Green Party of Switzerland

The Green Party of Switzerland is the fourth-largest party in the National Council of Switzerland and the largest party, not represented on the Federal Council. The first Green party in Switzerland was founded as a local party in 1971 in the town of Neuchâtel. In 1979, Daniel Brélaz was elected to the National Council as the first Green MP on the national level. Local and regional Green parties and organisations were founded in many different towns and cantons in the following years. In 1983, two different national green party federations were created: in May, diverse local green groups came together in Fribourg to form the Federation of Green Parties of Switzerland, in June, some left-alternative groups formed the Green Alternative Party of Switzerland in Bern. In 1990, an attempt to combine these organisations failed. Afterward, some of the member groups from the Green Alternative Party joined the Federation of Green Parties which has become the de facto national Green party. In 1993, the Federation of Green Parties changed its name to the Green Party of Switzerland.

In 1986, the first two Green members of a cantonal government become members of the Regierungsrat of Bern. In 1987, the Green Party of Switzerland joined the European Federation of Green Parties. In the 1990s, members of the Green Party became town mayors, members of the high court and president of a cantonal government. In 2007, the centrist wing of the party split away and formed the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland; the traditional emphases of the party's policies lie in environmentalism and green means of transportation. In terms of foreign policy, the greens set out on the course of pacifism. In economic policy, the greens are centre-left; the majority of greens support an accession of Switzerland to the European Union. In immigration policy, the greens support further integration initiatives for immigrants; the greens support measures to increase energy efficiency, oppose nuclear power, support raising energy and fuel prices. According to their policy, the resulting revenues should be allocated to social security spending.

On the national level, in 2003 the Green Party was not represented in the Council of States or Federal Council. In 2007, two Green Party members were elected to the Council of States. By 2005, the party held 3.8 percent of the seats in the Swiss cantonal executive governments and 6.9 percent in the Swiss cantonal parliaments. In 2007, the Green Party was represented in the governments of the cantons Bern, Basel-City, Neuchâtel, Vaud and Zurich. 1.^a * indicates that the party was not on the ballot in this canton. 2.^b Part of the Canton of Bern until 1979. This is an incomplete list of the presidents of the Green Party: Ruth Genner Ueli Leuenberger Adèle Thorens Goumaz Regula Rytz Green party Green politics Environmental movement in Switzerland List of environmental organizations Green Party of Switzerland Swiss Greens International Green Party in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

Portal de Las Américas (TransMilenio)

Portal de Las Américas is a terminus station of the TransMilenio mass-transit system of Bogotá, which opened in the year 2000. Portal de Las Américas is located in southwestern Bogotá on Avenida Ciudad de Cali with Avenida Ciudad de Villavicencio, it is known for its many ghost sightings In December 2004, this station was opened before work was finished on the line running along the Avenida Ciudad de Cali. It was the fifth terminus of the system to be opened. At first, only red buses of the size of the feeder buses were used at this station, they bore signs reading P. A. or PORTAL did not have a formal route number. In March 2004, after the Biblioteca Tintal and Patio Bonito stations were opened, the station began normal operations on one of its three platforms; the following feeder routes serve this station: 9.1 Casablanca loop 9.2 Metrovivienda loop 9.3 Bosa La Libertad loop 9.4 Patio Bonito loop 9.5 Avenida Tintal loop 9.6 Avenida Villavicencio loop 9.7 Bosa la Independencia loop 9.8 Porvenir loop 9.9 Bosa-Santafé loop 9.10 Roma loop 9.11 Franja Seca loop Despite having three platforms, the Portal de las Américas does not have inter-city buses because it is located in a populous area in the southwest of the city, far from any routes leaving town.

