Interstate 376 is a major auxiliary route of the Interstate Highway System in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, located within the Allegheny Plateau. It runs from I-80 near Sharon south and east to a junction with the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Monroeville, after having crossed the Turnpike at an interchange earlier in its route; the route serves Pittsburgh and its surrounding areas, is the main access road to Pittsburgh International Airport. Portions of the route are known as the Beaver Valley Expressway, Southern Expressway, Airport Parkway. Within Allegheny County, the route runs along the majority of the Penn-Lincoln Parkway, known locally as Parkway West and Parkway East, it is the fifth-longest auxiliary Interstate route in the system, second only to I-476 within Pennsylvania. I-376 is signed east–west despite running north–south for nearly three-quarters of its length; this is because until 2009, the route's western terminus was at Interstate 279 in Downtown Pittsburgh. Despite the route's direction, it serves as a major artery through Pittsburgh's West End, with I-79 being the primary route through Pittsburgh's North Hills.
Since its 2009 extension, the route has served as a major way to access Northeast Ohio. A 16-mile stretch of the Beaver Valley Expressway named the James E. Ross Highway, from exit 15 where I-376 ends its brief concurrency with U. S. Route 422 to exit 31 where I-376 has its first interchange with Pennsylvania Route 51, is tolled and is maintained by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, while the remainder of the highway is maintained by PennDOT. Near the airport, I-376 has a business loop. I-376 begins at a cloverleaf interchange with I-80 and Pennsylvania Route 760 located four miles east of Ohio within the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau. From there, it travels in a southerly direction on the Beaver Valley Expressway, a four-lane freeway with a wide grass median. Paralleling PA 18, I-376 has its first interchange with that state highway in West Middlesex. I-376 soon forms an overlap with that highway along the west side of New Castle. After an interchange with US 224 in Union Township, I-376 eastbound splits from US 422 at a trumpet interchange southwest of the city in Taylor Township.
At this point, I-376 becomes a tolled freeway named the James E. Ross Highway. I-376 continues southward, the Beaver River to the east. Shortly after entering Beaver County near Koppel, the route connects to its parent for the first time at an interchange which provides access to PA 351. Around this area, I-376 crosses into the Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau, where it remains for the remainder of its length. I-376 passes to the east of West Mayfield and becomes a non-tolled highway again at its first interchange with PA 51 in Chippewa Township, just west of Beaver Falls; the freeway weaves through mountainous terrain, interchanging with PA 68 in Vanport just before crossing the Vanport Bridge over the Ohio River. It has its second interchange with PA 18 near Kobuta and continues south from there. I-376 passes to the west of Aliquippa before entering Allegheny County. Approaching Pittsburgh International Airport, I-376 bends south-southwest and becomes the Southern Expressway, while the Beaver Valley Expressway diverges to the southeast along Business Loop 376.
I-376 circles around the southern edge of the airport, intersecting the western terminus of the Southern Beltway at the main entrance to PIT before recombining with Business Loop 376 and becoming the Airport Parkway, still four lanes and with a narrow median. Now traveling southeast, the route comes to a partial cloverleaf interchange with the Penn-Lincoln Parkway and Steubenville Pike in Robinson Township; the two U. S. Highways join I-376 here in a partially-unsigned concurrency, continuing east-southeastward bearing the Penn-Lincoln Parkway name, soon reach an interchange with I-79. From that point eastward, along what was known for many years as I-279, I-376 runs east-southeast through Rosslyn Farms and Carnegie before turning northeast and passing through Green Tree. Entering the city of Pittsburgh, I-376 winds its way northeast to its second interchange with PA 51 at Saw Mill Run Boulevard, part of a spread-out series of ramps linking Banksville Road and US 19 Truck; this junction, located just before the freeway passes under Mount Washington in the Fort Pitt Tunnel, features the infamous wrong-way concurrency of the northbound and southbound directions of US 19 Truck.
