Walthamstow is the principal town of the London Borough of Waltham Forest in North East London, England. It is located 7.5 miles northeast from Charing Cross, Walthamstow is a large town, situated between the North Circular Road to the north, Lee Valley and the Walthamstow Reservoirs to the west, and Epping Forest to the east. The town centre consists of Walthamstow Market, the longest single street market in Europe, Walthamstow is recorded c.1075 as Wilcumestowe and in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Wilcumestou. King John visited Shern Hall in 1213, the building survived until 1896, at one point Walthamstow was just a culmination of five small villages, and affairs were discussed at Vestry House, acting as the first town hall. In 1870 it had grown to the size of a small suburb, until the 19th century it was largely rural, with a small village centre and a number of large estates. The main route through the district was the aforementioned Hoe Street, additionally, there were various smaller lanes, crossing the town. The road now known as Forest Road was originally called Clay Street, further south, the High Street was named Marsh Street, and led from the original settlement out to the marshes. Shernhall Street is an ancient route, as is Wood Street, in the 1660s Sir William Batten, Surveyor of the Navy, and his wife Elizabeth Woodcocke had a house here where, according to Samuel Pepys, they lived like princes and cultivated a vineyard. With the advent of the railways and the ensuing suburbanisation in the late 19th century, Walthamstow experienced a growth in population. The Lighthouse Methodist Church which dates from 1893 which is situated on Markhouse Road, there is a lantern at the top of the tower, which also contains a spiral staircase. The LGOC X-type and B-type buses were built at Blackhorse Lane from October 1908 onwards, the B-type is considered one of the first mass-production buses. The manufacturing operation later became AEC, famous as the manufacturer of many of Londons buses, on 13 June 1909, A. V. Roes aircraft took to the air from Walthamstow Marshes. It was the first all-British aircraft and was given the nickname of the Yellow Terror. Roe later founded the Avro aircraft company, which built the acclaimed Avro Lancaster. From 1894 Walthamstow was a district and from 1929 a municipal borough in Essex. In 1931 the population of the borough, covering an area of 4,342 acres, other places in east London formerly of the county of Essex, such as Ilford and Romford were placed into London Boroughs along with Walthamstow. None of the district names or codes was changed at this time. Since the 2012 Summer Olympics, the town has become popular mostly as a result of gentrification
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region. Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud. From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a later date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Walthamstow Avenue F.C.
Walthamstow Avenue Football Club was an English football club based in Walthamstow in London. Based at Green Pond Road, they played in dark and light blue hooped shirts, the club was established in 1900, and were one of the most successful amateur clubs in the country during the 1950s. The club ceased to exist in 1988 when it merged into Leytonstone/Ilford, founded in 1900, the club joined Division Two of the London League in 1901, but left at the end of the season. In 1929 they joined the Athenian League and won the league in their first season, in 1930–31 they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, losing 5–1 at home to Watford. The following season won the Athenian League title for a fourth time. After World War II the club switched to the Isthmian League, in 1951–52 they won the FA Amateur Cup, defeating Leyton 2–1 in the final. They won the league again in 1952–53, a season in which also reached the fourth round of the FA Cup. Drawn away to Old Trafford, they held Manchester United to a 1–1 draw, before losing the replay, the following season saw the club defeat Gillingham in the first round of the FA Cup before losing to Ipswich Town in a second round replay. In 1960–61 the club won the Amateur Cup, defeating West Auckland Town 2–1 in the final, in 1986–87 the club finished bottom of the Premier Division of the Isthmian League, and were relegated to Division One. The 1987–88 was the clubs last one, with the merging into Leytonstone/Ilford. A modern-day Walthamstow Avenue was formed on what would have been the original Walthamstow Avenues centenary anniversary in 2000, playing at Town Mead in Waltham Abbey, they competed in the London County League for three seasons, before switching to the Middlesex County Football League for the 2003–04 season. In 2005 they merged with Walthamstow Pennant to form Walthamstow Avenue & Pennant, the new club merged with Mauritius Sports in 2007 to form Mauritius Sports & Pennant. Athenian League Champions 1929–30, 1932–33, 1933–34, 1937–38, 1938–39 Isthmian League Champions 1945–46, 1952–53, 1954–55 FA Amateur Cup Winners 1951–52, players that have played/managed in the Football League or any foreign equivalent to this level. Players that hold a club record, david Silman Stephen Wilkins Walthamstow Avenue at the Football Club History Database The History of Walthamstow Avenue F. C. 1900–1988
Dagenham & Redbridge F.C.
