London School of Economics
The London School of Economics is a public research university located in London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, George Bernard Shaw for the betterment of society, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the University in 1901; the LSE started awarding its own degrees in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. LSE is located near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn; the area is known as Clare Market. The LSE has more than 11,000 students and 3,300 staff, just under half of whom come from outside the UK, it had an income of £ 354.3 million in 2017/18. One hundred and fifty-five nationalities are represented amongst LSE's student body and the school has the second highest percentage of international students of all world universities. Despite its name, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teaching and research across a range of legal studies and social sciences.
LSE is a member of the Russell Group, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association and is sometimes considered a part of the "Golden Triangle" of universities in south-east England. For the subject area of social science, LSE places second in the world in the QS Rankings, tenth in THE Rankings, eighth in the Academic Ranking of World Universities. LSE is ranked among the top fifteen universities nationally by all three UK tables, while internationally LSE is ranked in the top 50 by two of the three major global rankings. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the School had the highest proportion of world-leading research among research submitted of any British non-specialist university. LSE has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, psychology, literature and politics. Alumni and staff include 53 past or present heads of state or government, 20 members of the current British House of Commons and 18 Nobel laureates; as of 2017, 26% of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 16% of all laureates.
LSE alumni and staff have won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. Out of all European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires according to a 2014 global census of U. S dollar billionaires; the London School of Economics was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb funded by a bequest of £20,000 from the estate of Henry Hunt Hutchinson. Hutchinson, a lawyer and member of the Fabian Society, left the money in trust, to be put "towards advancing its objects in any way they deem advisable"; the five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, William de Mattos and William Clark. LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Louis Flood and George Bernard Shaw; the proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, in the City of Westminster. The School joined the federal University of London in 1900, was recognised as a Faculty of Economics of the university.
The University of London degrees of BSc and DSc were established in 1901, the first university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. Expanding over the following years, the school moved to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace to Clare Market and Houghton Street; the foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by King George V in 1920. The 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. Rivalry between academic opinion at LSE and Cambridge goes back to the school's roots when LSE's Edwin Cannan, Professor of Economics, Cambridge's Professor of Political Economy, Alfred Marshall, the leading economist of the day, argued about the bedrock matter of economics and whether the subject should be considered as an organic whole.. The dispute concerned the question of the economist's role, whether this should be as a detached expert or a practical adviser. Despite the traditional view that the LSE and Cambridge were fierce rivals through the 1920s and 30s, they worked together in the 1920s on the London and Cambridge Economic Service.
However, the 1930s brought a return to disputes as economists at the two universities argued over how best to address the economic problems caused by the Great Depression. The main figures in this debate were John Maynard Keynes from Cambridge and the LSE's Friedrich Hayek; the LSE Economist Lionel Robbins was heavily involved. Starting off as a disagreement over whether demand management or deflation was the better solution to the economic problems of the time, it embraced much wider concepts of economics and macroeconomics. Keynes put forward the theories now known as Keynesian economics, involving the active participation of the state and public sector, while Hayek and Robbins followed the Austrian School, which emphasised free trade and opposed state involvement. During World War II, the School decamped from London to the University of Cambridge, occupying buildings belonging to Peterhouse; the School's arms, including its mo
Green Party of Alberta
The Green Party of Alberta known as GPA, is a registered political party in Alberta, allied with the Green Party of Canada, the other provincial Green parties. The party was registered by Elections Alberta on December 22, 2011, to replace the deregistered Alberta Greens, ran its first candidates for office in the 2012 provincial election under the name Evergreen Party of Alberta; the party changed its name to "Green Party of Alberta" on November 1, 2012. Following a dispute of the leadership of the Alberta Greens in 2008, George Read withdrew as leader and Joe Anglin remained as interim leader. On April 1, 2009, the executive of the party failed to file an annual financial statement with Elections Alberta, as required by law, was deregistered on July 16, 2009; some of its members joined the Alberta Party and Wildrose Party, while others formed the Vision 2012 Society. The independent group, dedicated to green principles, formed the legal entity required by Elections Alberta to register a political party.
