The Everglades is a natural region of tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U. S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large drainage basin and part of the neotropic ecozone. The system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee. Water leaving the lake in the wet season forms a slow-moving river 60 miles wide and over 100 miles long, flowing southward across a limestone shelf to Florida Bay at the southern end of the state; the Everglades experience a wide range of weather patterns, from frequent flooding in the wet season to drought in the dry season. The Seminole Tribe gave the large body of water the name Okeechobee meaning "River of Grass" to describe the sawgrass marshes, part of a complex system of interdependent ecosystems that include cypress swamps, the estuarine mangrove forests of the Ten Thousand Islands, tropical hardwood hammocks, pine rockland, the marine environment of Florida Bay. Human habitation in the southern portion of the Florida peninsula dates to 15,000 years ago.
Before European colonization, the region was dominated by the native Tequesta tribes. With Spanish colonization, both tribes declined during the following two centuries; the Seminole, formed from Creek people, warring to the North, assimilated other peoples and created a new culture after being forced from northern Florida into the Everglades during the Seminole Wars of the early 19th century. After adapting to the region, they were able to resist removal by the United States Army. Migrants to the region who wanted to develop plantations first proposed draining the Everglades in 1848, but no work of this type was attempted until 1882. Canals were constructed throughout the first half of the 20th century, spurred the South Florida economy, prompting land development. In 1947, Congress formed the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project, which built 1,400 miles of canals and water control devices; the Miami metropolitan area grew at this time and Everglades water was diverted to cities.
Portions of the Everglades were transformed into farmland. 50 percent of the original Everglades has been developed as agricultural or urban areas. Following this period of rapid development and environmental degradation, the ecosystem began to receive notable attention from conservation groups in the 1970s. Internationally, UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention designated the Everglades a Wetland Area of Global Importance; the construction of a large airport 6 miles north of Everglades National Park was blocked when an environmental study found that it would damage the South Florida ecosystem. With heightened awareness and appreciation of the region, restoration began in the 1980s with the removal of a canal that had straightened the Kissimmee River; however and sustainability concerns have remained pertinent in the region. The deterioration of the Everglades, including poor water quality in Lake Okeechobee, was linked to the diminishing quality of life in South Florida's urban areas. In 2000 the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan was approved by Congress to combat these problems.
To date, it is the most expensive and comprehensive environmental restoration attempt in history, but its implementation has faced political complications. The first written record of the Everglades was on Spanish maps made by cartographers who had not seen the land, they named the unknown area between the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of Florida Laguna del Espíritu Santo. The area was featured on maps for decades without having been explored. Writer John Grant Forbes stated in 1811, "The Indians represent as impenetrable. British surveyor John Gerard de Brahm, who mapped the coast of Florida in 1773, called the area "River Glades". Both Marjory Stoneman Douglas and linguist Wallace McMullen suggest that cartographers substituted "Ever" for "River"; the name "Everglades" first appeared on a map in 1823, although it was spelled as "Ever Glades" as late as 1851. The Seminole call it Pahokee, meaning "Grassy Water." The region was labeled "Pa-hai-okee" on a U. S. military map from 1839, although it had earlier been called "Ever Glades" throughout the Second Seminole War.
The Everglades consist of multiple South Florida towns: Belle Glade, Wellington, Parts of Miami, Parts of Fort Lauderdale, Immokalee and Everglades City. The everglades are the Florida national park. A 2007 survey by geographers Ary J. Lamme and Raymond K. Oldakowski found that the "Glades" has emerged as a distinct vernacular region of Florida, it comprises the interior areas and southernmost Gulf Coast of South Florida corresponding to the Everglades itself. It is one of the most sparsely populated areas of the state; the geology of South Florida, together with a warm, subtropical climate, provides conditions well-suited for a large marshland ecosystem. Layers of porous and permeable limestone create water-bearing rock and soil that affect the climate and hydrology of South Florida; the properties of the rock underneath the Everglades can be explained by the geologic history of the state. The crust underneath Florida was at one point part of the African region of the supercontinent Gondwana.
