United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Arthur Wallace Steere was a Rhode Island politician and prominent businessman and landowner. Arthur W. Steere was born in Glocester, Rhode Island on September 3, 1865 to Seth Hunt Steere and Lucy L. Smith. Steere was a direct descendant of Rhode Island founder, Roger Williams, William Wickenden, General William West, Pilgrim George Soule; as a youth he worked on his family's farm in Glocester and went to Scituate, Rhode Island where he engaged in the teaming business for three years. In 1889 Steere inherited a bequest from his relative Henry J. Steere, a prominent manufacturer, upon the latter's death. In 1887, Steere married into the Brayton family when he married Sarah Janet Brayton in a Congregational service. Next, Steere married Mamie Farrar in 1894, they had five children together: Seth, Nelson and Henry. Arthur Steere became the owner of over one thousand acres of property in the Rhode Island towns of Johnston, Foster, Scituate and Glocester, making him one of the state's largest landowners.
Steere sold hundreds of acres to the state of Rhode Island for the creation of the Scituate Reservoir in the 1920s. He owned various businesses on this land, including lumber yards, which produced railroad ties and telegraph poles, dairy farms, fruit orchards, refrigeration facilities, a teaming business that first paved the majority of the roads in northern Rhode Island. Steere had over one hundred and fifty employees at the start of the 20th century. Senator Steere was a lifelong Republican, in 1907 he was elected to the Rhode Island Senate representing Greenville, Rhode Island; as a senator, Steere was active in property issues, serving on the property committee. Steere was a member of the Freemasons of Greenville and Scituate and an attendant of Greenville's Free Will Baptist Church. After Steere died in January 1943, his sons Seth Hunt Steere and Henry J. Steere took over the bulk of his businesses and landholdings. Steere Orchards on Austin Avenue in Greenville is still owned by his descendants and is the largest orchard in Rhode Island.
Steere was buried at Harmony Chapel Cemetery in Glocester. "Arthur Wallace Steere," The History of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations: Biographical, 121-122. "Arthur Wallace Steere," Representative men and old families of Rhode Island: genealogical records and historical sketches of prominent and representative citizens and of many of the old families.. James Root, Steere Genealogy; the Providence Journal, "The Will of Mr. Henry J. Steere in Detail," November 1, 1889, pg. 3. The Providence Journal, "Obituary: Henry J. Steere," October 29, 1889, pg. 8. Steere's House
Providence County, Rhode Island
Providence County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of Rhode Island. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was or 59.5 % of the state's population. Providence County contains the city of Providence, the state capital of Rhode Island and the county's most populous city, with an estimated 179,219 residents in 2016. Providence County is included in the Providence-Warwick, RI-MA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in turn constitutes a portion of the greater Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area. In 2010, the center of population of Rhode Island was located in Providence County, in the city of Cranston. Providence County was constituted on June 1703, as the County of Providence Plantations, it consisted of five towns, namely Providence, Westerly and Greenwich and encompassed territory in present-day Kent and Washington counties. Washington County was split off as King's County in 1729, while Kent County was split off in 1750; the town of Cumberland was acquired from Massachusetts and added to Providence County in 1746-47, the towns of East Providence and Pawtucket were made part of Providence County when the final border with Massachusetts was settled in 1862.
County government in Rhode Island was abolished in 1842. Providence County, like other counties in Rhode Island, has no governmental functions. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 436 square miles, of which 410 square miles is land and 26 square miles is water, it is the largest of Rhode Island's five counties by land area. The county is drained by the Blackstone River, which runs along the east border, the Woonasquatucket River in the central part of the county, joining with the smaller Moshassuck River in downtown Providence, the Pawtuxet, which forms a portion of the southeastern boundary of the county; the Pawtuxet is dammed in the western part of the county to form the Scituate Reservoir, which supplies drinking water for Providence and surrounding communities. The highest natural point in the county and the state of Rhode Island is Jerimoth Hill at 812 feet. Sea level is the lowest point. Norfolk County, Massachusetts - northeast Bristol County, Massachusetts - east Bristol County - southeast Kent County - south Windham County, Connecticut - west Worcester County, Massachusetts - northwest Roger Williams National Memorial As of the census of 2000, there were 621,602 people, 239,936 households, 152,839 families residing in the county.