An annual general meeting was held on June 25, 2011 in Red Deer to elect an executive, to raise a petition asking Elections Alberta to register a new party. The petition was signed by 8,500 people, more than the required 7,000, on December 22, 2011, the "Evergreen Party of Alberta" was registered. According to Elections Alberta rules, a party cannot use a name used by another party until the name goes unused for a general election. After contesting the 2012 general election under the Evergreen banner, the party voted at its annual general meeting, on September 29, 2012, to change its name to "Green Party of Alberta". Elections Alberta approved the name change and it became effective 1 November 2012; the party bases its principles on the Charter of the Global Greens. Those principles are: Ecological wisdom Non-violence Participatory democracy Respect for diversity Social justice Sustainability Alberta Greens Alberta Greens candidates in Alberta provincial elections Green Party of Canada List of Green party leaders in Canada Official website
Ontario New Democratic Party
The Ontario New Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario NDP, led by Andrea Horwath since March 2009 forms the Official Opposition in Ontario following the 2018 general election, it is a provincial section of the federal New Democratic Party. It was formed in October 1961 from the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the Ontario Federation of Labour. For many years, the Ontario NDP was the most successful provincial NDP branch outside the national party's western heartland, it had its first breakthrough under its first leader, Donald C. MacDonald in the 1967 provincial election, when the party elected 20 Members of Provincial Parliament to the Ontario Legislative Assembly. After the 1970 leadership convention, Stephen Lewis became leader, guided the party to Official Opposition status in 1975, the first time since the Ontario CCF did it twice in the 1940s. After the party's disappointing performance in the 1977 provincial election, that included losing second party status, Lewis stepped down and Michael Cassidy was elected leader in 1978.
Cassidy led the party through the 1981 election. The party did poorly again, Cassidy resigned. In 1982, Bob Rae was elected leader. Under his leadership, in 1985, the party held the balance-of-power with the signing of an accord with the newly elected Liberal minority government. After the 1987 Ontario general election, the ONDP became the Official Opposition again; the 1990 Ontario general election produced the ONDP's breakthrough first government in 1990. The victory produced the first NDP provincial government east of Manitoba, but it took power just when Canada's economy was in a recession, as a result of unpopular economic policies it was defeated in 1995. Rae stepped down as leader in 1996. Howard Hampton was elected leader in at the 1996 Hamilton convention, led the party through three elections. Hampton's period as leader saw the ONDP lose official party status twice: after the 1999 and 2003 elections, he was able to regain party status the first time after the governing Progressive Conservatives revised party status requirements in accordance with that election's reduction in the number of seats in the legislature, the second time after winning a string of by-elections in the mid-2000s.
The party maintained party status after the 2007 Ontario general election and he stepped down as leader in 2009. Andrea Horwath replaced him after she was elected leader at the 2009 leadership convention in Hamilton. Under her leadership in the 2011 Ontario general election, the party elected 17 MPPs to the legislature and in the 2014 Ontario general election, the party elected 21 MPPs. Under Horwath, the party achieved its second highest seat count when it formed the Official Opposition with 40 MPPs after the 2018 Ontario general election; the NDP's predecessor, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, was a democratic socialist political party, founded in 1932. The Ontario CCF in turn was indirectly the successor to the 1919–23 United Farmers of Ontario–Labour coalition that formed the government in Ontario under Ernest C. Drury; as the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Ted Jolliffe as their first leader, the party nearly won the 1943 provincial election, winning 34 seats and forming the official opposition for the first time.
