Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
Davenport (electoral district)
Davenport is a federal electoral district in Toronto, Canada, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1935. The Davenport riding has the highest percentage of ethnic Portuguese of all Canadian federal ridings, the highest percentage of European immigrants, in all of Canada, it has the highest percentage of native speakers of Portuguese and of Romance languages other than the French language of Canada. The same holds true for home language The district includes parts of west-end Toronto, includes the neighbourhoods of Fairbank, Oakwood-Vaughan, St. Clair Gardens, Corso Italia, Dovercourt Village, Bloordale Village, Bloorcourt Village, Brockton Village, the Junction Triangle and the western part of Rua Acores; the federal electoral district was created in 1933 from parts of Parkdale and Toronto Northwest ridings. The federal riding of Davenport has been one of the most Liberal ridings in Canada over the last century. Since Liberals Walter Gordon and Charles Caccia won the seat by increasing margins culminating in a 17,500-vote majority in 1993.
Meanwhile, the opposition parties in the constituency were shifting, the New Democratic Party candidate beat the Progressive Conservative or Conservative candidate in every election since 1979. After the election of Paul Martin to the Liberal leadership in late 2003, Charles Caccia lost the nomination for the seat to local city councillor Mario Silva, who had signed up sufficient new members to oust the incumbent. In 2011 Andrew Cash of the New Democratic Party won the seat by a significant margin, becoming the first non-Liberal in over 50 years to represent the riding; this riding lost a fraction of territory to Toronto—St. Paul's during the 2012 electoral redistribution; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election. Note: NDP vote is compared to CCF vote in 1958 election. Note: Progressive Conservative vote is compared to "National Government" vote in 1940 election. Note: "National Government" vote is compared to Conservative vote in 1935 election.
List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-02. Federal riding history from the Library of Parliament Campaign expense data from Elections Canada
Ottawa—Vanier (provincial electoral district)
Ottawa—Vanier is a provincial electoral district in Ottawa, Canada, represented in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario since 1908. It is located in the east end of Ottawa; the riding was represented in the Legislative Assembly by Liberal Madeleine Meilleur from 2003 until her resignation in June 2016. The riding, with a large Franco-Ontarian population in Vanier, Lower Town, in adjoining neighbourhoods, has been one of the most solidly Liberal in the country in recent years, having elected Liberals both federally and provincially in every election since 1971. A sizable minority of the riding is in the former city of Vanier, merged with Ottawa in 2000. Vanier has long been home to much of Ottawa's francophone population, but between 1992 and 2001, the size of this linguistic group has fallen by 50%. Since 2003, the population of the entire riding has fallen by 10% at a time when the rest of the nation's capital increased by 5.2%. The riding now has the second oldest population in Ottawa. In many ways the riding which used to be known as a French riding with an English face has become a English-speaking riding with a French face.
The riding contains the wealthiest part of Ottawa, Rockcliffe Park, which gives some support to the Progressive Conservatives, but to the Liberals. The neighbourhoods with higher proportions of anglophone residents, including Sandy Hill and New Edinburgh tend to vote Liberal, but with significant support for the Ontario New Democratic Party; the riding is characterized by below average voter turn-out and an annual loss of 1% in voter support for the provincial Liberals since 1987 thereby reducing their support from 74% to 50%. In 2003, it was redefined as the part of the City of Ottawa east and north of a line running south along the Rideau Canal from the interprovincial boundary to Mann Avenue, northeast to Nicholas Street, southeast to Highway No. 417, east to the abandoned Canadian Pacific Railway to the hydroelectric transmission line, north to Innes Road, northeast to Blair Road, northwest to Montreal Road and northeast to Regional Road No. 174, northeast to Green's Creek, north to the Ottawa River.
It contains the neighbourhoods of Beacon Hill North, Cardinal Glen, Carson Grove, Castle Heights, Forbes, Lower Town, Manor Park, New Edinburgh, Pineview, Rockcliffe Park, Sandy Hill, Rothwell Heights and Viscount Alexander Park. According to the Canada 2011 Census Ethnic Groups: 71.9% White, 9.5% Black, 3.5% Arab, 3.1% South Asian, 2.8% Aboriginal, 2.3% Chinese, 1.7% Latin American, 1.4% Filipino, 1.3% Southeast Asian, 1.1% West Asian Languages: 51.8% English, 30.6% French, 3.5% Arabic, 1.8% Spanish, 1.5% Chinese, 1.1% Creoles Religion: 65.9% Christian, 7.6% Muslim, 22.8% No religion. Average household income: $77,347 Median household income: $57,035 Average individual income: $45,200 Median individual income: $32,421 The provincial electoral district was created in 1908 as "Ottawa East"; the name was changed to "Ottawa—Vanier" in 1999. This riding has elected the following members of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario: 1 In 1938, the title of members of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario was changed from "Members of the Legislative Assembly" to "Members of Provincial Parliament".