The population density was 1,504 people per square mile. There were 253,214 housing units at an average density of 613 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.38% White, 6.55% Black or African American, 0.51% Native American, 2.90% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 8.02% from other races, 3.58% from two or more races. 13.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.0% were of Italian, 10.9% Irish, 8.1% French, 7.7% Portuguese, 7.2% French Canadian and 5.8% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 72.7% spoke English, 13.4% Spanish, 4.9% Portuguese, 2.5% French and 1.6% Italian as their first language. There were 239,936 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.50% were married couples living together, 14.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.30% were non-families. 29.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,950, the median income for a family was $46,694. Males had a median income of $35,336 versus $26,322 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,255. About 11.90% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.30% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. Providence County is 71 % Catholic; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 626,667 people, 241,717 households, 149,691 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,530.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 264,835 housing units at an average density of 646.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.4% white, 8.5% black or African American, 3.7% Asian, 0.7% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 9.6% from other races, 4.2% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 18.8% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: 18.5% Italian 15.8% Irish 12.3% French 9.4% English 8.6% Portuguese 5.4% French Canadian 5.4% Dominican 4.9% Puerto Rican 4.3% Cape Verdean 4.2% German 3.8% Polish 2.9% Guatemalan 1.7% Scottish 1.6% American 1.2% Swedish 1.2% Colombian 1.1% Mexican 1.0% Scotch-Irish 1.0% ArabOf the 241,717 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.8% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.1% were non-families, 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age was 37.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,500 and the median income for a family was $61,265. Mal
Smithfield, Rhode Island
Smithfield is located in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States. It includes the historic villages of Esmond, Mountaindale, Hanton City and Greenville; the population was 21,430 at the 2010 census. Smithfield is the home of a private four year college; the area comprising modern-day Smithfield was first settled in 1660 by several British colonists, including John Steere as a farming community and named after Smithfield, London. The area was within the boundaries of Providence until 1731 when Smithfield was incorporated as a separate town. Chief Justice Peleg Arnold lived in early Smithfield, his 1690 home stands today. There was an active Quaker community in early 18th century Smithfield that extended along the Great Road, from what is today Woonsocket, north into south Uxbridge, Massachusetts; this Quaker community, its members, became influential in the abolition movement, with members such as Effingham Capron and Abby Kelley Foster, gave rise to other Quaker settlements including one at Adams, Massachusetts where Susan B.
Anthony was born as an early member. Elizabeth Buffum Chace is a well-known person from Smithfield, influential in both abolition of slavery, the women's rights movement. In the 19th century several mills were built in the town. In the mid-19th century the towns of North Smithfield, Rhode Island, Lincoln, Rhode Island, became separate towns; the colonial ghost town of Hanton City is located within the boundaries of present-day Smithfield, but was a separate community in the eighteenth century. A Revolutionary war soldier, from the Smithfield side of the Massachusetts border, Captain James Buxton, ended up as a Massachusetts militiaman and Continental Army veteran, deeded 300 acres in Worcester County by Governor John Hancock. For this reason Buxton was lost to the history of Rhode Island Revolutionary soldiers.. Buxton served at Valley Forge among other battles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 71.9 km². 68.9 km² of it is land and 3.1 km² of it is water.