Two-years they would be reduced to 8 seats. The final glory for the Ontario CCF came in the 1948 provincial election, when party elected 21 MPPs, again formed the official opposition, they were able to defeat Premier George A. Drew in his own constituency, when the CCF's Bill Temple won in High Park though the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario won another majority government; the breaking point for the Ontario CCF came in 1951. They were reduced to two MPP's in that year's provincial election, never recovered. In the two remaining elections while it existed, the party never had more than five members in the legislature. Jolliffe resigned as leader in 1953. Donald C. MacDonald became leader in 1953, spent the next fifteen years rebuilding the party, from two seats when he took over the party's helm, to ten times that number when he stepped down in 1970. Delegates from the Ontario CCF, delegates from affiliated union locals, delegates from New Party Clubs took part in the founding convention of the New Democratic Party of Ontario held in Niagara Falls at the Sheraton Brock hotel from 7–9 October 1961 and elected MacDonald as their leader.
The Ontario CCF Council ceased to exist formally on Sunday, 8 October 1961, when the newly elected NDP executive took over. The Ontario NDP picked up seats through the 1960s, it achieved a breakthrough in the 1967 provincial election, when its popular vote rose from 15% to 26%. The party increased its presence in the legislature from 8 to 20 seats. In that election the party ran on the themes of the cost of living, tax distribution, education costs, Canadian unity, housing. Stephen Lewis took over the party's leadership in 1970, the NDP's popularity continued to grow. With the 1975 provincial election, the governing Progressive Conservative party was reduced to a minority government for the first time in thirty years; the charismatic and dynamic Lewis ran a strong election campaign that forced the Tories to promise to implement the NDP's rent control policies. The NDP overtook the Liberals to become the Official Opposition with 29 % of the vote. However, the Tories retained power as a minority government.
Hopes were high tha
1997 Canadian federal election
The 1997 Canadian federal election was held on June 2 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 36th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberal Party of Canada won a second majority government; the Reform Party of Canada replaced the Bloc Québécois as the Official Opposition. The election results followed the pattern of the 1993 election; the Liberals swept Ontario. Reform made sufficient gains in the West to allow Preston Manning to become Leader of the Official Opposition, but lost its only seat east of Manitoba; the most significant change was major gains in Atlantic Canada by the New Democratic Party and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. The Liberals faced major losses, including two cabinet ministers; the Liberals' victory was not in doubt, though some commentators on election night were predicting that they would be cut down to a minority government, that Chrétien might lose his seat. Chrétien narrowly won his riding, the Liberals maintained a four-seat majority thanks to gains in Quebec at the expense of the Bloc.
Jean Charest's Tories and Alexa McDonough's NDP both regained official party status in the House of Commons. A change of 718 votes in just five ridings from the Liberals to the second place candidate would have resulted in a minority government; this was the first time that five political parties held official party status in a single session of Canada's Parliament. Voter turnout was 67.0% low at the time for Canadian elections. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien announced his approved request by Governor General Roméo LeBlanc to dissolve Parliament on April 26, 1997, with an election to be held on June 2 of that year. Chrétien's election call was one year and a half before the mandate of the government would expire, aside from the 1911 election, the earliest called by a party with a majority. Opinion polls at the time predicted that the Liberal Party was expected to win a landslide victory capturing at least 180 to 220 of the 301 seats in the House of Commons, with the fragmentation of the opposition meaning that one party was not expected to be able to defeat the government.
The election call was controversial both for being early and for occurring during Manitoba's recovery from the Red River Flood earlier in the year. Reg Alcock and several others inside the Liberal Party had opposed the timing of the vote, the poor results prompted Paul Martin's supporters to organize against Chrétien; the Liberal Party under Jean Chrétien campaigned on promising to continue to cut the federal deficit to allow for a budget surplus, to spend one half of the surplus on repaying Canada's national debt and cutting taxes while the other half of the surplus would be used to increase funding to health care, assistance for Canadian children in poverty, job creation. The platform was called Securing Our Future Together; the Liberal Party was attacked by the opposition parties for failing to keep many of the promises that the party campaigned on in the 1993 federal election. The Liberals attacked the Progressive Conservatives and the Reform Party for prematurely calling for tax cuts while a deficit still remained while attacking the New Democratic Party for proposing to increase government spending while Canada faced a deficit.
