Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area preserves the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in northeastern Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky. In addition, the mining community of Blue Heron is preserved and interpreted via signage. Charit Creek Lodge is a lodge, accessible by trail. The Big South Forks most prominent feature is the river cutting through the softer Mississippian age rock beneath the hard Pennsylvanian capstone of the Cumberland Plateau. Water is the most influential agent of change in the Big South Fork region. Over time water action has many unique and amazing geologic features ranging from the river gorge with its magnificent bluffs to the natural arches. Flowing water hollows out the softer layers beneath and forms waterfalls, where there is hard capstone intact, arches can form creating natural bridges across streams or a dry ravines. Direct erosion widens a joint and forms a cavity below the more resilient rock thus creating a void between the hard capstone and the area below, as result, water eroded arches are formed in the Big South Fork.
Hoodoos are a rare but intriguing feature occurring in the Big South Fork and these hoodoos form in a similar manner to those found in the western United States. Where tough capstone still exists on the side of a hill for instance, the result is a naturally formed erect columnar rock where once was located a hill
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation, as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the land area of the world. The U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, some areas are managed in concert between levels of government. The Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a park operated by a state park system. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. They are often considered the jewels of the protected areas.
Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands, mainly through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I, the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level I and II lands in the world. These lands had an area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency, for instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National Preserves and National Recreation Areas. The National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect these, the state of Colorado, for example, is very clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties.
State parks vary widely from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the National parks of England and Wales, about half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as forever wild by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska claims to be the largest state park by the amount of protected land, it is larger than many U. S. National Parks. Many states operate game and recreation areas. S, State and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are more than picnic areas or playgrounds, however
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Established on June 11,1940, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located at the border between Kentucky and Virginia. The Cumberland Gap is a natural break in the Appalachian Mountains. The park lies in parts of Bell and Harlan counties in Kentucky, Claiborne County in Tennessee, the park contains the Kentucky-Virginia-Tennessee tri-state area, accessible via a short trail. Cumberland Gap National Historical Park covers 20,508 acres, the Cumberland Gap Visitor Center is located on U. S. Highway 25E just southeast of Middlesboro and just northwest of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel and Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. The visitor center is open day of the year except Christmas Day. The gap was used by Native Americans, as many species of migratory animals passed through it from north to south each year. It was fertile hunting territory and the only cut through the mountains from the southern wintering grounds of wild deer. Starting around 1775, the Gap became the route of transit for American settlers moving west into Kentucky.
Two families by the name of Hensley and Gibbons moved to Brush Mountain to escape the many changes that were taking place in the early 1900s, more family members followed and a community was begun. A church and school was established under the jurisdiction of the Bell County School System of Bell County, settlers continued their pioneer lifestyle until future generations began accepting employment and marriage partners off the mountain. Sherman Hensley, the founder of the settlement, was the last to leave in 1951, the park preserves the natural beauty of the surrounding area while focusing on historic preservation. The former roadbed of U. S. Highway 25E through the park has been restored to an early 19th-century wagon path and this was made possible with the 1996 completion of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel, which rerouted US 25E under the park
Pine Mountain State Resort Park
Pine Mountain State Resort Park is a Kentucky state park located in Bell County, United States. The park opened in 1924 as Kentuckys first state park, each spring, the park hosts the annual Kentucky Mountain Laurel Festival, as it has since 1933. When Pine Mountain State Resort Park was established in 1926, it was named Cumberland State Park, but the name was changed in 1938 in order to avoid confusion with the newly formed Cumberland Falls State Resort Park. During the parks early years, there was little development, in 1933 the Civilian Conservation Corps began constructing the main office building, roads, bridges and hiking trails. In 1960s, the Kentucky State Park System began updating their parks, for Pine Mountain State Park, they constructed a new wing to the lodge that contained 30 more guest rooms,10 additional cottages, swimming pool, and golf course. Today, the park serves as one of southeastern Kentuckys premier state parks, herndon J. Evans Lodge - The lodge has 30 guest rooms. Mountain View Restaurant seats 125 people and has a dining area that seats 25 people.
