Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Banksville is a neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The neighborhood of Banksville is located in the western part of the city and borders the South Hills region. Real estate agencies refer to the Banksville area as Greentree City due to Banksville's shared border with the borough of Green Tree, it has two zip codes of both 15220 and 15216, has representation in Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 2. Theresa Kail-Smith is the current Councilperson for district two. Banksville's primary corridor, Banksville Road, is used as a gateway between the South Hills of Pittsburgh and downtown Pittsburgh via the Fort Pitt Tunnels. Banksville Union Township, joined the City of Pittsburgh around 1928; the building to the right, now converted to a restaurant, housed the fans used to control the air flow in Hartley Marshall's Enterprise Mine. The first known European inhabitant of Banksville was Isaac Sellers, who settled in the area in 1773. According to the "History of Allegheny County", "the earliest settlers were subjected to frequent alarms by marauding Indians."
Shortly after his settlement, he was joined both from Ireland. The 400-acre land, known as "The Experiment" and located on the waters of Little Saw-Mill Run, was sold in 1784 to David and Agnes Carnahan of Ireland. Just before David's death, 250 acres of the land was split between David's 3 children—William and Joseph; the land was named Banksville by Alexander Carnahan in honor of the family of his second wife — Eliza Banks. Alexander Carnahan laid out Banksville just after the Civil War; the town was a farming community as well as a prosperous mining town whose settlers were Scotch-Irish. The Little Saw Mill Run Railroad, owned by the Harmony Society, was operated between Banksville and the West End beginning in April 1853. Banksville was a part of Union Township before being annexed into the city of Pittsburgh in 1907. Banksville Related Mining activities: Coal Ridge Mine. Banksville Civic Association Residents have convenient access to the Banksville park, operated by the Pittsburgh Citiparks.
The park features a playground, swimming pool, tennis courts, basketball court, batting cages, ballfield. Banksville has five borders, including the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Ridgemont to the north and Beechview to the east, the boroughs of Dormont to the south and Green Tree to the west, the municipality of Mt. Lebanon to the southwest. List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods Toker, Franklin. Pittsburgh: An Urban Portrait. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-5434-6. Interactive Pittsburgh Neighborhoods Map Historic Map of Banksville Report of Progress of Banksville Mine Picture of Banksville Saloon Painting of Banksville Banksville School News Article Photo and oil painting of Simmons farm on Potomac Avenue
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Heroes (U.S. TV series)
Heroes is an American science fiction television drama series created by Tim Kring that appeared on NBC for four seasons from September 25, 2006 through February 8, 2010. The series tells the stories of ordinary people who discover that they had superhuman abilities, how these abilities take effect in the characters' lives as they work together to prevent catastrophic futures; the series emulates the aesthetic style and storytelling of American comic books, using multi-episode story arcs that build upon a larger, more encompassing narrative. The series was produced by Tailwind Productions in association with Universal Media Studios, it was filmed in Los Angeles, California. Four complete seasons aired, ending on February 8, 2010; the critically acclaimed first season had a run of 23 episodes and garnered an average of 14.3 million viewers in the United States, receiving the highest rating for an NBC drama premiere in five years. The second season of Heroes attracted an average of 13.1 million viewers in the U.
S. and marked NBC's sole series among the top 20 ranked programs in total viewership for the 2007–2008 season. Heroes has earned a number of awards and nominations, including Primetime Emmy Awards, Golden Globes, People's Choice Awards, British Academy Television Awards. An online extension of the series, Heroes 360 Experience rebranded as Heroes Evolutions, was created to explore the Heroes universe and provides insight into the show's mythology. Other official Heroes media include magazines, action figures, tie-in and interactive websites, a mobile game, a novel and other merchandise. In the fall of 2008, NBC Digital Entertainment released a series of online content for the summer, including more original web content, wireless iTV interactivity, graphic novels available for mobile viewing and webisodes. A 13-episode miniseries entitled Heroes Reborn premiered on NBC on September 24, 2015. Additionally, comic book writer Cullen Bunn will be writing an ongoing comic book continuing Heroes, called Heroes: Season Five.
