Flag of Ireland
The national flag of Ireland – referred to as the Irish tricolour – is the national flag and ensign of the Republic of Ireland. The flag itself is a vertical tricolour of green and orange; the proportions of the flag are 1:2. Presented as a gift in 1848 to Thomas Francis Meagher from a small group of French women sympathetic to the Irish cause, it was intended to symbolise the inclusion and hoped-for union between Roman Catholics and Protestants, the significance of the colours outlined by Meagher was, “The white in the centre signifies a lasting truce between Orange and Green and I trust that beneath its folds the hands of Irish Protestants and Irish Catholics may be clasped in generous and heroic brotherhood.” It was not until the Easter Rising of 1916, when it was raised above Dublin's General Post Office by Gearóid O'Sullivan, that the tricolour came to be regarded as the national flag. The flag was adopted by the Irish Republic during the Irish War of Independence; the flag's use was continued by the Irish Free State and it was given constitutional status under the 1937 Constitution of Ireland.
The tricolour is used by nationalists on both sides of the border as the national flag of the whole island of Ireland since 1916. Thus it is flown by many nationalists in Northern Ireland as well as by the Gaelic Athletic Association. In relation to the national flag of Ireland, the Constitution of Ireland states in Article 7: The national flag is the tricolour of green and orange; as there are no further statutory requirements in relation to the flag, the Department of the Taoiseach takes general responsibility for matters relating to the flag. In its advisory role, the department has issued guidelines to assist persons in their use of the national flag; the flag should be rectangular in shape and its length should be two times its width, translating into an aspect ratio of 1:2. The three coloured pales — green and orange — should be of equal size, vertically disposed; the precise colours of the flag as set by the Department of the Taoiseach are: The flag should be displayed on a flagstaff, with the green pale positioned next to the flagstaff, at the hoist.
Provided that the correct proportions are observed, the flag may be made to any convenient size. The green pale of the flag symbolises Roman Catholics, the orange represents the minority Protestants who were supporters of William of Orange, who had defeated King James II and his predominantly Irish Catholic army at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, his title came from the Principality of Orange in the south of France, a Protestant bastion from the 16th century. It was included in the Irish flag in an attempt to reconcile the Orange Order in Ireland with the Irish independence movement; the white in the centre signifies a lasting peace and hope for union between Protestants and Catholics in Ireland. The flag, as a whole, is intended to symbolise the inclusion and hoped-for union of the people of different traditions on the island of Ireland, expressed in the Constitution as the entitlement of every person born in Ireland to be part of the independent Irish nation, regardless of ethnic origin, religion or political conviction.
There are exceptions to the general beneficent theory. Green was used as the colour of such Irish bodies as the mainly-Protestant and non-sectarian Friendly Brothers of St. Patrick, established in 1751. Differing shades of yellow, instead of orange, are seen at civilian functions; however the Department of the Taoiseach state that this is a misrepresentation which "should be discouraged", that worn-out flags should be replaced. In songs and poems, the colours are sometimes enumerated as "green and gold", using poetic licence. Variants of different guises are utilised to include, for example, various emblems of Ireland, such as the presidential harp, the four provinces or county arms. A green flag featuring a harp is described as being used by Owen Roe O'Neill in 1642. In the late 18th century green had become associated as the colour of nationalism; the United Irishmen, founded in the 1790s, were inspired by the French revolution, used a green flag, to which they had a harp emblazoned. A rival organisation, the Orange Order, whose main strength was in Ulster, and, for Protestants members of the Anglican Church of Ireland, was founded in 1795 in memory of King William of Orange and the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688.