Wasioto Winds Golf Course - This 18 hole golf course was ranked fourth in the nation by Golf Digest Magazine as the Best New Affordable Public Golf Courses in January 2003, cottages - The park has nine one room cabins that were developed by the CCC in the 1920s. It has eleven modern two-bedroom cabins, chained Rock - During the 1930s, the people of Pineville, Kentucky decided to create a new tourist attraction. So in 1933, a group of people hauled a 101-foot-long chain to the top of Pine Mountain, supposedly the rock was chained to the mountain in order to keep it from rolling down the mountain and destroying the city. Other attractions - Miniature golf, hiking, Ray Harm artworks, interpretive center, playgrounds and gift shop
Taylor County, Kentucky
Taylor County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,512, settled from Virginia, Pennsylvania and North Carolina after the Revolutionary War, the county was organized in 1848 in the Highland Rim region. It was named for General Zachary Taylor, President of the United States, the city of Campbellsville is wet but Taylor County is a prohibition or dry County. Taylor County was the 100th county created by Kentucky, the Campbellsville Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Taylor County. It is represented in the Kentucky House of Representatives by Republican John Bam Carney, in 2009 Carney succeeded fellow Republican Russ Mobley, a retired associate professor of theatre arts at Campbellsville University. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 277 square miles. Marion County Casey County Adair County Green County LaRue County As of the census of 2000, there were 22,927 people,9,233 households, the population density was 85 per square mile.
There were 10,180 housing units at a density of 38 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93. 62% White,5. 06% Black or African American,0. 10% Native American,0. 18% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 32% from other races, and 0. 70% from two or more races. 0. 82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,26. 00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was out with 23. 40% under the age of 18,10. 40% from 18 to 24,26. 90% from 25 to 44,24. 10% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 92.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.70 males, the median income for a household in the county was $28,089, and the median income for a family was $33,854. Males had an income of $26,633 versus $20,480 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,162, about 14. 20% of families and 17. 50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23. 70% of those under age 18 and 18. 30% of those age 65 or over.
Margaret Young, born here, author of books and wife of Whitney Young. Holmes- Professional Golfer -PGA- Born and raised in Taylor County- He began to play on the varsity team at Taylor County High School in Campbellsville when he was in the third grade
Cumberland Falls State Resort Park
Cumberland Falls State Resort Park is a park located just southwest of Corbin, Kentucky and is contained entirely within the Daniel Boone National Forest. The park encompasses 1,657 acres and is named for its major feature, the falls are one of the few places in the western hemisphere where a moonbow can frequently be seen on nights with a full moon. The park is the home of 44-foot Eagle Falls, Cumberland Falls was dedicated as a state park at 1,30 p. m. on August 21,1931. Following a $2 million renovation project in 2006, the received an upgraded rating from two diamonds to three diamonds from the American Automobile Association in 2007. Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park received the upgraded rating, the two facilities were the first state resort parks to achieve the three-diamond rating following AAAs revision of its rating system in 2001
Campbellsville is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Taylor County, United States. The population within city limits was 10,604 at the 2010 U. S. census and it is the site of Campbellsville University, a private institution. On the border is Green River Lake, established for flood control, Campbellsville is twinned with Buncrana in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland. The city was founded in 1817 and laid out by Andrew Campbell, Campbell owned a gristmill and a tavern and began selling lots in Campbellsville in 1814. Campbellsville was designated by the legislature as the county seat in 1848 after Taylor County was separated from Green County. The city agreed to sell the public square to the county for one dollar so that a courthouse could be built here, the first courthouse was burned by Confederate cavalry in 1864 because the Union Army was using it for barracks. After the war, a replacement courthouse was built on the same site, a third courthouse in a modern design was built in 1965 on a property adjoining the old courthouse.
A portion of the old courthouse still stands near the current courthouse, construction began in 2008 on a new Justice Center because of the demand for a more modern courthouse. In addition, the city built an official county jail to avoid the cost of transporting and housing prisoners in neighboring Lebanon in Marion County, Campbellsville has several historic sites as listed under Taylor County in the National Register of Historic Places listings in Kentucky. The Campbellsville Historic Commercial District includes several blocks of Main Street, the most notable structure in this district is Merchant Tower which has Romanesque architecture. It has been listed individually on the National Register of Historical Places since 1980, just north of Campbellsville is the Spurlington Tunnel, once used by local railroads, but which is no longer in service. It is about 1,900 feet long, approximately one-third of the way in, a shaft leads to the top, where it once vented smoke from steam locomotives.