The team plays in the National League, the fifth tier of the English football league system. The clubs traditional colours are red and blue, to represent the merged teams, Dagenham & Redbridge F. C. was formed in 1992 following a merger between two clubs – Dagenham and Redbridge Forest. Both clubs had fallen on hard times due to dwindling attendances, the club can trace back its ancestry to 1881 as Redbridge Forest was an amalgamation of three of the amateur games most famous clubs, Ilford, Leytonstone and Walthamstow Avenue. Between the clubs won the FA Trophy once, FA Amateur Cup seven times, Isthmian League 20 times, Athenian League six times, Essex Senior Cup 26 times. Dagenham & Redbridge spent its inaugural season in the Football Conference taking the place of Redbridge Forest, the clubs first fixture in its new guise was on 25 July 1992, an 8–0 thrashing of Great Wakering Rovers in a friendly. The first competitive result was a 2–0 win over Merthyr Tydfil in the Conference, Dagenham & Redbridge spent several seasons in the Football Conference but was relegated to the Isthmian League Premier Division in 1996. The club was beaten to the Conference title by Boston United in 2002 on goal difference. Boston United was subsequently found guilty of making illegal payments to its players in its title-winning season. Dagenham & Redbridge attempted unsuccessfully to have itself declared Conference Champions, a four-point deduction was put in place against Boston United for the following season but not for the season in which the irregularities had been committed. The Daggers then declined somewhat, finishing the 2003–04, 2004–05, on 27 February 2004 the club were hammered 9–0 at home by Hereford United, equalling the record highest winning margin in the Conference. The 2006–07 season saw Dagenham & Redbridge battle it out with Oxford United for the top of the league spot, despite Oxford quickly racing to the top, a collapse in Oxfords form combined with an excellent run for the Daggers saw them overtake Oxford in the league. Dagenham & Redbridge played its first match in The Football League on 11 August 2007, the club won its first Football League game at home to Lincoln City on 1 September 2007. The Daggers finished the season in 20th place, ensuring a second season of Football League competition, promotion to the Football League meant that Dagenham & Redbridge could compete in the League Cup for the first time. The club lost in the first round to Luton Town, the following season, the Daggers reached their highest ever position of eighth. They just failed to make the League Two play-offs after losing to Shropshire side Shrewsbury Town at home on the last day of the season, the 2009–10 season saw The Daggers promoted for the first time in their history from League Two to League One. They achieved this by beating Rotherham United in a dramatic 3–2 playoff final at Wembley on 30 May 2010, twice the Daggers took the lead, only to concede moments later. Jon Nurse regained the advantage for Dagenham & Redbridge, scoring a scrappy 70th-minute winner, the Daggers first game in League One of the 2010–2011 season was a 2–0 defeat to Sheffield Wednesday on 7 August 2010. It was a season in League One as they finished 21st and were relegated on the last day of the 2010–2011 season back to League Two
Football at the 1948 Summer Olympics
