Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society. This is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity, social privileges. In Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal roles and receive what was their due from society. In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice. Social justice assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation; the relevant institutions include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, equal opportunity. Interpretations that relate justice to a reciprocal relationship to society are mediated by differences in cultural traditions, some of which emphasize the individual responsibility toward society and others the equilibrium between access to power and its responsible use.
Hence, social justice is invoked today while reinterpreting historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about differences among human beings, in efforts for gender and social equality, for advocating justice for migrants, the environment, the physically and developmentally disabled. While the concept of social justice can be traced through the theology of Augustine of Hippo and the philosophy of Thomas Paine, the term "social justice" became used explicitly in the 1780s. A Jesuit priest named Luigi Taparelli is credited with coining the term, it spread during the revolutions of 1848 with the work of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. However, recent research has proved; the term appears in The Federalist Papers, No. 7: "We have observed the disposition to retaliation excited in Connecticut in consequence of the enormities perpetrated by the Legislature of Rhode Island. In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound.
From the early 20th century it was embedded in international law and institutions. In the 20th century, social justice was made central to the philosophy of the social contract by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice. In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of human rights education; some authors such as Friedrich Hayek criticize the concept of social justice, arguing the lack of objective, accepted moral standard. The different concepts of justice, as discussed in ancient Western philosophy, were centered upon the community. Plato wrote in The Republic that it would be an ideal state that "every member of the community must be assigned to the class for which he finds himself best fitted." In an article for J. N. V University, author D. R. Bhandari says, "Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society, it is the identical quality that makes social. Justice is an order and duty of the parts of the soul, it is to the soul.
Plato says that justice is not mere strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole-individual as well as social". Plato believed rights existed only between free people, the law should take "account in the first instance of relations of inequality in which individuals are treated in proportion to their worth and only secondarily of relations of equality." Reflecting this time when slavery and subjugation of women was typical, ancient views of justice tended to reflect the rigid class systems that still prevailed. On the other hand, for the privileged groups, strong concepts of fairness and the community existed. Distributive justice was said by Aristotle to require that people were distributed goods and assets according to their merit. Socrates is attributed with developing the idea of a social contract, whereby people ought to follow the rules of a society, accept its burdens because they have accepted its benefits.
During the Middle Ages, religious scholars such as Thomas Aquinas continued discussion of justice in various ways, but connected being a good citizen to the purpose of serving God. After the Renaissance and Reformation, the modern concept of social justice, as developing human potential, began to emerge through the work of a series of authors. Baruch Spinoza in On the Improvement of the Understanding contended that the one true aim of life should be to acquire "a human character much more stable than own", to achieve this "pitch of perfection... The chief good is that he should arrive, together with other individuals if possible, at the possessio
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they support limited government, individual rights, democracy, gender equality, racial equality, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists. Liberalism sought to replace the norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, the divine right of kings and traditional conservatism with representative democracy and the rule of law. Liberals ended mercantilist policies, royal monopolies and other barriers to trade, instead promoting free markets. Philosopher John Locke is credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, arguing that each man has a natural right to life and property, adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract.
While the British liberal tradition has emphasised expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasised rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building. Leaders in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal tyranny. Liberalism started to spread especially after the French Revolution; the 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States. In Victorian Britain, it was used to critique the political establishment, appealing to science and reason on behalf of the people. During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism; these changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within Islam, which continues to this day, leading to Islamic revivalism.
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism. However, during the 20th century liberal ideas spread further—especially in Western Europe—as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield influence throughout the world. However, liberalism still has challenges to overcome in Asia; the fundamental elements of contemporary society have liberal roots. The early waves of liberalism popularised economic individualism while expanding constitutional government and parliamentary authority. Liberals sought and established a constitutional order that prized important individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech and freedom of association. Waves of modern liberal thought and struggle were influenced by the need to expand civil rights.