About 300 million years ago, North America merged with Africa, connecting Florida with North America. Volcanic activity centered on the eastern side of Florida covered the prevalent sedimentary rock with igneous rock. Continental rifting began to separate North A
Baroness (G.I. Joe)
The Baroness is a fictional character from the G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline by Hasbro appearing in the first issue of the G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero comic series by Marvel Comics in June, 1982; the Baroness is a villainess, associated with G. I. Joe's Cobra. Baroness serves as Cobra's intelligence lieutenant to Cobra Commander. With long black hair, black-rimmed glasses, a black leather outfit, Baroness is a dark, sensual femme fatale whose beauty is matched only by her ruthlessness. In both comic and cartoon incarnations, as well as the 2009 live-action movie for the series, she has romantic relationships with Destro. Although the character was not part of the initial G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero release in 1982, she did appear in G. I. Joe #1, published by Marvel Comics in June 1982 and was, in fact, the first character to cross over from the comics into the animated series and into the toy line, she made her debut as an action figure in the 1984 series, wearing a new uniform, carried back over to the comic and cartoon.
The spoiled offspring of European aristocrats, Anastasia Cisarovna was first involved in student radicalism, dabbled in extremist fringe groups, graduated to international terrorism. She is believed to have been trained as a spy and saboteur at an exclusive facility run by a former Warsaw Pact intelligence agency; the head of Cobra intelligence operations, the Baroness is a world-class expert in cryptography, psychological warfare, bio-chemical skin-irritants. She has old ties and loyalties to Destro and is the only one who knows his secret identity; the Baroness has had extensive plastic surgery after suffering severe burns during a Cobra night-attack operation. She is full of contradictions: cynical yet romantic, calculating but naive and prone to beating around the bush, she is a qualified expert with an M-16, AK-47, RPG7, Uzi, as a H. I. S. S. Tank operator, her military specialties include helicopter and fixed-wing pilot; the Baroness was introduced into the toyline in 1984. After the line was canceled in 1994, Hasbro made several attempts to revive G.
I. Joe action figures through repaints. In 1997, the original mold was repainted for inclusion in the Cobra Command Team 3-pack. In 2000, the mold was repainted again, in black with red accents, as the new character "Chameleon". In 2002, Hasbro relaunched the "Real American Hero" line, a new version of the Baroness was released in the third wave of figures, wearing a uniform inspired by the original action figure. A second Baroness figure was released for the "Valor vs Venom" line. Once again wearing a blue uniform, this figure was better-proportioned, was more based on the 1984 figure; this mold was repainted in black, released again in 2005. 2007 is the Anniversary of the launch of G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero, the third major reinvention of the G. I. Joe brand since 1964. To celebrate, Hasbro created two boxed sets of brand new figures, featuring modern sculpt and updated and increased articulation; the Baroness is included in the Cobra set, along with Cobra Commander, Storm Shadow, a Cobra Trooper.
Another version with a new head sculpt was released in 2008. This version of the Baroness was made to resemble her appearance in "The M. A. S. S. Device." The Baroness is the daughter of wealthy European aristocrats. She spends years decrying the hypocrisy of the American government, becoming an active participant in militant revolutionary groups becoming a member of Cobra; the Baroness first appeared in the Marvel Comics series G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero #1, she is instrumental in Cobra's first major offensive against G. I. Joe, Operation: Lady Doomsday. Posing as a reporter, Baroness abducts Dr. Adele Burkhart and brings her back to Cobra’s island fortress. Despite disguising herself as the Doctor, the Joes destroy the fortress. Baroness and Cobra Commander escape; when the Cobra Commander first contracts Destro to salvage a mission in Alaska, the Baroness reveals that she has a past association with the masked man, but declines to give details. Evading the G. I. Joe assault, the Baroness and Scar-Face escape in a plane, but the Baroness cannot pass up the opportunity to blow up the small island where Snake Eyes, Kwinn the Eskimo, Dr. Venom are locked in battle.