Downtown Campbellsville includes a Main Street and a historic district. The 100 and 200 blocks of Main Street are lined with brick, stone. Since 2008, Campbellsville has been redevelopig its downtown area with the help of a Main Street Manager, highlighting its historic design, improving pedestrian amenities, Campbellsville is known regionally for its Fourth Of July celebration. Campbellsville is home to a university, Campbellsville University, founded in 1906 as an academy. Campbellsville has two public schools Taylor County High School and Campbellsville High School, in the 20th century, Campbellsville was a regional center of industry. In the 21st century, the university, health care system
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site is a 745-acre park near Perryville in Boyle County, Kentucky. An interpretive museum is located near the site where many Confederate soldiers killed in the Battle of Perryville were buried, monuments, interpretive signage, and cannons mark notable events that occurred during the battle. The site became part of the Kentucky State Park System in 1936. The battle was fought on October 8,1862, between the Union Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, perryvilles homes and farms were left in shambles by the battle. During the battle Bottom had significant damage to his farm, other accounts note that nearly all residents of the area suffered some losses as well as having their homes and outbuildings used as field hospitals. The main force of the Union army had buried most of their dead in long trenches before pursuing Bragg, Union soldiers finally forced local residents to help them lay the dead in shallow trenches carved in the dry soil.
Two months later,347 were reburied in a grave on Bottoms land. In 1886 a total of 435 Confederates were buried on Bottoms land, although Bottom claimed that about 100 were identified, the only remnants of the cemetery were a corner of a stone wall and one headstone—that of Samuel H. Ransom of the 1st Tennessee Infantry CSA. At the end of the war in 1865, Union soldiers reburied the remains of 969 Federal dead in a cemetery at Perryville with a stone wall. Around the time of the centennial, numerous scholars worked to establish the importance of the Western campaigns. In recent years, appreciation for what happened at Perryville and other battlefields in Kentucky, more than 7,000 acres at Perryville are now recognized as a National Historic Landmark, and the site averages around 100,000 visitors per year. A reenactment of the battle occurs each October, the Perryville Battlefield Preservation Association was created in 1991 to preserve and protect the park. The acquisition of 149 acres of farmland from a descendant of Henry Bottom more than doubled the size of the park, the Civil War Trust has as of 2013 saved 954 acres of the battlefield.
Numerous acres of this land have been incorporated in the state park yearly. Noe, Kenneth W. Perryville, This Grand Havoc of Battle, University Press of Kentucky,2001, Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site Kentucky Department of Parks
Greenbo Lake State Resort Park
Greenbo Lake State Resort Park in Kentucky is a resort park in the northeastern part of the commonwealth, close to the town of Greenup, Kentucky in Greenup County on Kentucky State Route 1. The lodge contains a 232-seat dining room and it is centered on the 300-acre Greenbo Lake that features a boat dock and marina. There are over 25 miles of hiking and horseback trails, the park hosts a variety of community events each year including a quilt show, murder mystery dinner theaters, and a 5K race. Greenbo Lake State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Greenbo Lake State Resort Park American Byways
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park is a park located near Mount Olivet, Kentucky in Robertson and Nicholas counties. The park encompasses 148 acres and features a monument commemorating the August 19,1782 Battle of Blue Licks, the battle was regarded as the final battle of the American Revolutionary War. The earliest accounts of Blue Licks describe it as a place where animals gathered to lick the salt deposits flowing from the springs in the area. The Reverend James Smith provides this account in his 1795–97 diary, As you approach the Licks, at the distance of 4 or 5 miles from it, you begin to perceive the change. Here immense herds of buffalo used formerly to meet and with their fighting, scraping etc. have worn away the ground to what it is at present, in 1782, British Captain William Caldwell led a force of Indians against the small Kentucky settlement of Bryans Station. Caldwell met stiff resistance, and after two days, retreated toward the Ohio River, in the battle that followed,60 of the 176 men who followed McGary were killed, Boones son Israel among them.