The Liberals suffered from a number of gaffes in their campaign. In one incident, when Jean Chrétien was questioned by reporters over the cost of the Liberals' election proposal of a national pharmacare program, reporters claimed that Chrétien was unsure of what the cost would be. Chrétien turned down invitations for interviews by Canada's national media outlet, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and MuchMusic. In the televised debates between the five major political parties, Chrétien apologized to Canadians for his government having cut funding for social programs to reduce the deficit. On election day, the Liberals won with a reduced majority. While they lost much of their support in Atlantic Canada, they won all but two seats in Ontario and improved on their numbers in Quebec, they were only assured of a majority. The Reform Party under Preston Manning campaigned on preserving national unity through decentralization of multiple federal government powers to all of the provinces, cutting taxes, reducing the size of government, reducing spending, opposing distinct society status for Quebec.
Feeling that the general acceptance of deficit reduction at the federal and provincial level had been encouraged by their party, Reform saw a chance to make the party a national in scope by making political inroads outside of the west in Ontario. Their platform was titled the Fresh Start for all Canadians; the Reformers ran a full slate of candidates in Quebec, making this the first and last election in which it would run candidates in every region of Canada. Reform's campaign ran into multiple problems; the party was accused by other parties and the media of holding intolerant views due to comments made by a number of Reform MPs during the writ period. Critics had accused the party's performance during the 1993-1997 parliament of being disorganized. Tension between the party's democratic nature and the leader-centric model of modern campaigning led to Manning's leadership abilities being questioned by a number of former members, including Stephen Harper, who accused Manning of inappropriately using a C$31,000 personal expens
Green Party of Manitoba
The Green Party of Manitoba is a provincial political party in Manitoba, founded on November 11, 1998. The party is autonomous from the Green Party of Canada, though for several years many of its members belonged to the Green Party of Canada in Manitoba, a federal organization established in 1996; the GPM has maintained a position as the fourth largest party in Manitoba since the 2003 election, both in number of votes received and candidates run. The GPM is not the first "Green Party" in Manitoba history. Former New Democrat Nick Ternette established a "Green Party" in Winnipeg in 1989, fielded candidates under its banner in that year's municipal elections. Ternette was from the left-wing of the NDP, opposed the party's centrist direction in the 1980s, his "Green Party" supported several progressive and environmental causes, was further to the left than is the current GPM. None of its candidates were elected, the party never ran candidates at the provincial level. Ternette is not affiliated with the GPM.
The current party was established by Winnipeg electoral reform activist Chris Billows in November 1998, with the assistance of the Green Party of Canada. Billows, Eymond Toupin, future provincial leader Markus Buchart hosted the Green Party of Canada's national convention in Winnipeg in August 1998; the GPM's policies are progressive. The party is focused on environmental issues, promotes the conservation of land and non-renewable natural resources, it has expressed concern about "urban sprawl" in Winnipeg's suburbs, has called for reform in Manitoba's commercial hog sector, supports the rights of small farming interests over corporations. The GPM favours liberal positions on social issues such as abortion and same-sex marriage, promotes accessible public health care with emphasis on healthy lifestyles and illness prevention; the party supports the extension of labour protection laws to farmworkers and a reduction of Manitoba's standard work week from 40 to 32 hours. It has endorsed full employment, has criticized Gary Doer's NDP government for not reversing welfare cutbacks enacted by the previous Tory government of Gary Filmon.