Kring designed the series to have an ever-shifting cast. However, his motivation changed. In its first season, the show features an ensemble cast of twelve main characters making it the third largest cast in American primetime television behind Desperate Housewives and Lost. Although NBC's first-season cast page listed only ten characters, Leonard Roberts, who first appeared in the series' fifth episode as D. L. Hawkins, was an additional member of the original full-time cast. In episode eleven of the first season, Jack Coleman, who portrays Noah Bennet, was upgraded from a recurring role to become the twelfth full-time cast member; these are the people who remained major characters during all four seasons: Milo Ventimiglia as Peter Petrelli, a hospice nurse with the ability to mimic abilities of other people Hayden Panettiere as Claire Bennet, a high-school cheerleader who can spontaneously regenerate Adrian Pasdar as Nathan Petrelli, a congressional candidate with the ability to fly Masi Oka as Hiro Nakamura, an office worker who can manipulate space-time Greg Grunberg as Matt Parkman, an LAPD police officer who can read people's minds During the first two seasons, some characters were written out to make room for new characters with new stories.
In season one, portrayed by Christopher Eccleston, who had the power of invisibility, was instrumental in helping Peter understand his powers, throwing him off a building to try to help him fly, but he discovered he healed instead. Simone Deveaux was the first major character to be written out. DL became a guest star after the events of the first season's finale, making two appearances throughout season two. Isaac Mendez was written out, dying at the hands of Sylar, shown during Hiro Nakamura's time traveling expedition to New York earlier in season one. New characters added during season two include: Maya Herrera, played by Dania Ramirez, a fugitive with the ability to emit a deadly poison. Two recurring characters from season one, portrayed by Zachary Quinto, Ando Masahashi, portrayed by James Kyson Lee, were upgraded to main characters in season two. Starting in season three, recurring character Angela Petrelli, portrayed by Cristine Rose, was promoted to a main character. Elle and Micah were removed from the main cast.
Monica Dawson did not appear. Niki was written out but actress Ali Larter remained on the show portraying a new character Tracy Strauss, Niki's triplet sister with the power to freeze objects with a touch. For season four, a new character Samuel Sullivan, portrayed by Robert Knepper, was added. Cast as a recurring part, the part was changed to a starring role. Deanne Bray was added as Emma Coolidge, the deaf woman who had enhanced synesthesia including the ability to create a siren song; the plot of Heroes is designed to be told in a way similar to the way. Each season of Heroes contains one or two "volumes". There are several main story lines in each volume; as the main plots develop, more intimate stories are told within them. Each main character's story is developed separately and as time pass
The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv
2016 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania
The 2016 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election in which all fifty states and the District of Columbia participated. Pennsylvania voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote. On April 26, 2016, in the presidential primaries, voters selected the Democratic and Green parties' respective nominees for president. Pennsylvania is a closed primary state, meaning voters must have been registered with a particular political party in order to vote for one of that parties' candidates, to participate in their respective party primary; the Republican party candidate, former host of The Apprentice, an American reality television program, Donald Trump, who won Pennsylvania by 44,292 votes out of more than six million cast, a difference of 0.72% and the narrowest margin in a presidential election for the state in 176 years, since 1840 when William Henry Harrison defeated Martin Van Buren by just 0.12%.
Prior to the election, Pennsylvania was expected to be close as polling showed the results within the margin of error. However, most election experts viewed Pennsylvania as solidly Clinton. On Election Day, Pennsylvania swung to Donald Trump. Trump carried 56 of the state's 67 counties, predominantly rural or semi-rural counties, while Clinton carried much of the Philadelphia metropolitan area as well as other cities including Pittsburgh and Scranton. Nonetheless, some areas of traditional Democratic strength such as Luzerne County, where Wilkes-Barre is located, saw swings in margins of up to 25% toward Donald Trump, making him the first Republican candidate for president to carry Pennsylvania since George H. W. Bush in 1988. 2016 would be the first presidential election in which Pennsylvania voted to the right of the nation since 1976. Pennsylvania held a series of caucuses throughout April, culminating with a meeting on April 30 in Harrisburg, where delegates were assigned. From July 25 to July 28, 2016, Philadelphia hosted the 2016 Democratic National Convention.