Football at the 1948 Summer Olympics tournament, won by Sweden, managed by Englishman George Raynor. This began on 26 July 1948 with a round of two matches, Luxembourg defeating Afghanistan 6–0 and the Netherlands beating Ireland 3–1, with Faas Wilkes scoring two goals for the Dutch. In the first round, which began five days later, the Netherlands played Great Britain at Highbury, in goal for Britain was Ronnie Simpson, who would go on to become the oldest Scottish international debutant in history and one of the Lisbon Lions. Yugoslavia and Sweden also went through, france did well to eliminate India, most of whose players ignored the need to wear boots. Swedens play at White Hart Lane attracted much attention even then and their forward line contained three exceptional players, one of them Gunnar Gren scored a brace in an easy win. There were two goals, as well, for future FIFA World Cup star Zeljko Cajkovski in Yugoslavias 6–1 rout of Luxembourg, there were future World Cup stars also on parade in South Koreas 5–3 defeat of Mexico and the United Statess 9–0 defeat at the hands of Italy. Walter Bahr, Ed Souza, Charlie Colombo and John Souza would, later, in the quarter-finals, Sweden flourished against the South Koreans and were similarly dominant against the Danes in the semi-final. In the second semi-final, Great Britain played Yugoslavia at Wembley Stadium going out by 3 goals to 1, 3–1 was also the score in the final, Gunnar Nordahl and Gunnar Grens goals proving too much for the Yugoslavians. 7 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal 1948 Olympic Organising Committee. Pp.14,18,39, 45–46,54,57,62,64,65,78,85,109,116,121,129,131,184,187, 382–388,534,541, 544–6
1948 Summer Olympics
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in London, England, United Kingdom. After a 12-year hiatus because of World War II, these were the first Summer Olympics since the 1936 Games in Berlin, the 1940 Games had been scheduled for Tokyo, and then for Helsinki, the 1944 Games had been provisionally planned for London. This was the occasion that London had hosted the Olympic Games. The 1948 games were the first of two summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström, the event came to be known as the Austerity Games, because of the economic climate and post-war rationing. No new venues were built for the games, and athletes were housed in existing accommodation in the Wembley area instead of an Olympic Village, as were the 1936 Games and the subsequent 1952 Games. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes,3,714 men and 390 women, germany and Japan were refused permission to participate, the USSR was invited but chose not to send any athletes. The United States team won the most total medals,84, the host nation won 23 medals, three of them gold. One of the performers at the Games was Dutch sprinter Fanny Blankers-Koen. Dubbed The Flying Housewife, the 30-year-old mother of two won four medals in athletics. In the decathlon, American Bob Mathias became the youngest male ever to win an Olympic gold medal at the age of 17, the most individual medals were won by Veikko Huhtanen of Finland who took three golds, a silver and a bronze in mens gymnastics. In June 1939, the International Olympic Committee awarded the 1944 Olympic Summer Games to London, ahead of Rome, Detroit, Budapest, Lausanne, Helsinki, Montreal, World War II stopped the plans and the Games were cancelled so London again stood as a candidate for 1948. Britain almost handed the 1948 games to the USA due to financial and rationing problems. The official report of the London Olympics shows that there was no case of London being pressed to run the Games against its will. As a result, a committee was set up by the British Olympic Council to work out in some detail the possibility of holding the Games. After several meetings they recommended to the council that the Lord Mayor of London should be invited to apply for the allocation of the Games in 1948. In March 1946 the IOC, through a vote, gave the summer Games to London. London was selected ahead of Baltimore, Minneapolis, Lausanne, Los Angeles, London, which had previously hosted the 1908 Summer Olympics, became the second city to host the Olympics twice, Paris hosted the event in 1900 and 1924. It became the first city to host the Olympics for the time when London hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics. E
Redbridge Forest F.C.