Following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which pitted the "green" tradition of the republican United Irishmen against the "orange" tradition of Anglican Protestant Ascendancy loyal to the British Crown, the ideal of a nationalist generation in the mid-19th century was to make peace between the two traditions and, if possible, to found a self-governing Ireland on such peace and union. The oldest known reference to the use of the three colours of green and orange as a nationalist emblem dates from September 1830 when tricolour cockades were worn at a meeting held to celebrate the French Revolution of that year — a revolution which restored the use of the French tricolour; the colours were used in the same period for rosettes and badges, on the banners of trade guilds. However, widespread recognition was not accorded to the flag until 1848. At a meeting in his native city of Waterford on 7 March 1848, Thomas Francis Meagher, the Young Ireland leader, first publicly unveiled the flag from a second-floor window of the Wolfe Tone Club as he addressed a gathered cr
White flags have had different meanings throughout history and depending on the locale. The white flag is an internationally recognized protective sign of truce or ceasefire, request for negotiation, it is used to symbolize surrender, since it is the weaker party which requests negotiation. It is flown on ships serving as cartels. A white flag signifies to all that an approaching negotiator is unarmed, with an intent to surrender or a desire to communicate. Persons carrying or waving a white flag are not to be fired upon, nor are they allowed to open fire; the use of the flag to request parley is included in the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. The improper use of the flag is forbidden by the rules of war and constitutes a war crime of perfidy. There have been numerous reported cases of such behavior in conflicts, such as combatants using white flags as a ruse to approach and attack enemy combatants, or killings of combatants attempting to surrender by carrying white flags; the first mention of the usage of white flags to surrender is made during the Eastern Han dynasty.
In the Roman Empire, the historian Cornelius Tacitus mentions a white flag of surrender in AD 109. Before that time, Roman armies would surrender by holding their shields above their heads; the white flag was used in the Middle Ages in Western Europe to indicate an intent to surrender. The color white was used to indicate a person was exempt from combat, its use may have expanded across continents, e.g. Portuguese chronicler Gaspar Correia, claims that in 1502, an Indian prince, the Zamorin of Calicut, dispatched negotiators bearing a "white cloth tied to a stick", "as a sign of peace", to his enemy Vasco da Gama. In 1625, Hugo Grotius in De jure belli ac pacis, one of the foundational texts in international law, recognized the white flag as a "sign, to which use has given a signification"; the Umayyad dynasty used white as their symbolic color as a reminder of Muhammad's first battle at Badr, to distinguish themselves from the Abbasids, by using white, rather than black, as their color of mourning.
During the period of the Ancien Régime, starting in the early 17th century, the royal standard of France became a plain white flag as a symbol of purity, sometimes covered in fleur-de-lis when in the presence of the king or bearing the ensigns of the Order of the Holy Spirit. The white color was used as a symbol of military command, by the commanding officer of a French army, it would be featured on a white scarf attached to the regimental flag as to recognise French units from foreign ones and avoid friendly fire incidents. The French troops fighting in the American Revolutionary War fought under the white flag; the French Navy used a plain white ensign for ships of the line. Smaller ships might have used other standards, such as a fleur-de-lis on white field. Commerce and private ships were authorised to use their own designs to represent France, but were forbidden to fly the white ensign. During the French Revolution, in 1794, the blue and red Tricolore was adopted as the official national flag.
The white flag became a symbol of French royalists. During the Bourbon Restoration, the white flag replaced the Tricolore, by seen as a symbol of regicide, it was abandoned in 1830, with the July Revolution, with the definitive use of the blue and red flag. In 1873, an attempt to reestablish the monarchy failed when Henri of Artois, the Count of Chambord refused to accept the Tricolore, he demanded the return of the white flag before he would accept the throne, a condition that proved unacceptable. In 1863, the Confederate States of America adopted a new flag that played on the popularity of the Confederate Battle Flag, using a pure white field with the Battle Flag displayed in a canton in a position equivalent to the stars on the Flag of the United States; the design lasted until March 1865, when concerns about it being mistaken for a flag of truce when the flag was not flying necessitated the addition of a broad red band on the fly edge. The Christian Flag, designed in the early 20th century to represent all of Christianity and Christendom, has a white field, with a red Latin cross inside a blue canton.
In conventional vexillology, a white flag is linked to surrender, a reference to the Biblical description of Jesus' non-violence and surrender to God's will. In FIA sanctioned races, a white flag warns of a slow car ahead. In non-FIA races, a white racing flag is displayed from the starter's tower to indicate that the race leader is running the final lap; the white flag can be pointed at the race leader to avoid confusion of other drivers. Drivers may wave a small white flag after a collision to indicate. In NASCAR and other racing leagues, a white flag symbolizes. After this, the checkered flag is waved. NASCAR sometimes has finishes that are coined as "green–white–checker finishes" because of the order of the flags waved lap after lap before the finish. In Buddhist countries, white is the colour of mourning, so a white flag is used where other cultures might fly a black flag. During the Afghan Civil War, the Taliban used a plain white flag; when it
Flag of Saudi Arabia
The flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the flag used by the government of Saudi Arabia since March 15, 1973. It is a green flag featuring in a sword; the inscription is the Islamic creed, or shahada: "There is no god but Allah. The Arabic inscription on the flag, written in the calligraphic Thuluth script, is the shahada or Islamic declaration of faith: لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāh, muhammadun rasūlu-llāh There is no god but God; the flag is manufactured with identical obverse and reverse sides, to ensure the shahada reads from right to left, from either side. The sword points in the direction of the script; the flag is sinister hoisted, meaning that it is hoisted to the left of the flagpole, as viewed from the obverse side. The usual color of the flag's green was approximated by Album des pavillons as Pantone 330 C, while the color used on flags at United Nations is Pantone 349. At the 2012 London Olympics, Pantone 355 was used; because the shahada is considered holy, the flag is not used on T-shirts or other items.