It was held at the Wells Fargo Center with ancillary meetings at the Pennsylvania Convention Center. Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton was elected as the party's nominee for president by a 59.67% majority of delegates present at the convention roll call, defeating primary rival Senator Bernie Sanders, who received 39.16% of votes from delegates, becoming the first female candidate to be formally nominated by a major national party as a presidential candidate in the United States. Her running mate, Senator Tim Kaine, the junior United States Senator from Virginia was chosen by delegates as the party's nominee for vice president by acclamation. CNN: Leans Clinton Cook Political Report: Leans Clinton Electoral-vote.com: Leans Clinton NBC: Leans Clinton RealClearPolitics: Tossup Sabato's Crystal Ball: Leans Clinton Trump won 12 of 18 congressional districts, including the 17th district which elected a Democrat. Erie Luzerne Northampton Chester Democratic Party presidential debates and forums, 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016 Republican Party presidential debates and forums, 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016 RNC 2016 Republican Nominating Process Green papers for 2016 primaries and conventions
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Allegheny County is a county in the southwest of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2017 the population was 1,223,048, making it the state's second-most populous county, following Philadelphia County; the county seat is Pittsburgh. Allegheny County is included in the Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the Pittsburgh Designated Market Area. Allegheny was Pennsylvania's first to bear a Native American name, being named after the Allegheny River; the word "Allegheny" is with uncertain meaning. It is said to mean "fine river", but sometimes said to refer to an ancient mythical tribe called "Allegewi" that lived along the river before being destroyed by the Lenape. Little is known of the region's inhabitants prior to European contact. During the colonial era, various native groups claimed or settled in the area, resulting in a multi-ethnic mix that included Iroquois, Lenape and Mingo. European fur traders such as Peter Chartier established trading posts in the region in the early eighteenth century.
In 1749, Captain Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville claimed the Ohio Valley and all of western Pennsylvania for Louis XV of France. The captain traveled along the Ohio and Allegheny rivers inserting lead plates in the ground to mark the land for France. Since most of the towns during that era were developed along waterways, both the French and the British desired control over the local rivers. Therefore, the British sent Major George Washington to expel the French from their posts, with no success. Failing in this objective, he nearly drowned in the ice-filled Allegheny River while returning; the English tried in 1754 to again enter the area. They sent 41 Virginians to build Fort Prince George; the French learned of the plan and sent an army to capture the fort, which they resumed building with increased fortification, renaming it Fort Duquesne. The loss cost the English dearly because Fort Duquesne became a focal point of the French and Indian War; the first attempt to retake the fort, the Braddock Expedition, failed miserably.
It was recaptured in 1758 by British forces under General John Forbes. The British built a new, larger fort on the site, including a moat, named it Fort Pitt; the site is now Pittsburgh's Point State Park. Both Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed the region, now Allegheny County. Pennsylvania administered most of the region as part of its Westmoreland County. Virginia considered everything south of the Ohio River and east of the Allegheny River to be part of its Yohogania County and governed it from Fort Dunmore. In addition, parts of the county were located in the proposed British colony of Vandalia and the proposed U. S. state of Westsylvania. The overlapping boundaries, multiple governments, confused deed claims soon proved unworkable. In 1780 Pennsylvania and Virginia agreed to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, the region became part of Pennsylvania. From 1781 until 1788, much of what had been claimed as part of Yohogania County, was administered as a part of the newly created Washington County, Pennsylvania.
Allegheny County was created on September 24, 1788, from parts of Washington and Westmoreland counties. It was formed due to pressure from settlers living in the area around Pittsburgh, which became the county seat in 1791; the county extended north to the shores of Lake Erie. In the 1790s, a whiskey excise tax was imposed by the United States federal government; this started the so-called Whiskey Rebellion when the farmers who depended on whiskey income refused to pay and drove off tax collector John Neville. After a series of demonstrations by farmers, President George Washington sent troops to stop the rebellion; the area developed in the 1800s to become the nation's prime steel producer. In 1913 the County's 125th anniversary was celebrated with a week long chain of events, the final day September 27 was marked with a steamboat parade consisting of 30 paddle wheelers which sailed from Monongahela Wharf down the Ohio to the Davis Island Dam; the boats in line were the flag ship. Woodward, Volunteer, A. R. Budd, J. C.
Risher, Rival, Jim Brown, Charlie Clarke, Robt. J. Jenkins, Bertha, Midland Sam Barnum, Cadet and Troubadour. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 745 square miles, of which 730 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Three majors traverse Allegheny County: the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River converge at Downtown Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River; the Youghiogheny River flows into the Monongahela River at McKeesport, 10 miles southeast. There are several islands in these courses; the rivers drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Although the county's industrial growth caused the clearcutting of the area's forests, a significant woodland remains. Butler County Armstrong County Beaver County Westmoreland County Washington County Until January 1, 2000, Allegheny County's government was defined under Pennsylvania's Second Class County Code; the county government was charged with all local activities, including elections, airports, public health, city planning.
All public offices were headed by elected citizens. There were three elected county commissioners. On January 1, 2000 the Home-Rule Charter went into effect, it replaced the three elected commissioners wi