After passing through the Fort Pitt Tunnel, I-376 emerges onto the four-lane double-deck Fort Pitt Bridge, crossing over the Monongahela River. There are single-lane westbound exit and eastbound entrance ramps connecting Carson Street to the freeway between the tunnel's portal and the bridge. Once across the river, the route touches down in Downtown Pittsburgh at Point State Park. An interchange at the Point connects I-376 to I-279, which leads to the Fort Duquesne Bridge, as well as Liberty Avenue. I-376 continues east from the Point, still carrying the partially-unsigned US 22 and US 30, following the north shore of the Monongahela River through the south side of the downtown area; the road continues to the adjacent neighborhoods of Soho and Oakland. The Parkway East turns away from the river near t
The Slovaks are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture and speak the Slovak language. In Slovakia, c. 4.4 million are ethnic Slovaks of 5.4 million total population. There are Slovak minorities in Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and sizeable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the United States and the United Kingdom, collectively referred to as the Slovak diaspora; the name Slovak is derived from *Slověninъ, plural *Slověně, the old name of the Slavs. The original stem has been preserved in all Slovak words except the masculine noun; the first written mention of adjective slovenský is in 1294. The original name of Slovaks Slovenin/Slovene was still recorded in Pressburg Latin-Czech Dictionary, but it changed to Slovák under the influence of Czech and Polish language; the first written mention of new form in the territory of present-day Slovakia is from Bardejov. The mentions in Czech sources are older; the change is not related to the ethnogenesis of Slovaks, but to linguistic changes in the West Slavic languages.
The word Slovak was used later as a common name for all Slavs in Czech and Slovak language together with other forms. In Hungarian "Slovak" is Tót, an exonym, it was used to refer to all Slavs including Slovenes and Croats, but came to refer to Slovaks. Many place names in Hungary such as Tótszentgyörgy, Tótszentmárton, Tótkomlós still bear the name. Tóth is a common Hungarian surname; the Slovaks have historically been variously referred to as Slovyenyn, Sclavus, Slavus, Winde, Wende, or Wenden. The final three terms are variations of the Germanic term Wends, used to refer to any Slavs living close to Germanic settlements; the early Slavs came to the territory of Slovakia in several waves from the 5th and 6th centuries and were organized on a tribal level. Original tribal names are not known due to the lack of written sources before their integration into higher political units. Weakening of tribal consciousness was accelerated by Avars, who did not respect tribal differences in the controlled territory and motivated remaining Slavs to join together and to collaborate on their defense.
In the 7th century, Slavs founded larger tribal union: Samo's empire. Regardless of Samo's empire, the integration process continued in other territories with various intensities; the final fall of the Avar Khaganate allowed new political entities to arise. The first such political unit documented by written sources is the Principality of Nitra, one of the foundations of common ethnic consciousness. At this stage in history it is not yet possible to assume a common identity of all Slovak ancestors in the territory of eastern Slovakia if it was inhabited by related Slavs; the Principality of Nitra become a part of a common state of Moravians and Slovaks. The short existence of Great Moravia prevented it from suppressing differences which resulted from its creation from two separate entities, therefore a common "Slovak-Moravian" ethnic identity failed to develop; the early political integration in the territory of present-day Slovakia was however reflected in linguistic integration. While dialects of early Slovak ancestors were divided into West Slavic and non-West Slavic, between the 8th and 9th centuries both dialects merged, thus laying the foundations of a Slovak language.
The 10th century is a milestone in the Slovak ethnogenesis. The fall of Great Moravia and further political changes supported their formation into a separate nation. At the same time, with the extinction of the Proto-Slavic language, between the 10th and 13th centuries Slovak evolved into an independent language; the early existence of the Kingdom of Hungary positively influenced the development of common consciousness and companionship among Slavs in the Northern Hungary, not only within boundaries of present-day Slovakia. The clear difference between Slovaks and Hungarians made adoption of specific name unnecessary and Slovaks preserved their original name, used in communication with other Slavic peoples. In political terms, the medieval Slovaks were a part of the multi-ethnic political nation Natio Hungarica, together with Hungarians, Germans and other ethnic groups in the Kingdom of Hungary. Since a medieval political nation did not consist of ordinary people but nobility, membership of the privileged class was necessary for all these peoples.