Saudi Arabia protested against its inclusion on a planned football to be issued by FIFA, bearing all the flags of the participants of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Saudi officials said that kicking the creed with the foot was unacceptable. An attempt by the U. S. military to win favour with children of the Khost Province of Afghanistan by distributing footballs adorned with flags, including that of Saudi Arabia, ended in demonstrations. The flag is never lowered to half-mast as a sign of mourning, because lowering it would be considered blasphemous; the flags of Afghanistan and Iraq are never at half-mast. The normal flag cannot be hoisted vertically according to Saudi legislation. Special vertical flags are manufactured where both the inscription and the emblem are rotated, although this is rare, as most Arab countries traditionally do not hoist flags vertically; the Al Saud, the ruling family of Saudi Arabia, has long been related with Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. He and the people who followed him, since the 18th century, had used the shahada on their flags.
In 1902 Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Al-Saud, leader of the Al Saud and the future founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, added a sword to this flag. The design of the flag was not standardized prior to March 15, 1973, variants with two swords and/or a white vertical stripe at the hoist were used. By 1938, the flag had assumed its present form, except the sword had a different design and it, along with the shahada above, took up more of the flag's space; the precursor states to Saudi Arabia were Hejaz. The state flag of Nejd followed today's Saudi flag pattern closely; the state of Hijaz followed the patterns seen in countries like Sudan. From 1902 until 1921 a different Arabic inscription was used. One of the primary opponents to the Saudis was the Emirate of Jabal Shammar of the Al Rashid family in the north of the peninsula, until their defeat in 1921; the civil ensign, for use by merchant vessels at sea, is a green flag with the state flag in the canton with a white border. The royal standard is swords in the canton.
Emblem of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia at Flags of the World World Flags Information, Saudi Arabian page Saudi Arabian flag and associated information
Racing flags are traditionally used in auto racing and similar motorsports to indicate track condition and to communicate important messages to drivers. The starter, sometimes the grand marshal of a race, waves the flags atop a flag stand near the start/finish line. Track marshals are stationed at observation posts along the race track in order to communicate both local and course-wide conditions to drivers. Alternatively, some race tracks employ lights to supplement the primary flag at the start/finish line. While there is no universal system of racing flags across all of motorsports, most series have standardized them, with some flags carrying over between series. For example, the chequered flag is used across all of motorsport to signify the end of a session, while the penalty flags differ from series to series. FIA-sanctioned championship flags are the most used internationally as they cover championships such as Formula 1, the FIA World Endurance Championship and WTCC, are adopted by many more motorsport governing bodies across the world such as, for example, the MSA.
Status flags are used to inform all drivers of the general status of the course during a race. In addition, the green and red flags described below may be augmented or replaced by lights at various points around the circuit; the solid green flag is displayed by the starter to indicate the start of a race. During a race, it is displayed at the end of a caution period or a temporary delay to indicate that the race is restarting; the waving of a green flag is universally supplemented with the illumination of green lights at various intervals around the course on ovals. If the race is not under caution or delayed, it is said to be under green-flag conditions. However, the flag itself is not continuously waved by the starter. No flag displayed at the starter's stand implies green-flag conditions. At all times, the green lights remain lit; when shown at a marshalling post, a green flag may indicate the end of a local yellow-flag zone. A separate green flag displayed at the entrance to the pit area indicate.