The GPM released its 2016 election platform, entitled "Building a Sustainable Manitoba", on April 5, 2016. The document included promises to introduce Guaranteed Annual Income to Manitoba, a $50/tonne carbon tax, fare-free transit, oppose the Energy East pipeline, among other items; the GPM ran six candidates in the provincial election of 1999, scored its best result in the Winnipeg riding of Wolseley, where Phyllis Abbé a prominent former New Democrat, received 386 votes. Former party leader Markus Buchart ran against Premier Gary Filmon in the riding of Tuxedo, received 126 votes; the party received 0.2% of all votes cast in the province. The GPM ran fourteen candidates in the 2003 election. Buchart received 1193 votes in Wolseley; the GPM as a whole received 4.08 % of the vote in the ridings. In the December 13, 2005, by-election held in the conservative Fort Whyte constituency, GPM candidate Shelagh Pizey-Allen garnered 1.77% of the vote. The GPM ran fifteen candidates in the 2007 election.
The fifteen captured 1.33 % of 5.5 % in the electoral divisions that were contested. The Green candidates received 12.32% in Wolseley placing second, 8.46% in Lord Roberts, 7.76% in St. Boniface, 6.38% in Fort Rouge, third place in Minnedosa ahead of the Liberal Party of Manitoba. In 2011, the GPM ran 32 candidates across the province and took 2.52% of the vote province-wide, or 10,886 votes, won 4.56% of votes in ridings they contested. Party leader James Beddome placed second in the Wolseley constituency with 19.64% of the vote, while nine other candidates placed third in various ridings ahead of Liberal candidates. Leaders of the Green Party of Manitoba Markus Buchart, 1998-2005 Daniel Drimes, 2005 Holly Nelson, 2005-2006 Andrew Basham, 2006-2008 James Beddome, 2008-2013 Alain Landry, 2013-2014 James Beddome, 2014-Markus Buchart resigned as party leader in late February 2005; the party's second leader was Daniel Drimes. He served as leader from April 2 to 22, 2005; the party's first leadership contest under the rules of Elections Manitoba began on July 1, 2005, a new leader was chosen on November 20, 2005.
She was Holly Nelson, a retired electrical technologist and professional writer who owned a Winnipeg New Age book store, the Philosopher's Stone, during the 1990s. In September 2006, a few weeks before the party's leadership convention, she stepped down, having accepted an out-of-province job. On November 19, 2006, the party chose 23-year-old Andrew Basham as its new leader. On November 15, 2008, James Beddome was elected leader, defeating incumbent leader Andrew Basham and contender Shane Nestruck. Beddome's first term expired November 2010, he was acclaimed a second term. Alain Landry was appointed interim party leader for the Manitoba Greens in Nov, 2013 after the resignation of former leader James Beddome. James stepped down to focus on his new career as a lawyer after graduating from the faculty of law at the University of Manitoba in 2013. Landry ran as a candidate in the 2011 elections. In January 2014, he ran in the Morris by-election. Former leader James Beddome sought to return to the leadership of the Greens and ran in the leadership race held in November 2014.
He defeated past Green candidate Kate Storey in the contest with 21 votes to 9 for Storey. List of political parties in Manitoba List of Green party leaders in Canada List of Green politicians who have held office in Canada Official
Burnaby Green Party
The Burnaby Green Party is a municipal political party in Burnaby, British Columbia. It was founded as the Burnaby Municipal Green Party in 2011 by Rick McGowan; the party ran running a full slate of 8 candidates in the municipal election on 20 October 2018 with 6 candidates for city council and 2 for school trustee. In October 2018, party candidate Joe Keithley was elected to city council. In 2011, the party nominated five candidates for the municipal elections, including former Green Party of British Columbia leader Jane Sterk. Official website
Green Party of British Columbia
The Green Party of British Columbia is a political party in British Columbia, Canada. It was based in Victoria; the party won its first seat in the provincial legislature in the 2013 provincial election. The party won 3 seats in the 2017 provinical election, making it the first elected Green caucus with more than one member in North America; the Green Party of BC promotes the principles of participatory democracy, social justice, respect for diversity, ecological wisdom, nonviolence. The first Green Party in North America was formed in British Columbia, Canada on February 6, 1983, it registered as a provincial society and a political party shortly before the 1983 provincial election. It received 0.19 % of the vote under the leadership of Adriane Carr. In a federal by-election in the riding of Mission—Port Moody the same year, Betty Nickerson was the Green Party of Canada's first federal candidate, but the party's status was not yet recognized by Elections Canada, she appears in electoral records as an "independent" candidate.