Just before the bombs hit, Kwinn pushes the other two into the island bunker. Baroness and Cobra Commander discover that Dr. Venom has left out a vital part of the toxin and the microdot points the Joes to the Springfield HQ; this was according to Destro's plan. Destro had not realized the Baroness was with the Commander, stages a successful diversionary mission. Cobra Commander's ally Major Bludd looks for a chance to kill Destro; this comes during a tank battle. Bludd flees leaving her to an explosion. Killed in the fight, the Baroness is in fact rescued after the battle, brought to Bethesda Naval Hospital, where she lays burned and in a coma; when the Joe Grand Slam takes Major Bludd into custody, the Baroness is moved to G. I. Joe headquarters in Staten Island as well. Luring Cobra into attacking the base after they capture Scar-Face in Tripoli, Libya the Joes instigate a major skirmish at their own headquarters. During the battle, Major Bludd kills General Flagg. Taking the Baroness, he leaves Scar-Face for dead, escapes in a Cobra F.
A. N. G. Not long after, G. I. Joe is given the location of attacks; the Ba
Hawk (G.I. Joe)
Hawk is a fictional character from the G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline, comic books and animated series, he is one of the original members of the G. I. Joe Team, debuted in 1982 as a Missile Commander, but was promoted to full commander of the team. Hawk is portrayed by Dennis Quaid in the 2009 live-action film G. I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra. Hawk's real name is Clayton M. Abernathy, he was born in Denver, Colorado, he comes from a wealthy family. He graduated at the top of his class, he graduated from Advanced Infantry Training and Covert Ops School, served on the fictional North Atlantic Range Command and USA ENG COM and EVR Missile Radar Training. Hawk is a qualified expert in the use of the M16 M-1911A1 automatic pistol. Hawk is the original field commander of the G. I. Joe Team, his primary military specialty is strategic command operations and his secondary military specialties are ranger, artillery and radar. His original rank was that of colonel, he was promoted to brigadier general and major general.
As a colonel, Hawk served under General Lawrence Flagg, was responsible for recruiting most of the team's early members. After General Flagg was killed in action and his successor, General Austin, retired from active duty, Hawk assumed full command of the G. I. Joe team; as the conflict between G. I. Joe and Cobra became known in the United States and abroad, Hawk was the public face of the G. I. Joe team, he was instrumental in the reinstatement of the G. I. Joe team after it was temporarily disbanded; this was due to his involvement with "The Jugglers", a top-secret group of generals who had interfered with the team's operations. Hawk was able to undermine corruption from within by keeping tabs on them, blackmailed them into reinstating the team, once evidence was presented that Cobra was again operating on domestic soil. However, he decides to take on more of an advisory role as commander in chief, letting field command duties fall to Duke. Hawk was part of the first wave of G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero action figures that were released in 1982, packaged with the Mobile Missile System playset.
Although he held the rank of colonel and his file card has flattering statements about his leadership abilities, his job description was "Missile Commander", though in the Marvel Comics G. I. Joe series he was G. I. Joe team's field commander. All of the original sixteen figures from 1982 were released with "straight arms"; the same figure was re-released in 1983 with a "swivel-arm battle grip", which made it easier for figures to hold their rifles and accessories. In 1986, Hasbro released a new Hawk action figure. Concurrent with that, he became overall commander in both the comics and the Sunbow cartoon following the death of General Flagg. A new action figure was released in 1991, with the name changed from "Hawk" to "General Hawk". General Hawk was released in 1991 as part of the "Talking Battle Commanders" line. In 1993, two new versions of General Hawk were released as part of the Star Brigade line; when new G. I. Joe action figures based on the G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero line were released in 2000, Hasbro had failed to renew their trademark claim to the name "Hawk", could no longer release the character with that name attached.