Redbridge Forest Football Club was an English football club, founded in 1979. The club came into being by a merger between Leytonstone/Ilford and Walthamstow Avenue, though the clubs played one season under the original name. In 1992 the club merged with Dagenham to form the present Dagenham & Redbridge and it is not to be confused with the current Isthmian League club Redbridge, which was known as Ford United until July 2004. The club are the descendents of Leytonstone/Ilford F. C. which was founded in 1979 by a merger of old clubs Leytonstone. They were somewhat successful in football, while under the name Leytonstone & Ilford. The following season the finished as runners-up in the same league. At the end of the season, they changed their name to Leytonstone/Ilford Football Club, another merger was incorporated in 1988 when Walthamstow Avenue were incorporated. The club moved to Victoria Road, home of Dagenham FC, Leytonstone & Ilford remained in the Isthmian League Premier Division. For the 1989 season, the name of the club was changed to Redbridge Forest, however, the move to a new site collapsed and the club remained at Victoria Road. Redbridge Forest won the Isthmian League in 1990–91 and with the ground now passing Conference regulations, Redbridge Forest were in the Conference for one year and achieved a seventh-place finish during the 1991–92 season. For the 1992–93 season, they merged with Dagenham and became Dagenham & Redbridge, the new club reached the Football League at the end of the 2006–07 as Conference National champions, and won promotion to League One in 2010 via play-offs. As Leytonstone/Ilford F. C Isthmian League Champions, 1981–82, 1988–89 Runners-up, 1982–83 Isthmian League Division One Champions, 1979–80, 1986–87 As Redbridge Forest F
Farnborough Football Club is a football club based in Farnborough, Hampshire, England. Founded in 1967 as Farnborough Town, they are members of the Southern League Division One Central. The club was established as Farnborough Town in 1967 and joined the Surrey Senior League in 1968 and their first league match saw them beat Surbiton Byron 7–6. In 1971 they reached the top division of the Surrey Senior League and they went on to win three consecutive league titles, losing only one league match during each of the 1973–74 and 1974–75 seasons. When the league merged with the Metropolitan–London League to form the London Spartan League in 1975, the club were placed in Division One, following their move to Cherrywood Road, Farnborough moved up to Division Two of the Athenian League in 1976. They won the division at the first attempt, and were accepted into Division Two of the Isthmian League. During their domination of the Spartan and Athenian league divisions, the club went 87 matches unbeaten at home between 1973 and 1977, in 1978–79 they won Division Two of the Isthmian League, earning promotion to Division One. The 1980–81 season saw them reach the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, another first round appearance in 1983–84 ended with a 2–1 defeat at Barking. They reached the first round again the season and faced Football League opposition for the first time. The season also saw them win the Division One title, resulting in promotion to the Premier Division, Farnborough were relegated at the end of their first season in the Conference and were placed in the Premier Division of the Southern League. They won the division at the first attempt to earn promotion back to the Conference and they were drawn at home to top division West Ham. With the game switched to the Boleyn Ground, they held West Ham to a 1–1 draw before losing the replay 1–0, the season also saw them finish fifth in the Conference, but they were relegated back to the Southern League at the end of the following season. Farnborough were Southern League champions again in 1993–94, making a return to the Conference. The club spent five seasons in the Conference until being relegated at the end of the 1998–99 season and they were placed in the Premier Division of the Isthmian League, which they went on to win in 2000–01, resulting in promotion back to the Conference. They were then drawn at home to Arsenal in the fourth round, following a 5–1 defeat, manager Graham Westley left the club, also taking seven players with him as he moved to Stevenage Borough. Farnborough remained in the Conference until the end of the 2004–05 season, a third-place finish in 2005–06 saw them qualify for the promotion play-offs, but they lost 3–0 to Histon in the semi-finals. In 2006–07 Farnborough went into administration and were deducted ten points, in May 2007 the club was expelled from the Football Conference and were reformed as Farnborough Football Club. They were admitted to Division One South & West of the Southern League, in 2008–09 they were Premier Division runners-up, qualifying for the promotion play-offs
The Isthmian League is a regional mens football league covering London, East and South East England featuring mostly semi-professional clubs. It is sponsored by Ryman, and therefore known as the Ryman League. It was founded in 1905 by amateur clubs in the London area and it now consists of 72 teams in three divisions, the Premier Division above its two feeder divisions, Division One North and Division One South. Together with the Southern League and the Northern Premier League, it forms the seventh and eighth levels of the English football league system and it has various regional feeder leagues and the league as a whole is a feeder league mainly to the National League South. Before the Isthmian League was formed, there were no leagues in which amateur clubs could compete, therefore, a meeting took place between representatives of Casuals, Civil Service, Clapton, Ealing