In NASCAR, a green and yellow flag waved at the same time indicates that the race is being started or restarted under caution and laps are being counted. This is sometimes called a "running yellow" and occurs when a track is drying after a rain delay; the officials will utilize the cars in the field to facilitate the final drying of the course, but in order to not waste fuel, delay the race further, the laps are counted towards the advertised race distance. In 1980, USAC flagman Duane Sweeney started a tradition at the Indianapolis 500 of waving twin green flags for added visual effect at the start of the race. Green flags waved at restarts. Since the 1990s, some races on occasion invite celebrity guests to wave the green flag at the start of the race. Before the use of starting lights in Formula One and most other FIA sanctioned or associated events, the national flag of the country in which a race is occurring, instead of a green flag, was used to signal its start, still does on occasion in the event of equipment failure.
The solid yellow flag, or caution flag, universally requires drivers to slow down due to a hazard on the track an accident, a stopped car, debris or light rain. However, the procedures for displaying the yellow flag vary for different racing styles and sanctioning bodies. In Formula One racing, a yellow flag displayed at the starter's stand or a marshal station indicates that there is a hazard "downstream" of the station; the manner of display depends on the location of the hazard: A single waved flag denotes a hazard on the racing surface itself. A single stationary flag denotes a hazard near the racing surface. Two flags waved denotes a hazard that wholly or blocks the racing surface; this informs the driver that there may be marshals on the track and to prepare to stop, if necessary. When shown at a station, drivers are forbidden from overtaking until either the hazard or the next flag station displaying a green flag is passed; this flag is shown at the discretion of the marshals manning the station.
When the safety car is on the circuit, all flag points will display a'safety car board'. When flag points are under radio control, this will happen otherwise, the board is displayed when the safety car comes round for the first time; this is accompanied by a waved yellow flag. Standard yellow flag conditions apply to the whole circuit; when the safety car comes in and the race resumes, a green flag is displayed at the start line, subsequently at all flag points around the circuit for one lap. Overtaking is not allowed until the cars have passed the start/finish line, or in F1, the safety car line at pit entry; when there are circumstances where double-waved yellow flags are needed yet usage of the safety car is not warranted the race will be under a Virtual Safety Car period, during which all flag points will display a'VSC board' and all light panels on track will display the letters'VSC' surrounded by a flashing yellow border. Under the VSC procedure, all drivers on the track must reduce their speed and stay above a minimum time set by race officials at least once in each marshalling sector.
Overtaking is not permitted unless if another driver enters the pit lane or if a car slows down due to an obvious problem. When deemed safe to end the VSC procedure, teams are notified via the official messaging
History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état. After the king had fled the country, the Libyan Revolutionary Command Council headed by Gaddafi abolished the monarchy and the old constitution and established the Libyan Arab Republic, with the motto "freedom and unity". After coming to power, the RCC government initiated a process of directing funds toward providing education, health care and housing for all. Public education in the country became primary education compulsory for both sexes. Medical care became available to the public at no cost, but providing housing for all was a task the RCC government was not able to complete. Under Gaddafi, per capita income in the country rose to more than US $11,000, the fifth highest in Africa; the increase in prosperity was accompanied by a controversial foreign policy, there was increased domestic political repression. During the 1980s and 1990s, Gaddafi, in alliance with the Eastern Bloc and Fidel Castro's Cuba supported rebel movements like Nelson Mandela's African National Congress, the Palestine Liberation Organization, the Irish Republican Army and the Polisario Front.
Gaddafi's government was either known to be or suspected of participating in or aiding terrorist acts by these and other proxy forces. Additionally, Gaddafi undertook several invasions of neighboring states in Africa, notably Chad in the 1970s and 1980s. All of his actions led to a deterioration of Libya's foreign relations with several countries Western states, culminated in the 1986 United States bombing of Libya. Gaddafi defended his government's actions by citing the need to support anti-imperialist and anti-colonial movements around the world. Notably, Gaddafi supported pan-Africanist and black civil rights movements. Gaddafi's behavior erratic, led some outsiders to conclude that he was not mentally sound, a claim disputed by the Libyan authorities and other observers close to Gaddafi. Despite receiving extensive aid and technical assistance from the Soviet Union and its allies, Gaddafi retained close ties to pro-American governments in Western Europe by incentivising Western oil companies with promises of access to lucrative Libyan energy sectors.