Liberals have advocated gender and racial equality in their drive to promote civil rights and a global civil rights movement in the 20th century achieved several objectives towards both goals. Continental European liberalism is divided between moderates and progressives, with the moderates tending to elitism and the progressives supporting the universalisation of fundamental institutions, such as universal suffrage, universal education and the expansion of property rights. Over time, the moderates displaced the progressives as the main guardians of continental European liberalism. Words such as liberal, liberty and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free". One of the first recorded instances of the word liberal occurs in 1375, when it was used to describe the liberal arts in the context of an education desirable for a free-born man; the word's early connection with the classical education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations.
Liberal could refer to "free in bestowing" as early as 1387, "made without stint" in 1433, "freely permitted" in 1530 and "free from restraint"—often as a pejorative remark—in the 16th and the 17th centuries. In 16th century England, liberal could have positive or negative attributes in referring to someone's generosity or indiscretion. In Much Ado About Nothing, William Shakespeare wrote of "a liberal villaine" who "hath confest his vile encounters". With the rise of the Enlightenment, the word acquired decisively more positive undertones, being defined as "free from narrow prejudice" in 1781 and "free from bigotry" in 1823. In 1815, the first use of the word "liberalism" appeared in English. In Spain, the liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for decades for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution. From 1820 to 1823 during the Trienio Liberal, King Ferdinand VII was compelled by the liberales to swear to uphold the Constitution. By the middle of the 19th century, liberal was used as a politicised term for parties and movements worldwide.
Over time, the meaning of the word liberalism began to diverge in different parts of the world. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: "In the United States, liberalism is associated with the welfare-state policies of the New Deal programme of the Democratic administration of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, where
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth; this environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished as components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, soil, rocks and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air and climate, as well as energy, electric charge, magnetism, not originating from civilized human actions. In contrast to the natural environment is the built environment. In such areas where man has fundamentally transformed landscapes such as urban settings and agricultural land conversion, the natural environment is modified into a simplified human environment.
Acts which seem less extreme, such as building a mud hut or a photovoltaic system in the desert, the modified environment becomes an artificial one. Though many animals build things to provide a better environment for themselves, they are not human, hence beaver dams, the works of Mound-building termites, are thought of as natural. People find natural environments on Earth, naturalness varies in a continuum, from 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other. More we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform. If, for instance, in an agricultural field, the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil are similar to those of an undisturbed forest soil, but the structure is quite different. Natural environment is used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the natural environment of giraffes is the savanna. Earth science recognizes 4 spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere as correspondent to rocks, water and life respectively.
Some scientists include, as part of the spheres of the Earth, the cryosphere as a distinct portion of the hydrosphere, as well as the pedosphere as an active and intermixed sphere. Earth science, is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. There are four major disciplines in earth sciences, namely geography, geology and geodesy; these major disciplines use physics, biology and mathematics to build a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of Earth. The Earth's crust, or lithosphere, is the outermost solid surface of the planet and is chemically and mechanically different from underlying mantle, it has been generated by igneous processes in which magma cools and solidifies to form solid rock. Beneath the lithosphere lies the mantle, heated by the decay of radioactive elements; the mantle though solid is in a state of rheic convection. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly; the resulting process is known as plate tectonics.
Volcanoes result from the melting of subducted crust material or of rising mantle at mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes. Most water is found in another natural kind of body of water. An ocean is a major body of saline water, a component of the hydrosphere. 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water, customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand, nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though recognized as several'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean; the deep seabeds are more than half the Earth's surface, are among the least-modified natural environments. The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, other criteria: these divisions are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.
A river is a natural watercourse freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. A few rivers flow into the ground and dry up before reaching another body of water; the water in a river is in a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is a wider floodplain shaped by waters over-topping the channel. Flood plains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. Rivers are a part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge and the release of water stored in glaciers and snowpacks. Small rivers may be termed by several other names, including stream and brook, their current is confined within a stream banks. Streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology. A lake is a terrain feature, a body of water, localized to the bottom of basin.