Like other nations, the Slovaks began to transform into a modern nation from the 18th century under the idea of national romanticism. The modern Slovak nation is the result of radical processes of modernization within the Habsburg Empire which culminated in the middle of the 19th century; the transformation process was slowed down by conflict with Hungarian nationalism and the ethnogenesis of the Slovaks become a political question regarding their deprivation and preservation of their language and national rights. In 1722, Mich
Bryan Bassett is an American guitarist who has played with several notable bands but is best known as a member of Wild Cherry in the 1970s who had a hit with "Play That Funky Music." Bryan was born on August 1954 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He began playing with some local Pittsburgh bands in the late 1960s and early 1970s before joining Wild Cherry in 1975, a reformation of a popular local Ohio band led by vocalist/guitarist Rob Parissi, they recorded the hit "Play That Funky Music" that same year. Bassett plays the recognizable guitar figure. Bassett continued on with Wild Cherry until their breakup in 1979, they charted a few more hits, he went on to a successful career as a music producer in the 1980s. Bassett began teaching the Contemporary Ensemble class at Daytona State College in 2010. In 1989 Bassett formed a friendship with Foghat's "Lonesome" Dave Peverett, he joined his band, billed as Lonesome Dave's Foghat, served as an alternate version of Foghat, touring separately from Foghat, led by drummer Roger Earl.
He played with Lonesome Dave's Foghat until 1993. It was at this time that Bryan joined Molly Hatchet and toured with them until 1999; this version of Molly Hatchet had original vocalist Danny Joe Brown with the band until 1995, but he left, they toured with no original members. While Bryan was in Molly Hatchet, Foghat's original lineup began to fall apart once again as guitarist Rod Price left the group in 1999. Bryan joined the band to take his place. Dave Peverett was replaced by Charlie Huhn. Bassett still performs with Foghat to this day
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Lawrence "Larry" Lucchino is the former president and CEO of the Boston Red Sox, member of John W. Henry's ownership group. A Pittsburgh native and basketball player, Lucchino graduated from Princeton University in 1967 and attended Yale Law School, where he was a classmate of Hillary Clinton. After law school, Lucchino practiced law with the D. C. law firm of Williams & Connolly. The founder, famed litigator Edward Bennett Williams, had ownership interest in both the Washington Redskins and the Baltimore Orioles. Lucchino's law practice at Williams & Connolly included a substantial amount of work for those two sports teams. Through that work he became President/CEO of the Baltimore Orioles and the San Diego Padres, before joining the Red Sox in November, 2001. Lucchino is known for having initiated the trend of building baseball-only facilities with an old-fashioned charm and smaller seating capacities. Under his watch, both teams built new stadiums, pioneering Oriole Park at Camden Yards and Petco Park.
Since about one-half of Major League Baseball's 30 teams followed this lead and built new stadiums with the old-style look and feel. As part of the management team which signed David Ortiz to the Red Sox, Lucchino "always enjoyed a strong connection with Big Papi throughout his entire career" and including at the time of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. Lucchino brought Theo Epstein with him to the Red Sox from the Orioles and the Padres, having encouraged Epstein to get his law degree while he was working at the Padres. On August 1, 2015, the team announced, he retired on October 5, 2015. Lucchino continues as co-owner of the Pawtucket, RI, Pawtucket Red Sox. Lucchino serves on the Board of Directors for Special Olympics, he was named as the Commencement speaker for Boston University's 2008 graduating class, guest speaker at New England School of Law's 2008 graduation ceremony, Bryant University's Class of 2009, the Anna Maria College Class of 2010. Lucchino is the only man known to have a Super Bowl ring and a Final Four watch.