After the 9/11 attacks, strained relations between Libya and the West were normalised, sanctions against the country relaxed, in exchange for Libyan efforts to shrink its nuclear program. In early 2011, a civil war broke out in the context of the wider "Arab Spring"; the rebel anti-Gaddafi forces formed a committee named the National Transitional Council on 27 February 2011. It was meant to act as an interim authority in the rebel-controlled areas. After killings by government forces in addition to those by the rebel forces, a multinational coalition led by NATO forces intervened on 21 March 2011 in support of the rebels; the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant against Gaddafi and his entourage on 27 June 2011. Gaddafi's government was overthrown in the wake of the fall of Tripoli to the rebel forces on 20 August 2011, although pockets of resistance held by forces in support of Gaddafi's government held out for another two months in Gaddafi's hometown of Sirte, which he declared the new capital of Libya on 1 September 2011.
The fall of the last remaining cities under pro-Gaddafi control and Sirte's capture on 20 October 2011, followed by the subsequent killing of Gaddafi, marked the end of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. The name of Libya was changed several times during Gaddafi's tenure as leader. At first, the name was the Libyan Arab Republic. In 1977, the name was changed to Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Jamahiriya was a term coined by Gaddafi translated as "state of the masses"; the country was renamed again in 1986 as the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, after the 1986 United States bombing of Libya. The discovery of significant oil reserves in 1959 and the subsequent income from petroleum sales enabled the Kingdom of Libya to transition from one of the world's poorest nations to a wealthy state. Although oil drastically improved the Libyan government's finances, resentment began to build over the increased concentration of the nation's wealth in the hands of King Idris; this discontent mounted with the rise of Nasserism and Arab nationalism/socialism throughout North Africa and the Middle East.
On 1 September 1969, a group of about 70 young army officers known as the Free Officers Movement and enlisted men assigned to the Signal Corps, seized control of the government and in a stroke abolished the Libyan monarchy. The coup was launched at Benghazi, within two hours the takeover was completed. Army units rallied in support of the coup, within a few days established military control in Tripoli and elsewhere throughout the country. Popular reception of the coup by younger people in the urban areas, was enthusiastic. Fears of resistance in Cyrenaica and Fezzan proved unfounded. No deaths or violent incidents related to the coup were reported; the Free Officers Movement, which claimed credit for carrying out the coup, was headed by a twelve-member directorate that designated itself the Revolutionary Command Council. This body constituted the Libyan government after the coup. In its initial proclamation on 1 September, the RCC declared the country to be a free and sovereign state called the Libyan Arab Republic, which would proceed "in the path of freedom and social justice, guaranteeing the right of equality to its citizens, opening before them the doors of honorable work."
The rule of the Turks and Italians and the "reactionary" government just overthrown were characteriz
Flag of Mauritania
The flag of Mauritania is a green field containing a gold star and crescent, with a red stripe at the top and bottom of the field. The original national flag was introduced under the instructions of President Moktar Ould Daddah and the constitution of 22 March 1959 and was adopted on 1 April 1959. On 5 August 2017, a referendum was held by President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz to change the national flag, abolish the senate, other constitutional amendments; the referendum was successful, the new flag, including two red stripes, which represent "the efforts and sacrifices that the people of Mauritania will keep consenting, to the price of their blood, to defend their territory", was adopted in for its first raising on 28 November 2017, the 57th anniversary of Mauritania's independence. Green and red are considered Pan-African colours. Green is used to symbolise Islam, the gold is for the sands of the Sahara desert; the red stripes, which were added to the flag in 2017, represent "the efforts and sacrifices that the people of Mauritania will keep consenting, to the price of their blood, to defend their territory".
The crescent and star are symbols of Islam, Mauritania's state religion. Some writers have speculated that green symbolises a bright future and growth. There is no official specification or construction sheet for the exact relative measurements of the star and crescent, although the flag's measurements are 2:3; the design acts as the national flag of Mauritania and is used in circular form as an aircraft roundel. Although the constitutional amendments only mentioned the addition of red bands, officials have been using different flag's models since the change in 2017; the current constitution of 12 July 1991 specifies that: The national emblem is a flag with a crescent and a gold star on a green ground Unlike the seal, the exact flag is specified, not the right for a law to specify it at some date. However, the flag has its official basis in the earlier constitution of 22 March 1959. In 2017, a red band at the top and bottom were added to symbolise "the efforts and sacrifices that the people of Mauritania will keep consenting, to the price of their blood, to defend their territory", in a referendum on 5 August 2017, scheduled by President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz which contained among other constitutional amendments a modification of the national flag and anthem.
First scheduled as part of a single vote, these changes proved controversial enough for them to be made into a separate vote the same day as the vote on institutions. Seal of Mauritania National anthem of Mauritania Mauritania at Flags of the World