A body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, is not part
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
Stéphane Maurice Dion is a Canadian diplomat, political scientist, former politician, the Canadian ambassador to Germany and special envoy to the European Union since May 2017. Dion was Minister of Foreign Affairs under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau from 2015 until he was shuffled out of Cabinet in 2017, he was the Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons from 2006 to 2008. Dion was Member of Parliament for the Montreal riding of Saint-Laurent from 1996 until 2017. Dion was recruited by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien in 1996 to be Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs in the aftermath of the 1995 Quebec sovereignty referendum, his reference question to the Supreme Court of Canada, produced Reference Re Secession of Quebec and his Clarity Act, which provided guidelines for subsequent referenda. Dion was in charge of implementing the Kyoto Protocol as Minister of Environment for Chrétien's successor, Paul Martin, whom he succeeded as party leader after the Liberal defeat in the 2006 federal election.
Dion ran on an environmental platform in the 2008 federal election, but was defeated by Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper. After the subsequent parliamentary dispute, he was replaced as Liberal leader by Michael Ignatieff. Before entering politics, Dion was a professor of political science at the Université de Montréal whose research focused on Canadian federalism and public administration, he wrote and spoke out against the Quebec sovereignty movement. Dion was born in the second of five children, his mother, was a real-estate agent born in Paris and his father, Léon Dion, was a Quebec academic. Dion was raised in a modest home on Liegeois Boulevard in the Sillery, today part of Quebec City. While growing up, he remembers being taunted for his family's secularism in a society, predominantly Catholic, he studied. He obtained BA and MA degrees in 1977 and 1979 after which he and Janine departed together for France. Dion was involved with the sovereignty movement, first as a teenager attending a Jesuit college in Quebec City, as a university student campaigning for Parti Québécois candidate Louise Beaudoin in the 1976 election.
Mr. Dion described his experience as follows: Because the party was there... I wanted to challenge my dad... the way to become an adult sometimes is to say the contrary to your father. Each evening, I would try out a new argument I had heard on the separatist network and my father was demolishing it... My father quietly and respectfully was refuting me, without insulting me. Dion has said that his involvement as "an activist for the separatist cause" ended during a five-hour discussion with a federalist household while he was going door-to-door for the PQ, but he did not commit to federalism until much later. At the time of the 1980 referendum, his sentiments were neutral. In his own words, the ` no' victory left him "neither outraged. To tell the truth, I felt no particular feeling." Dion spent four years in Paris, living with Janine in the Montmartre district and studying public administration under the tutelage of noted sociologist Michel Crozier. Professor Denis St. Martin, a former colleague at the Université de Montréal remarked: "... his vision of Canada was influenced by his views on the politics and society of France – Cartesian much about clarity....".
After receiving a doctorate in sociology from the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, Dion worked as a teaching assistant at the Université de Moncton in 1984 before moving on to the Université de Montréal to assume an assistant professor position. Dion taught at the Université de Montréal from 1984 to January 1996, specializing in the study of public administration and organizational analysis and theory, was a guest scholar at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C. during a 1990–91 sabbatical leave. After the failure of the Meech Lake Accord in 1990, Dion directed his intellectual inquiry towards an analysis of Quebec nationalism, his decisive conversion to federalism, as he recounted to journalist Michel Vastel, occurred as he was preparing for a presentation in Washington: I sat down at my computer at 11 o'clock, and, at noon, I had a text, so interesting that the Americans wanted to publish it. It was on that day that I realized I was a federalist. In this period, the sovereignty movement had begun to promote the idea that federalism was inefficient for Quebec due to the duplication and overlap between the two levels of government.
An expert in public administration, Dion emerged as a key figure in publicly criticizing this line of argument. His appearances on Le Point, a Télévision de Radio-Canada current affairs program, brought him to the attention of Aline Chrétien, who in the days following the close referendum defeat urged her husband, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, to recruit him. Between 1987 and 1995, Dion published a number of books and articles on political science, public administration and management. A collection of Dion's speeches and writings on Canadian unity was publ