Carr stepped back from active involvement in the party in 1985, the party abolished the position of leader. Thereafter, it was represented in the media by three spokespersons. In the 1986 provincial election, the party fielded nine candidates. In 1988, in response to a proposal to field only female candidates in the following election and her husband Paul George returned to active involvement to defeat the proposal. From 1988 to 1992, the party was divided between supporters of Carr and Greenpeace founder Jim Bohlen and its Ecofeminist Caucus. During this period, its internal politics were dominated by a compromise faction led by electoral reform activist Steve Kisby. However, this period of relative stability ended with the party's failure to make a breakthrough in the 1991 provincial election, despite increasing its province-wide vote share to 0.86% and fielding a slate of 42 candidates. In 1993, the party elected a new leader, then-21-year-old Stuart Parker who revitalized the party with youthful new members.
He managed to take the party to running close to a full slate in the 1996 election, but was only able to garner only 2% support province-wide, despite receiving the endorsement of prominent environmentalist David Suzuki. Green hopes for a breakthrough in the Kootenay riding of Nelson-Creston with candidate Andy Shadrack yielded a result of only 11%. Parker's first term was characterized by near-continuous touring of rural BC which had, up to that point, negligible or intermittent organization outside of the Okanagan and Comox Valleys; this touring paid off in yielding on-going organization throughout the province, enabling the party to come just four candidates short of a full slate. The direction of the party under Parker was set by many disgruntled ex-British Columbia New Democratic Party members, the policies of the party under Parker were notably leftist. During Parker's second term as leader, the party rose to a peak of 11% in public opinion polls between 1996 and 1999 exclusively at the NDP's expense.
Although he was arrested in logging road blockades in 1993 and 1997, Parker's Greens invested more resources in opposing the BC Benefits package of welfare reforms and working on other social issues than it did on any significant environmental issue. While remaining critical of Glen Clark's NDP government, Parker spearheaded controversial negotiations to form municipal electoral alliances with NDP-affiliated parties in 1998 after vote-splitting all but wiped out leftist representation at the local level in Vancouver and Victoria in 1996; these negotiations, approved by Clark, yielded tripartite agreements between local labour councils and New Democrats in Vancouver and Victoria, leading to Red-Green coalitions contesting the 1999 municipal elections in both cities with the support of organized labour. Neither coalition formed government but both made substantial gains, resulting in the election in Victoria, BC, of Art Vanden Berg, the first person in Canadian history to run as a Green and be elected to City Council.
In Vancouver, the coalition effort elected Parks Commissioner Roslyn Cassells. The party's increased poll standing, new position on collaboration with its longtime rivals and impending electoral success attracted the attention of a number of prominent environmentalists, led by Carr, who began a campaign in 1999 to remove the party's leadership; the group conducted a bitter year-long public campaign that included an unsuccessful lawsuit against the party and later-disproven allegations against the party's leader and board of directors including fraud, vote-rigging and theft. Although the group was defeated at the party's 1999 convention, it triumphed in 2000. Shortly thereafter, the party elected Carr as its new leader. Following the 2000 convention, all of the party's elected municipal representatives and some other members resigned. With the high-profile changes at the top, the party was able to improve on its 9% poll standing at the beginning of 2000 and reached 12% of the popular vote in the May 2001 provincial election.
In spite of that significant support, it won no seats in the provincial legislature – a fact, cited as an argument against the first-past-the-post voting system used in BC elections. Although she had sponsored a series of resolutions at the party's 2000 convention condemning what many saw as the party's distraction with social and governance policy at the expense of work on environmental issues, electoral reform moved to the top of Carr's agenda as leader. Disagreeing with Fair Voting BC's decision to