List of TransMilenio Stations TransMilenio


Odobenocetops is an extinct genus of small toothed whale known from Peru and Chile. Its fossils are found in Neogene-aged marine strata dating from the Tortonian to the Zanclean, it had two tusks, and, in some fossils, one tusk was longer than the other. Odobenocetops can be identified as a cetacean based on several features unique to this order: The presence of large air sinuses in the auditory region connected to large pterygoid sinuses; the large supraorbital process of the frontal bone overhanging the orbital region. Narial fossae opening dorsally The absence of a true cribriform plate. In Odobenocetops, a group of foramina in this plate allows the passage of olfactory nerves connected to the small olfactory lobes in the brain. In other cetaceans, the olfactory nerves are present but reduced; the elbow joint is immobile. Murakami et al. 2014 placed Odobenocetopssidae in a large clade together with Phocoenidae and Albireonidae. This clade originated in the Pacific Ocean in the Langhian and diversified from there during the Serravallian and Tortonian.

According to the morphological analysis of Murakami et al. Odobenocetops belongs to the middle Pliocene; the generic name Odobenocetops comes from Greek odon, "tooth", baino, "walk" and Latin cetus, "whale", ops, "like", meaning "cetacean that seems to walk on its teeth" but is referring to the similarity to the walrus. Odobenocetops was an early member of the dolphin superfamily, more related to narwhals than dolphins, with tusks projecting towards the rear of its body, it weighted between 150 and 650 kg. Its neck articulations show that it was flexible, being able to turn its head over 90 degrees. This, coupled with its broad snout, similar to that of a walrus, suggests that it was a bottom feeder, searching for mollusks and sucking them out of their shells with a powerful tongue; the rostrum of Odobenocetops was short and round, in contrast to the elongated beaks found in other cetaceans. The bony nares are located near the tip of the skull, in contrast to the blowholes of whales and dolphins located on the top of the skull.

The palate is toothless like in walruses. The eye-sockets are oriented upwards and sideways, not laterally like in other dolphins. In other odontocetes, parts of the frontal and maxillae cover the temporal fossae. In Odobenocetops, these bones are narrowed so that the temporal fossae is open dorsally; the periotic and tympanic bones are similar to those in other dolphins. No mandible has been recovered and only few postcranial elements; the body length has been estimated to 3–4 metres. The holotype of the younger species O. leptodon was found with both tusks in situ, the right one 1.35 metres long, the erupted portion 1.07 metres, the left tusk was only 25 centimetres but a wear facet indicates that it was erupted. The skull of O. leptodon differs from that of O. peruvianus in the absence of a premaxillary foramina and the presence of a dorsal fossa on the premaxilla. This fossa suggests the presence of a melon in O. leptodon, an organ either absent or reduced in O. peruvianus. On the other hand, the orbit in O. leptodon has an anterior edge, only concave, whereas it is notched in O. peruvianus which suggests that O. peruvianus used binocular vision.

Analyses of neck bones of both species suggest that Odobenocetops swam with its head bent ventrally, which would have brought the long right tusk in males in parallel to the body and allowed O. leptodon good use of its binocular vision. The most striking discovery was that of a male O. leptodon skull with a tusk longer than the other. On the right side of the body, the tusk was 1.2 m long, but on the left it could only grow up to 25 centimetres long. Being the only male O. leptodon skull known, it is not safe to say it was present in all male individuals of the species. Being too brittle, the tusk was held parallel to the body, it might have been used to search as a sensory organ like narwhal tusks. Though they are related to these primitive whales, the tusks were gained by convergent evolution. Tim Haines, who included the animal in an episode of Sea Monsters, thought that the tusks could be used during the mating season in jousts over females; the abstract of Muizon 1993 helps to explain why this is so: The occurrence of tusks in Odobenocetops is a convergence with narwhals.

However, in narwhals the male tusk is implanted in the left maxilla, whereas in Odobenocetops it is implanted in the right premaxilla. The tusks in these two genera are therefore not homologous. Evolution of cetaceans 3D model of the type specimen of Odobenocetops: "Walrus whale". Smithsonian X 3D. Retrieved 6 December 2014