Association, Ilford and London Caledonians to discuss the creation of a strong amateur league. All the clubs supported the idea and the Isthmian League was born on 8 March 1905, membership to the league was through invitation only. The league was strongly dedicated to amateurism, the champions did not even receive a trophy or medals, teams less able to compete financially thus gravitated to it rather than the Southern League, while those with ambition and money would move in the opposite direction. By 1922 the league had fourteen clubs and over the five decades, only a few new members were admitted. Most new Isthmian League members joined from the Athenian League, which was dedicated to amateurism. The league began to admit professionalism in the 1970s, a second division of sixteen clubs was formed in 1973 and a third division followed in 1977. The reward of promotion into the Conference means that, since 1985, the Athenian League disbanded in 1984 when the Isthmian League Second Division split into North and South Divisions. These were restructured again to Second and Third Divisions in 1991, in 2002, the league was restructured again, with the First and Second Divisions merging to become Division One North and Division One South, and the Third Division being renamed as Division Two. In 2004, The Football Association pushed through a restructuring of the non-league National League System. The Isthmian League was reduced back down to three divisions, and its boundaries were changed to remove the overlap with the Southern League, in 2006, further reorganisation saw a reversion to two regional Division Ones and the disbandment of Division Two. This current plan calls for clubs based on the edges of the Isthmian Leagues territory to transfer to, One team, Clapton, had been ever-present in the Isthmian League since its foundation, but they moved to the Essex Senior League for the 2006–07 season. Dulwich Hamlet, who joined the league in 1907, are currently its longest serving member, for the 1973–74 season, the Second Division was added. For the 1977–78 season, the Premier Division was added, for the 1984–85 season, the Second Division was reorganised into North and South regions. For the 1991–92 season, the regional Second Divisions were merged, at the end of the 1994–95 season, Enfield were denied promotion to the Conference
Turkey national football team
The Turkey national football team represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey. Turkey has qualified three times for the World Cup, in 1950,1954, and 2002, although they withdrew from the 1950 event, Turkey has also qualified four times for the UEFA European Championship, in 1996,2000,2008, and 2016. They have reached the semi-finals of three tournaments, the 2002 World Cup, the 2003 Confederations Cup, and Euro 2008. The Turkish national team played their first ever match against Romania in 1923 drawing 2–2, zeki Rıza Sporel is considered as the first big star of Turkish football as he scored the first two goals against Romania. Turkey played their first ever match at the 1924 Summer Olympics losing 5–2 to Czechoslovakia. Although Turkey qualified for the 1950 World Cup, beating Syria 7–0, Turkey then qualified for the 1954 World Cup after a play-off with Spain. The Turkish team first lost 4–1 to Spain, but a 1–0 win a few days later initiated a replay, on that occasion, they tied 2–2 after, booking their place after a coin toss. Turkey was put in a group along with Hungary and West Germany, the Turks, however, never played Hungary due to the tournament format, and a 4–1 defeat by the Germans was followed by Turkey carrying out a 7–0 win over South Korea. Turkey lost the play-off to West Germany 7–2, in 1956 Turkey did however play Hungary, in a friendly match in Istanbul, beating what was one of the strongest teams of the era 3–1. Lefter Küçükandonyadis, all-time best player of Turkey netted in two goals during the tournament, despite the introduction of a national league, and showings by Turkish clubs in European competition, the 1960s would be a barren time for the national team. Most players from the 1954 World Cup squad were retired, the 1970s saw Turkey holding back in the World Cup and European Championship qualifiers, but the team was a point too short to qualify for both Euro 1972 and Euro 1976. In the 1980s the Turkish team also suffered their worst defeats with 8–0 scorelines against Poland, yet the 1990 World Cup qualifiers would mark a turning point for Turkish football, with Turkey only missing out on qualification in the final game. Prominent players in this period were Rıdvan Dilmen, Oğuz Çetin, Rıza Çalımbay, Feyyaz Uçar, in 1990, German coach Sepp Piontek was put in charge of the national team. Under his guidance, a group of new players debuted for the national team, many of these players which include, Bülent Korkmaz, Alpay Özalan, Sergen Yalçın, Rüştü Reçber, and Hakan Şükür would become the backbone of the national team for many years. Pionteks mission came to an end in 1993, where he was replaced by Fatih Terim, Turkey qualified for its first major tournament since 1954, marking another turning point for Turkish football after having failed to qualify for both Euro 1992 and the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The appointment of Piontek was a move by another German coach Jupp Derwall. Turkey qualified for Euro 1996, beating both Switzerland and Sweden 2–1 along the way, despite a solid performance during the qualifiers, Turkey lost all their matches without scoring a single goal. They did, however, go home with an award, the fair-play award, Turkey failed to qualify for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, they however qualified for Euro 2000 after winning a play-off against Ireland