The total area is 4.25% water. As of the 2010 United States Census, Smithfield has 21,430 residents with a median age of 42 years and 16.9% of the population under the age of 18. The racial makeup as of 2010 was 95.7% White, 1.2% African Americans, 0.15% Native American, 1.31% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.58% from other races and 1.03% of two or more races. Hispanic and Latino of any race made up 2.17% of the population. The median household income is $71,305 and 4.1% of the population live below the poverty line. Smithfield contains four public elementary schools, a middle school and a public high school, Smithfield High School, ranked 17th out of 52 high schools in Rhode Island in 2006. St. Phillip's School, a private Roman Catholic academy offering education in grades K-8, is situated in Greenville. Mater Ecclesiae College, a Catholic college, is located in the town in a facility, the St. Aloysius Orphanage. Bryant University, a private university with programs in business and the arts and sciences, is located in Smithfield.
In 1971, the University moved to its current campus in Smithfield when the founder of Tupperware, Earl Silas Tupper, a Bryant alumnus, donated the current 428 acres of land to be the new campus. The famous Bryant Archway was relocated; the old Emin Homestead and Captain Joseph Mowry homestead occupied much of the land that makes up the present day Smithfield campus. The land was purchased and farmed for three generations between the late 19th century and the mid-20th century. Today, many descendants of the original Emin settlers still live near the Bryant campus; the school claims a handful of family members as alumni and offers a scholarship for accounting students as a tribute to the Emin family. Historical pictures of the Emin Homestead can still be found in the Alumni house. According to Smithfield's 2015 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the principal employers in the city are: Cyrus Aldrich, born in Smithfield, United States Congressman from Minnesota Peleg Arnold, delegate to the Continental Congress Sullivan Ballou, Civil War Officer and author of the Sullivan Ballou Letter Emeline S. Burlingame and evangelist Adin B.
Capron, United States Congressman Elizabeth Buffum Chace, activist in the Anti-Slavery, Women's Rights, Prison Reform Movements of the mid to late 19th century Edward Harris, manufacturer and abolitionist Ronald K. Machtley, United States Congressman Daniel Mowry Jr. delegate to the Continental Congress James W. Nuttall, United States Army Major General who served as Deputy Director of the Army National Guard and Deputy Commander of First Army Don Orsillo, play-by-play announcer for Boston Red Sox games on the New England Sports Network Gina Raimondo, 75th Governor of Rhode Island William Stillman Stanley, Jr. politician Arthur Steere, businessman David Wilkinson, co-builder of Slater Mill William Winsor, education philanthropist, namesake of the William Winsor School Rhode Island portal Smithfield official website City-Data.com
The Smithville Seminary was a Freewill Baptist institution established in 1839 on what is now Institute Lane in Smithville-North Scituate, Rhode Island. Renamed the Lapham Institute in 1863, it closed in 1876; the site was used as the campus of the Pentecostal Collegiate Institute and the Watchman Institute, is now the Scituate Commons apartments. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978; the buildings on the knoll were built in 1839 and comprised a large three-story central building with columns and two wings. The wings, with 33 rooms each, were separated by 20 feet from the main building and connected to it via two-story covered passageways; the central building housed classrooms, staff apartments, dining facilities, a library and reading room on the second floor, a large room on the third floor which might serve as a chapel, while the other two buildings served as separate male and female dormitories. The two-mile-long Lake Moswansicut could be seen from the third-floor chapel.
The buildings were designed by Russell Warren, the leading Greek Revival architect in New England in the 20th century,After the close of the renamed Lapham Institute, the campus became the site of the Pentecostal Collegiate Institute from 1902 to 1919 and the Watchman Institute in 1923. The site became part of the National Register of Historic Places in 1978; the buildings were renovated in the 1970s and converted into apartments known as Scituate Commons. Smithville Seminary was founded in 1839 by the Rhode Island Association of Free Baptists. At the time, the Free Baptists had two academies, one in New Hampshire, the other in Maine, the Rhode Island Baptists desired to have one of their own. Reverend Hiram Brooks was asked to start the school, raised $20,000, all of which he put toward buildings. Sadly, the entire commitment of these monies to brick and mortar rather than an endowment fund may have caused financial difficulties for the institution, as it was unable to support itself through tuition revenue.