Therefore, he was released with the rank of major general. His name was changed again in 2004 to "General Abernathy", to "G. I. Joe Hawk" in 2008. In 2009, to coincide with the launch of the movie G. I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra, Hasbro released three figures based on the movie character, with the name General Clayton "Hawk" Abernathy; the first was released with the Pit Mobile Headquarters, the second as a stand-alone figure, the third as a Wal-Mart exclusive with the Laser Artillery Weapon. A version of Hawk was released as part of "The Pursuit of Cobra" line in 2011, with a non-actor based head. Hawk first appears in the Marvel Comics series G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero #1, he serves as a colonel and the field commander of the G. I. Joe team under General Lawrence Flagg, it is shown that prior to the creation of G. I. Joe, Hawk was a lieutenant colonel commanding security forces, was responsible for recruiting many of the original members of the team, including Stalker and Snake Eyes. Hawk gains the respect of his soldiers and participates in a number of early missions.
In one mission, he and Grunt go undercover to infiltrate an illegal militia run by a man named Vance Wingfield. During a battle in the streets of Washington D. C. Hawk recovers due to a bulletproof vest. After the death of General Flagg, Hawk assumes command of the G. I. Joe team, but is still advised by General Austin. Operations at The Pit keep him busy, so Hawk relegates field command to Duke; when General Austin suffers a heart attack, he retires and promotes Hawk to Brigadier General, giving him command of the entire G. I. Joe operation. After the G. I. Joe team invades the Cobra-controlled town of Springfield and has nothing to show for it, the team is in danger of being shut down. Hawk accepts full responsibility, meets with three high-ranking military officers deep in the otherwise empty Pit, when the facility is attacked by Cobra's Battle Android Troopers. Two of the generals are killed, but the survivor General Hollingsworth reactivates the team, puts Hawk back in command. Hawk leads the team through the first Cobra civil war.
During the conflict, he is involved in a fist-fight with the Dreadnok Buzzer atop the Thunder Machine. Upon returning from this missio
G. I. Joe is a line of action figures owned by the toy company Hasbro; the initial product offering represented four of the branches of the U. S. armed forces with the Action Soldier, Action Sailor, Action Pilot, Action Marine and on, the Action Nurse. The name derived from the usage of "G. I. Joe" for the generic U. S. soldier, itself derived from the more general term "G. I.". The development of G. I. Joe led to the coining of the term "action figure". G. I. Joe's appeal to children has made it an American icon among toys; the G. I. Joe trademark has been used by Hasbro for several different toy lines, although only two have been successful; the original 12-inch line introduced on February 2, 1964 centered on realistic action figures. In the United Kingdom, this line was known as Action Man. In 1982 the line was relaunched in a 3.75-inch scale complete with vehicles, a complex background story involving an ongoing struggle between the G. I. Joe Team and the evil Cobra Command which seeks to take over the Free World through terrorism.
As the American line evolved into the Real American Hero series, Action Man changed, by using the same molds and being renamed as Action Force. Although the members of the G. I. Joe team are not superheroes, they all had expertise in areas such as martial arts and explosives. G. I. Joe was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2003; the original idea for the action figure that would become G. I. Joe was developed in 1963 by a Manhattan licensing agent. Weston made rudimentary prototypes of the figure and basic marketing materials that showed the sales potential of a military action figure; when he showed these materials to Donald Levine, a Hasbro executive, Levine told Weston "You will make a fortune with these." Weston subsequently licensed the entire concept to Hasbro for US$100,000. The conventional marketing wisdom of the early 1960s was that boys would not play with dolls and parents would not buy their sons dolls which have been traditionally a girl’s toy.