He is a Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma survivor. Larry Lucchino: Keynote Address at Boston University's 135th Commencement Ceremony, on BUniverse, Boston University's video archive
San Diego Padres
The San Diego Padres are an American professional baseball team based in San Diego, California. The Padres compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League West division. Founded in 1969, the Padres have won two NL pennants — in 1984 and 1998, losing in the World Series both years; as of 2018, they have had 14 winning seasons in franchise history. The Padres are one of two Major League Baseball teams in California to originate from that state; the Padres are the only major professional sports franchise to be located in San Diego, following the relocation of the Chargers to Los Angeles in 2017. The Padres are the only MLB team that does not share its city with another major league professional sports franchise; the Padres adopted their name from the Pacific Coast League team that arrived in San Diego in 1936. That minor league franchise won the PCL title in 1937, led by 18-year-old Ted Williams, the future Hall-of-Famer, a native of San Diego; the team's name, Spanish for "fathers", refers to the Spanish Franciscan friars who founded San Diego in 1769.
In 1969, the Padres joined the ranks of Major League Baseball as one of four new expansion teams, along with the Montreal Expos, the Kansas City Royals, the Seattle Pilots. Their original owner was C. Arnholt Smith, a prominent San Diego businessman and former owner of the PCL Padres whose interests included banking, tuna fishing, real estate and an airline. Despite initial excitement, the guidance of longtime baseball executives, Eddie Leishman and Buzzie Bavasi as well as a new playing field, the team struggled. One of the few bright spots on the team during the early years was first baseman and slugger Nate Colbert, an expansion draftee from the Houston Astros and still the Padres' career leader in home runs; the team's fortunes improved as they won five National League West titles and reached the World Series twice, in 1984 and in 1998, but lost both times. The Padres' main draw during the 1980s and 1990s was Tony Gwynn, who won eight league batting titles, they moved into their current stadium, Petco Park, in 2004.
As of 2019, the Padres are the only team in MLB yet to throw a no-hitter. The team has played its spring training games at the Peoria Sports Complex in Peoria, Arizona since 1994, they share the stadium with the Seattle Mariners. From 1969 to 1993, the Padres held spring training in Arizona at Desert Sun Stadium. Due to the short driving distance and direct highway route, Yuma was popular with Padres fans, many fans would travel by car from San Diego for spring training games; the move from Yuma to Peoria was controversial, but was defended by the team as a reflection on the low quality of facilities in Yuma and the long travel necessary to play against other Arizona-based spring training teams. Throughout the team's history, the San Diego Padres have used multiple logos and color combinations. One of their first patches depicts a friar swinging a bat with Padres written at the top while standing in a sun-like figure with San Diego Padres on the exterior of it; the "Swinging Friar" has popped up on the uniform on and off since although the head of the friar has been tweaked from the original in recent years, it is the mascot of the team.
In 1985, the Padres switched to using a script-like logo. That would become a script logo for the Padres; the team's colors remained this way through the 1990 season. In 1989, the Padres took the scripted Padres logo, used from 1985 to 1988 and put it in a tan ring that read "San Diego Baseball Club" with a striped center. In 1991, the logo was changed to a silver ring with the Padres script changed from brown to blue; the logo only lasted one year, as the Padres changed their logo for the third time in three years, again by switching colors of the ring. The logo became a white ring with fewer stripes in the center and a darker blue Padres script with orange shadows. In 1991, the team's colors were changed, to a combination of orange and navy blue. For the 2001 season, the Padres removed the stripes off their jerseys and went with a white home jersey with the Padres name on the front in navy blue; the pinstripe jerseys were worn as alternate jerseys on certain occasions throughout the 2001 season.
The Padres kept this color scheme and design for three seasons until their 2004 season, in which they moved into their new ballpark. The logo was changed when the team changed stadiums between the 2003 and 2004 seasons, with the new logo looking similar to home plate with San Diego written in sand font at the top right corner and the Padres new script written across the center. Waves finished the bottom of the plate. Navy remained; the team's colors were changed, to navy blue and sand brown. For the next seven seasons the Padres were the only team in Major League Baseball that did not have a gray jersey, with the team playing in either blue or sand jerseys on the road and white or blue jerseys at home. In 2011, the San Diego was removed from the top right corner of the logo and the away uniform changed from