Reinforcements under George Rogers Clark eventually arrived and drove Caldwells forces from Kentucky for good, by the mid-19th century, the Blue Licks area had become a health resort, due in large part to the nearby saltwater springs that had been used for salt making since the 1770s. The mineral water found in the springs was rumored to cure everything from asthma to gout, by 1896, the areas last spring had gone dry. Efforts to locate another spring unearthed several geological and historical artifacts, a more extensive excavation of the area was conducted in 1945. However, a team from Morehead State University is to search the battlefield using modern equipment to explore for artifacts relating to the battlefields, enough success in this endeavor could mean the return of the battlefield to the Register. The park is located along the Licking River, and offers canoeing and fishing, the Licking River Trail offers a one-mile hike along the riverbank. Overnight stays are accommodated at the 32-room lodge or the 51-site campground, the park features a 15-acre nature preserve containing a cedar glade.
This glade was previously maintained as an area by the large numbers of herbivores, such as bison, elk. Today much of the glade has transitioned into forest, but the remnant areas are being maintained by controlled burns and these remnants are home to the federally endangered Shorts goldenrod and the state threatened Great Plains Ladies-tresses. The Pioneer Museum is the major attraction. It houses a variety of artifacts, from a tooth found during an excavation of the site to relics from the American Civil War. Exhibits focus on the natural and cultural history, including prehistoric animals and fossils, area Native Americans and 18th century pioneers. The museum was dedicated in 1931, saw renovations completed in 2007, the Battle of Blue Licks celebration is held annually in mid-August and features a re-enactment of the Battle of Blue Licks
Daniel Boone National Forest
Daniel Boone National Forest is the only national forest completely within the boundary of Kentucky. Established in 1937, it was named the Cumberland National Forest. The forest was named after Daniel Boone, a frontiersman and explorer in the late 18th century who contributed greatly to the exploration, in 1937, a national forest was established containing 1,338,214 acres within its proclamation boundary. As of June 1937, the Forest Service had purchased only 336,692 acres, most early purchases were large, isolated tracts owned by lumber and coal companies with but few inhabitants. The Forest Service has since had difficulty acquiring more land within the boundary, the bulk of which was. Due in part to World War II, funds for land acquisition were curtailed in the early 1940s, substantial acquisition efforts could not resume until the mid-1960s. The lengthy cessation of land acquisitions, except for period during the forests renaming, naming the forest entailed considerable debate. Protests began immediately after the national forest was named, the naming issue was reopened in the late 1950s.
The Forest Service investigated the name Cumberland, and found it came to Kentucky in 1750 when Thomas Walker named the Cumberland River in honor of Prince William Augustus, the Duke had defeated the Scottish Highlanders in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden, an especially brutal conflict. Many Scottish families fled to America and ultimately Kentucky as a result of the event, the Forest Service found that for their descendants still living in Eastern Kentucky, the name Cumberland was particularly distasteful. In addition, the Forest Service noted the influence of history on the names of places in Kentucky, during this period of time, place names with British connotations fell out of favor and changes were made. For example, prior to the Revolution, the Kentucky River was called the Louisa River, after the wife of the Duke of Cumberland, during the 1960s, a new movement to rename the national forest took place. Also during the 1960s, part of the national forest was designated a Primitive Weapons Area and set apart for hunting with longbow, crossbow, in 1970, this was the only US area where deer could legally be hunted with crossbows.
The park remains unique still for allowing only muzzle-loaded firearms, in 1967, a large and disconnected addition to the national forest was created, called the Redbird Purchase Unit, after a key purchase from the Red Bird Timber Company. About a third of the land within the national forest proclamation boundary is owned or managed by the Forest Service, the pattern of land ownership is highly fragmented and changes relatively frequently. One of the goals of the Forest Service is to consolidate holdings into larger blocks, the boundaries of Forest Service lands are marked in various ways, including red paint on trees. The shifting boundaries and growing size of Forest Service lands sometimes results in local complaints, in addition, it can be difficult for recreational users to know whether they are on Forest Service lands or not. No Trespassing signs are used by landowners, and conflicts between landowners and recreational users are not uncommon