I. Joe. "Action figure" was the only acceptable term, has since become the generic description for any poseable doll intended for boys. "America's movable fighting man" is a registered trademark of Hasbro, was prominently displayed on every boxed figure package. The Hasbro prototypes were named "Rocky" "Skip" and "Ace", before the more universal name G. I. Joe was adopted. One of the prototypes would sell in a Heritage auction in 2003 for $200,001. Aside from the obvious trademarking on the right buttock, other aspects of the figure were copyrighted features that allowed Hasbro to pursue cases against producers of cheap imitations, since the human figure itself cannot be copyrighted or trademarked; the scar on the right cheek was one. Early trademarking, with "G. I. Joe™", was used through some point in 1965. I. Joe was a registered trademark. I. Joe®" now appears on the first line. Subsequently, the stamped trademarking was altered after the patent was granted, assigned a number. Figures with this marking would have entered the retail market during 1967.
By the late 1960s, in the wake of the Vietnam War, Hasbro sought to downplay the war theme that had defined "G. I. Joe"; the line became known as "The Adventures of G. I. Joe". In 1970, Hasbro settled on the name "Adventure Team". Highlights of the line included: To coincide with the new direction, "Life-Like" flocked hair and beard, an innovation developed in England by Palitoy for their licensed version of Joe, Action Man, is introduced in 1970. A retooled African American Adventurer was introduced, which came in two versions as did the others in the series, bearded or shaven. In 1974, named after the popular martial art, Hasbro introduced "Kung-Fu Grip" to the G. I. Joe line; this was another innovation, developed in the UK for Action Man. The hands were molded in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to grip objects in a more lifelike fashion. In 1976, G. I. Joe was given eagle eye vision; this would be the last major innovation for the original line of 12-inch figures. A shift in play patternsFor its first ten years, G.
I. Joe was a generic soldier/adventurer with only the slightest hints of a team concept existing. In 1975, after a failed bid to purchase the toy rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure: Mike Power, Atomic Man. One million units were sold. Added to the Adventure Team was a superhero, Bullet Man; this character had The Intruders -- Strongmen from Another World. Comics included with figures at the time featured "Eagle Eye" Joe, Atomic Man, Bullet Man operating together; the original 12-inch G. I. Joe line ended in America in 1976. At this time, Hasbro released a line of inexpensive, rotationally molded mannequins in the G. I. Joe style called The Defenders. From 1966 through 1984, Palitoy Ltd. produced a British version of the 12-inch G. I. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market; these were the same designs as the American figures, at first the same military theme which included figures from World War II. The line expanded the line to include all men of action, like footbal
Serpentor is a fictional character and a recurring antagonist from the G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline, comic books and animated series, he is the Cobra Emperor and was introduced in 1986. In the original 1980s animated series, he's the main antagonist in the second season. Serpentor was designed to be the ultimate Cobra leader. Under the direction of Doctor Mindbender, he and Destro combed the tombs of the greatest leaders in history to find cells with DNA traces; these long-dead genetic blueprints were combined to produce a clone with the genius of Napoleon, the ruthlessness of Julius Caesar, the daring of Hannibal, the shrewdness of Attila the Hun. Serpentor is a brilliant tactician and a master of political intrigue, was capable of wresting control over Cobra from Cobra Commander. Serpentor was first released as an action figure in 1986, packaged with the Air Chariot; the Air Chariot is like a flying throne, with two 7.62mm attack guns, reinforced battle shield, hover engine. He was released in 2002 as a re-issue 2-pack, exclusive to online retailers.
A new mold of Serpentor was released in 2005, as part of a comic three pack, which included a reprint of issue #49 of the Marvel Comics series. Serpentor was released again in 2007 as a single carded figure as part of the 25th anniversary series; this figure was packaged with a re-release of the Air Chariot in a vehicle 2 pack, with a DVD set that included the DVD of "Arise, Arise". In the Marvel Comics series, Serpentor appeared in G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero #49; the character in the comics was created as a "super soldier", intended to lead and inspire the troops while Cobra Commander remained in power. His creation involved Cobra collecting genetic material from various historical figures. However, the comic diverges from the version in the animated series, in that DNA from Storm Shadow was used in the creation of Serpentor, he was portrayed as having something akin to multiple personalities as a result of being created from the DNA of multiple tyrants. In another incident, he was able to access memories of one of his genetic forebears.