^ Change is from redistributed results. 1933-1966 Ottawa Ward, By Ward, Rideau Ward, St. George's Ward, Riverdale Ward, Victoria Ward 1908-1933 Ottawa Ward, By Ward, Rideau Ward, St. George's Ward Ottawa-Vanier Greens Ottawa-Vanier Liberals Ottawa-Vanier NDP Ottawa-Vanier Progressive Conservatives Map of riding for 2018 election
Premier of British Columbia
The premier of British Columbia is the first minister, head of government, de facto chief executive for the Canadian province of British Columbia. Until the early 1970s the title prime minister of British Columbia was used; the word premier is derived from the French word of the same spelling, meaning "first". Although the premier is the day-to-day leader of the provincial government, they receive the authority to govern from the Crown. Formally, the executive branch of government in British Columbia is said to be vested in the lieutenant governor acting by and with the advice and consent of the executive council; the position of premier is not described in Canadian constitutional statutes. By convention, the leader of the political party that has the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly is invited by the lieutenant governor to form the government; the responsibilities of the premier include: recommending the appointment and dismissal of ministers to the Lieutenant Governor serving as the president of the Executive Council and head of the provincial Cabinet.
Leading the development and implementation of government policies and priorities serving as the senior communicator of government priorities and plans between: the Lieutenant Governor and Cabinet the British Columbia government and other provincial and territorial governments the British Columbia Government and the federal government and international governments Generally, the premier selects MLAs from their party to be appointed ministers of the Crown by the Lieutenant Governor. Cabinet appointees are designated ministers in charge of government ministries; the premier may choose an individual, not an MLA to be a cabinet minister, although on the rare occasion that this does happen, the practice is that the minister proceeds to obtain a seat in the House. The appointment of an MLA to Cabinet is based on their ability and expertise and is influenced by political considerations such as geography and ethnicity. A minister remains in office at the pleasure of the premier; the resignation of the premier triggers the resignation of the other members of Cabinet.
Prime Minister of Canada Premier List of premiers of British Columbia Premier of British Columbia Official Site Legislative Assembly of British Columbia
Wayne State University
Wayne State University is an American public research university located in Detroit, Michigan. Founded in 1868, WSU consists of 13 schools and colleges offering nearly 350 programs to more than 27,000 graduate and undergraduate students. Wayne State University is Michigan's third-largest university; the WSU main campus comprises 195 acres linking more than 100 research buildings. The Wayne State Warriors compete in the NCAA Division II Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference; the first component of the modern Wayne State University was established in 1868 as the Detroit College of Medicine. In 1885, the Detroit College of Medicine merged with its competitor, the Michigan College of Medicine and its consolidated buildings. In 1913 the school was restructured as the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery, passing under that name into the control of the Detroit Board of Education; these institutions are incarnated today as the Wayne State University School of Medicine. In 1881, the Detroit Normal Training School for Teachers was established by the Detroit Board of Education.
In 1920, after several re-locations to larger quarters, the school became the Detroit Teachers College. The Board of Education voted in 1924 to make the college a part of the new College of the City of Detroit; this became the Wayne State University College of Education. In 1917, the Detroit Board of Education founded the Detroit Junior College and would make Detroit Central High School's Old Main Hall its campus. Detroit's College of Pharmacy and the Detroit Teachers College were added to the campus in 1924, were organized into the College of the City of Detroit; the original junior college became the College of Liberal Arts. The first bachelor's degrees were awarded in 1925; the College of Liberal Arts of the College of the City of Detroit is today the Wayne State University College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Recognizing the need for a good public law school, a group of lawyers, including Allan Campbell, the school's founding dean, established Detroit City Law School in 1927 as part of the College of the City of Detroit.
Structured as a part-time, evening program, the school graduated its first class with the bachelor of laws degree in 1928 and achieved full American Bar Association in 1939. The school is known today as Wayne State University Law School. In 1933, the Detroit Board of Education voted to unify the colleges. In January 1934, that institution was named Wayne University, taking its name from Wayne County in which the University and the City of Detroit reside, as well as Major General "Mad" Anthony Wayne. Continuing to grow, Wayne University added its School of Social Work in 1935, the School of Business Administration in 1946. Wayne University was renamed Wayne State University in 1956 and the institution became a constitutionally mandated university by a popularly adopted amendment to the Michigan Constitution in 1959; the Wayne State University Board of Governors created the Institute of Gerontology in 1965 in response to a State of Michigan mandate. The primary mission in that era was to engage in research and service in the field of aging.
Wayne State University grew again in 1973 with the addition of the College of Lifelong Learning. In 1985, the School of Fine and the Performing Arts, the College of Urban and Metropolitan Affairs grew the university further. In the 2000s, WSU constructed several new buildings, including the Integrative Biosciences Center, a 207,000-square-foot facility for interdisciplinary work in the biosciences. More than 500 researchers and principal investigators work out of the building, which opened in 2016. On June 5, 2013, the Board of Governors unanimously elected M. Roy Wilson as Wayne State's 12th president, he was sworn in on August 1, 2013. In 2015, WSU bestowed its first posthumous honorary doctorate degree on Viola Liuzzo. In 2015, the School of Business administration was renamed the Mike Ilitch School of Business; the name was changed in recognition of a $40 million grant from Marian Ilitch. This gift was used towards building a new business school facility in Detroit, which opened in late August 2018.
