km As per 2011 census Kanpur city has a population of 2,701,324.
The total population of the district is 4,524,324 out of which males were 24,59,806, the literacy rate was 70.76 per cent. Hinduism is majority religion in Kanpur city with 78.03 % followers, islam is second most popular religion in city of Kanpur with approximately 19.85 % following it. In Kanpur city, Christinity is followed by 0.46 %, Jainism by 0.20 %, Sikhism by 1.01 %, around 0.02 % stated Other Religion, approximately 0.39 % stated No Particular Religion. There are 35 Parsis in Kanpur with their Fire Temple at The Mall, the metropolitan region area includes the area of Shuklaganj Municipal Committee, Unnao Municipal Committee, Akbarpur Village Authority and Bithoor Village Authority area
Chittaranjan Park, known as C. R. Park, is an affluent neighbourhood in South Delhi, and home to a large Bengali community. It was established in the early 1960s under the name EPDP Colony or East Pakistan Displaced Persons Colony and it hosts many festivities and cultural events. Durga Puja is the most celebrated festival here which boasts magnificent marquee, in 1954, an association was formed for the inhabitants from East Bengal who were displaced from their homes in East Pakistan during the Partition of India and the associated Partition of Bengal. A large group of government officers hailing from the erstwhile East Bengal migrated to Delhi, leading roles were taken by Chandra Kumar Mukherjee, Subodh Gopal Basumallik, Ashutosh Dutta, Bimal Bhusan Chakraborty, and the Chief Election Commissioner, Shyamaprasanna Senverma. In the 1960s, land was assigned in a rocky area in the-then distant Southern areas. The original layout had the two-thousand odd plots, divided into eleven blocks A-K, along with a number of markets, however, in the 1990s,714 displaced families were accommodated among those who had not been able to meet the earlier deadline.
This resulted in new blocks, called M, N, O, P, K-1, K-2, Pocket 40, Pocket 52, the main thoroughfare of the colony is Bipin Chandra Pal Marg. Institutions of note are a branch of the Raisina Bengali School, Kali Mandir, Bangiya Samaj, Chittaranjan Park is bordered by Kalkaji, Greater Kailash I and II, Alaknanda and Govindpuri. It is adjacent to the centre at Nehru Place. The present Chittaranja Park area was known as EPDP Colony and susequently it was changed and named PURBACHAL. It has emerged as the most important outpost of Bengali culture in the capital, the explosive growth of South Delhi property prices and the ageing of the original land allottees is resulting in an ongoing demographic diversification. The first wave of Bengali settlers came to Delhi in the late 1700s, another essential requirement was that of a Kali Bari. The first Kali Bari of Delhi is the one at Tis Hazari, the idol and Kali Bari were first established in 1826 but the temple was destroyed during the 1857 revolt. The idol was salvaged and a built in Roshanpura.
The space started to short to accommodate the devotees, land was bought. There are more than 25 Kali bari temple and few Durga bari, few other temples of Bengali faith are built in different parts of New Delhi and NCR. The first private Durga Puja in Delhi was celebrated in 1842 by one Majumdar of Rajshahi, the first baroyari Puja is that of Kashmere Gate, first started in 1910 and still celebrated with the same fervour and traditions. Kali Bari in Mandir Marg temple built in 1930, the Next big wave settled in 1947 and 1971
Dilshad Garden is a large housing colony located in North East Delhi, which was primarily developed by Delhi Development Authority. A nearby colony named Dilshad Colony is sometimes mistaken to be a part of Dilshad Garden due to the similarity of names, the Deer Park in Dilshad Garden is a public park with lush green grounds. The Ayyappa Temple located in R pocket was built by sculptors and carpenters who were flown-in from Kerala, Dilshad Garden is nearly 4 km from Anand Vihar Interstate Bus Terminus and Railway Station and about 3 km from Shahdara. The closest metro stations are Dilshad Garden and Jhilmil, the area is quite densely populated with a mix of people from all income groups and religions including Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims. A market for automobiles and automobile accessories is located near Bebe Nanki Gurudwara, one Jain Temple is located at the R-Block in Dilshad Garden. Tahirpur Shahdara Vivek Vihar Dilshad Colony Jhilmil G. T. B Enclave Surajmal Vihar Seema Puri Nand Nagri Sunder Nagri Yamuna Vihar Savita Vihar
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions, the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by different ethnic groups throughout its history. Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, the new republic was declared to be a Union of States. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India, the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin.
The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners provinces and some states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, the only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government. The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Yanam, Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states, as a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956, kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963, the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a territory and the shared capital of Punjab
Gurugram, is a city in the Indian state of Haryana and is located near the National Capital Region of India. It is 32 kilometres southwest of New Delhi and 268 kilometres southwest of Chandigarh, as of 2011, Gurugram had a population of 876,824. Witnessing rapid urbanisation, Gurugram has become a financial and industrial hub with the third highest per capita income in India. The citys economic growth story started when the leading Indian automobile manufacturer Maruti Suzuki India Limited established a plant in Gurugram in the 1970s. Today, Gurugram has local offices for more than 250 Fortune 500 companies, the land came to be known as Gurugram which over time became changed to Gurgaon. The village still exists within the modern day city, on 12 April 2016, Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced a proposal to officially rename the city Gurugram, subject to the approval of the Haryana cabinet and the Union Government. He argued that the new name would help to preserve the heritage of the city by emphasising its history.
On 27 September 2016, Manohar Lal Khattar officially announced that the Union Government had approved the name change, Gurugram was historically inhabited by the Hindu people and in early times, it formed a part of an extensive kingdom ruled over by Rajputs of Yaduvansi or Yadav clan. The Yadav were defeated by Muhammad of Ghor in 1196, under the rule of Feroz Shah Tughlaq, several were converted to Islam. This was followed by the invasion of Timur and the land was ruled by Khanzadas and it was annexed by Babur. During Akbars reign, Gurugram fell within the regions of Delhi. As the Mughal Empire started to decline, the place was torn between contending powers, by 1803 most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhia. The town was first occupied by the cavalry unit posted to watch the army of Begum Samru of Sirdhana and it became a part of the district, which was divided into units called parganas. These units were given to petty chiefs for the service rendered by them.
Eventually these units came under control of the British, with the last major administrative change in 1836. After the Revolt of 1857, it was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab Province, in 1947, Gurgaon became a part of independent India and fell under the Indian state of Punjab. In 1966, the city came under the administration of Haryana with the creation of the new state, Gurugram is located in Gurugram district in the Indian state of Haryana and is situated in the south eastern part of the state, and northern part of the country. The city is located on the border with Delhi with New Delhi to its north east, the city has a total area of 738.8 square kilometres The average land elevation is 217 metres above sea level