He recalls the invention of pizza. While his relationship in the comics was meant to be more of a figurehead, Serpentor was ambitious, leading to power struggles between him and other members of Cobra. Serpentor contended with Cobra Commander impostor Fred VII, the two were at odds, their rivalry escalated into the Cobra civil war, in which G. I. Joe was ordered to side with Serpentor to defeat the forces of Fred and the Baroness. During the conflict, Serpentor met his end at the hands of Zartan, was killed by an arrow to the head, in G. I. Joe A Real American Hero #76. Devil's Due continued the storyline of the Marvel series, years after the events that led to Serpentor's death, his body was found and reanimated by renegade scientists. Soon a secretive faction called. Serpentor targeted G. I. Joe and Cobra forces alike. Serpentor in the G. I. Joe vs. the Transformers crossover published by Devil's Due Publishing has a different origin. In the third G. I. Joe vs. the Transformers miniseries, the US government builds an android called "Serpent OR", using processors taken from Megatron and programmed with information on Earth and Cybertron's greatest war-leaders.
Serpent OR, seeing himself as Megatron's son and heir, sets out on a quest to gain the Matrix for himself, believing it will grant him the power he needed to rule. He travels to Cybertron, he captures the Matrix for himself, transforming himself into Serpentor Prime, a transformer-scale robot with the spark of life. This results in rethinking his strategy to conquer, but Cobra Commander takes over Serpentor Prime's body with a remote control device, planted back on Earth, his rampage did not last long, as Hawk was able to open the Matrix, transforming Hawk into a mighty leader and rendering the Commander comatose. Serpent OR's exact fate beyond this is unknown; the Official Transformer Fan Collectors Club's third Figure Subscription set included a human-made Transformer created by a former Cobra agent who sought to upload the data from the Serpentor project into the body of a deceased Sweep. However, as a result of an attack by the Earth Defense Command on this operation, the personality of Clayton "Hawk" Abernathy is added to Serpent O.
R.'s programming, creating a Transformer known as Serpent O. R. with feelings of loyalty to Cobra, the Decepticons, AND the Earth Defense Command. In the IDW continuity, Serpentor's real name is Stephen Minasian and he is the leader of the Coil, the religious wing of Cobra and a influential cult, known to the public as a self-help group; the Coil worship a god named Golobulus, who created a paradise called Cobra-La before human ignorance destroyed it. Serpentor claims to be the Final Disciple of Golobulus, a reincarnation of the best qualities of the god's previous champions such as Napoleon and Alexander the Great. Serpentor is a member of the ruling body that elects the Cobra Commander. In the case of a new Commander needing to be elected, Serpentor's view "carries a ton of weight. If he is backing someone their stock will go up in the eyes of the Cobra Court". Serpentor isn't interested in becoming the new Commander and, during the contest to decide the new leader, starts assisting the Baroness, Major Bludd and Tomax in getting the role - that way, the eventual leader will "need me".
Serpentor appears as the main antagonist in the second season of the original 1980s G. I. Joe: A Real American Hero animated series
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
Battle Picture Weekly
Battle Picture Weekly, at various times known as Battle Action, Battle Action Force and Battle with Storm Force, was a British war comic book magazine published by IPC Magazines from 8 March 1975 to 23 January 1988, when it merged with the new incarnation of Eagle. Most stories were set with some based on other conflicts. A notable feature of the comic, suited to its era of circulation, was its letters page with readers sending in stories of their fathers' and grandfathers' exploits during the First World War and the Second World War in an effort to win a nominal star letter prize; the comic at various times printed colour pinups of tanks, ships, etc. in the centrefold or the back page. In 1974, in response to the success of the D. C. Thomson & Co. Ltd war comic Warlord, IPC hired freelance writers Pat Mills and John Wagner to develop a rival title. Mills and Wagner brought in fellow freelancer Gerry Finley-Day to help develop stories. Dave Hunt was made editor. Doug Church was involved as a'Creative Editor' on covers, features.