The new Mike Ilitch School of Business building is located on Woodward in the emerging'District Detroit' development. Wayne State's academic offerings are divided among 13 schools and colleges: the Mike Ilitch School of Business. Fall 2018 enrollment for the university consisted of 27,053 students. Wayne State University is Michigan's only urban research university and is classified as a research university with the highest research activity by the Carnegie Foundation. Under the Michigan Constitution, the boards of governors of WSU are elected by the citizens of Michigan statewide. Wayne State University, Michigan State University, the University of Michigan are the three institutional members of the State of Michigan's University Research Corridor. Wayne State offers more than 350 undergraduate, post-graduate and certificate programs in 13 schools and colleges. Mike Ilitch School of Business The Mike Ilitch School of Business offers undergraduate degrees in accounting, global supply chain, information systems
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Windsor is a city in Southwestern Ontario, situated on the south bank of the Detroit River directly across from Detroit, Michigan. Located in Essex County, it is the southernmost city in Canada and marks the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the city's population was 217,188 at the 2016 census, making it the third-most populated city in Southwestern Ontario after London and Kitchener. The Detroit–Windsor urban area is North America's most populous transborder conurbation, the Ambassador Bridge border crossing is the busiest commercial crossing on the Canada–United States border. Windsor is a major contributor to Canada's automotive industry and has a storied history and a diverse culture. Known as the "Automotive Capital of Canada", Windsor's industrial and manufacturing heritage is responsible for how the city has developed through the years. At the time when the first Europeans arrived in the 17th century, the Detroit River region was inhabited by the Huron, Odawa and Iroquois First Nations.
A French agricultural settlement was established at the site of Windsor in 1749. It is the oldest continually inhabited European-founded settlement in Canada west of Montreal; the area was first named la Petite Côte. It was called La Côte de Misère because of the sandy soils near LaSalle. Windsor's French-Canadian heritage is reflected in French street names such as Ouellette, François, Langlois and Lauzon; the current street system reflects the Canadien method of agricultural land division, where the farms were long and narrow, fronting along the river. Today, the north–south street name indicates the name of the family that once farmed the land where the street is now located; the street system of outlying areas is consistent with the British system for granting land concessions. There is a significant French-speaking minority in Windsor and the surrounding area in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh and LaSalle areas. In 1797, after the American Revolution, the settlement of "Sandwich" was established, it was renamed Windsor, after the town in Berkshire, England.
The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsor's west side is home to some of the city's oldest buildings, including Mackenzie Hall built as the Essex County Courthouse in 1855. Today, this building is a community centre; the oldest building in the city is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792. It is owned by houses government offices; the François Baby House in downtown Windsor was built in 1812 and houses Windsor's Community Museum, dedicated to local history. Windsor was the site of a battle during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1838, it was attacked by a band of rebels from Detroit. Windsor served as a theatre for the Patriot War that year. In 1846, Windsor had a population of about 300. Two steamboats offered service to Detroit; the barracks were still manned. There were various types of a bank agency and a post office; the city's access to the Canada–US border made it a key stop for refugee slaves gaining freedom in the northern United States along the Underground Railroad. Many went across the Detroit River to Windsor to escape pursuit by slave catchers.
There were estimated to be 20,000 to 30,000 African-American refugees who settled in Canada, with many settling in Essex County, Ontario. Windsor was incorporated as a village in 1854 became a town in 1858, gained city status in 1892; the Windsor Police Service was established on July 1, 1867. A fire consumed much of Windsor's downtown core on October 12, 1871, destroying more than 100 buildings. Sandwich, Ford City and Walkerville were separate legal entities until 1935, they are now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor. Ford City was incorporated as a village in 1912. Walkerville was incorporated as a town in 1890. Sandwich was established in 1817 as a town with no municipal status, it was incorporated as a town in 1858. These three towns were annexed by Windsor in 1935; the nearby villages of Ojibway and Riverside were incorporated in 1921 respectively. Both were annexed by Windsor in 1966. During the 1920s, alcohol prohibition was enforced in Michigan. Rum-running in Windsor was a common practice during that time.
On October 25, 1960, a massive gas explosion destroyed the building housing the Metropolitan Store on Ouellette Avenue. Ten people were at least one hundred injured; the 45th anniversary of the event was commemorated by the Windsor Star on October 25, 2005. It was featured on History Television's Disasters of the Century; the Windsor Star Centennial Edition in 1992 covered the city's past, its success as a railway centre, its contributions to World War I and World War II fighting efforts. It recalled the naming controversy in 1892 when Windsor aimed to become a city; the most popular names listed in the naming controversy were "South Detroit", "The Ferry", Richmond. Windsor was chosen to promote the heritage of new English settlers in the city and to recognize Windsor Castle in Berkshire, England. However, Richmond was a popular name used until World War II by the local post office. Windsor has a humid continental climate with four distinct seasons; the mean annual temperature