When the title proved a success, Mills went on to create Action and 2000 AD, while Wagner was asked to revive Valiant. The attempts to breathe new life into Valiant were unsuccessful, it was merged with Battle on 23 October 1976. For some time afterwards the merged comic was entitled Valiant. Action merged with Battle on 19 November 1977, the resulting comic being named Battle Action. In 1979, Terry Magee was appointed editor while Dave Hunt became editor of the new "Eagle". Barrie Tomlinson was the Group Gil Page was the Managing Editor; the Director of the Youth Group was John Sanders. In 1982 the comic was retitled again, to Battle. Assistant Editor: Jim Storrie Art Editors included Roy Stedall-Humphrys and Peter Downer Editorial assistants included Barrie Clements, Roy Preston, Richard Burton Art assistants: Tim Skomski, Martin GoldringThe details of title changes are: Battle Picture Weekly Battle Picture Weekly and Valiant Battle Picture Weekly Battle-Action Battle Action: indicia still reads Battle-Action Battle Action: indicia now reads Battle Action Battle Battle Action Force Battle Battle Storm Force From 1983 through to 1986, the comic ran a series of stories relating to the Palitoy range of action figures, Action Force.
The Action Force characters guest-featured in a comic strip serial in Battle for four weeks in July 1983. The strip proved to be so popular that a further five promotional mini-comics were included free with every IPC publication in the weeks to follow. On 8 October 1983, Action Force joined the pages of Battle full-time and the comic was retitled Battle Action Force. In line with the increasing popularity of the toys, the focus of the comic moved towards Action Force and providing the back-stories to the action figures in circulation at the time. During 1984 to 1985, Palitoy used the comic as a promotional publication, running competitions, mail-in offers and fan-club elements of the Action Force toy range through its pages; as Action Force itself transmuted to its G. I. Joe equivalent, the comic took on the role of providing continuity with regard to the diverging storylines and characters. By the end of 1986, Palitoy had lost the Action Force licence to Marvel UK and the comic was again re-titled first as Battle and Battle with Storm Force prior to its eventual merger with Eagle.
Notable stories included: Rat Pack, written by Gerry Finley-Day and drawn by Spanish artist Carlos Ezquerra, about a group of convicts released from prison to carry out suicide missions, inspired by The Dirty Dozen. Major Eazy, by Alan Hebden and Ezquerra, a laid back, cigar-smoking British officer who drove a Bentley, visually based on James Coburn. For a time Major Eazy became the commander of Rat Pack. Darkie's Mob, by Wagner and Mike Western, a violent series set in the jungles of Burma, with the renegade Captain Joe Darkie leading a group of lost soldiers in a personal guerrilla war against the Japanese. Johnny Red, written by Tom Tully and drawn by Joe Colquhoun by John Cooper and by Carlos Pino, about a British fighter pilot Johnny "Red" Redburn flying for the Russians in a Hawker Hurricane fighter. Redburn flies with the RAF and United States Army Air Forces in England, before returning to the Eastern Front in a Hawker Typhoon nicknamed The Red Death. Johnny Red was Battle's longest-running series.
HMS Nightshade, by Wagner and Western, about the crew of a British Royal Navy Corvette at the height of the Battle of the Atlantic, protecting Allied supply convoys against the German U-Boats. El Mestizo, by Ezquerra, about a former slave turned mercenary in the American Civil War. D-Day Dawson, written by Finley-Day & Ron Carpenter and illustrated by Geoff Campion and Colin Page, about a British army Sergeant, wounded on the D-Day beaches by a bullet, lodged near his heart, sealing his eventual doom. However, the