The first principal was Rev. Hosea Quimby, who had come from the Maine academy to serve at Smithville. Quimby worked for the school buying the property when financial trouble struck, until in closed temporarily in 1854 with only 20 students, it was revived the next year when Quimby rented the property to a Samuel P. Coburn, who became principal, enrollment again reached over 100 that year; the property was sold to Reverend W. Colgrove in 1857, who operated it for another two years before it closed again, this time for three years; the site of Henry Barnard’s first Rhode Island Teachers Institute in 1845, the school began giving normal instruction for teachers with public funding in 1867, but ceased in 1871 when the state's Education Commissioner re-established the Rhode Island Normal School and cut program funding for other institutions. In 1863 the school changed hands and changed its name after a minister and former professor at the school, returned in 1861 to find much of the campus dilapidated and in disrepair.
With the Free Baptist Association unwilling or unable to help, William Winsor recruited Congressman Benedict Lapham, after whom the new Lapham Institute was named. In addition to its connections to what would become Rhode Island College, the school had connections to Bates College in Maine, another Free Baptist institution, its first principal, Benjamin F. Hayes, was called to a professorship at Bates, his successor, Thomas L. Angell, was called to a professorship there after two years as principal in North Scituate. George H. Ricker took over as principal for seven years before being called to Hillsdale College in Michigan in 1874, his successor was Arthur G. Moulton, a trustee of Bates, who died just over a year after taking the position, he was followed as principal by W. S. Stockbridge, under whom the school closed in 1876. William Winsor was the last benefactor of the Institute, when no one replaced him, the school went bankrupt without an endowment to support it. In 1883 Winsor donated the library of the Lapham Institute to the Greenville Public Library.
James Burrill Angell, President of the University of Michigan, University of Vermont Thomas L. Angell, Professor at Bates College Lewis Boss, director of Dudley Observatory George T. Day, writer, professor Henry Howard, Governor of Rhode Island 1873-1875 Oscar Lapham, U. S. Congressman National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence County, Rhode Island
William Winsor (Rhode Island)
William Winsor was a philanthropist, town treasurer, bank officer, supporter of education, co-founder of the Greenville Public Library. He was from Rhode Island where the William Winsor School was named after him. William Winsor was born in Greenville, Rhode Island in 1819 and grew up working on the family's farm. Winsor was a direct descendant of some of the early settlers who purchased Smithfield from the Native Americans and who built the Waterman–Winsor Farm. Winsor attended the Smithville Seminary in Scituate from 1841 to 1842 and after graduation taught school in the District schools in the Smithfield area. William Winsor married Harriet Steere in 1844 and had one son, Nicholas Winsor. In 1845 he replaced his uncle as cashier of the Smithfield Exchange Bank in Greenville and became cashier of the National Exchange Bank, he became treasurer of the Smithfield Savings Bank. During the American Civil War Winsor was appointed to a committee to provide bounties to Smithfield men who enlisted to fight for the Union cause.
In 1881 he was one of the original incorporators of the Greenville Public Library and donated the library collection of the Lapham Institute to the Public Library. Winsor was an active member of Greenville Free Will Baptist Church and donated to Free Will Baptist educational organizations including the Lapham Institute in Scituate, Bates College in Maine, Storer College, a school for freed slaves in West Virginia founded after the Civil War, he served as Smithfield's town treasurer. In 1933 the William Winsor School opened on Putnam Pike in Greenville, after the PTA asked the School committee to name the school after William Winsor because of all he had given to support education locally and nationally
Nathanael Greene was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. He emerged from the war with a reputation as General George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer, is known for his successful command in the southern theater of the war. Born into a prosperous Quaker family in Warwick, Rhode Island, Greene became active in the resistance to British revenue policies in the early 1770s and helped establish the Kentish Guards, a state militia. After the April 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord, the legislature of Rhode Island established an army and appointed Greene to command it. In the year, Greene became a general in the newly-established Continental Army. Greene served under Washington in the Boston campaign, the New York and New Jersey campaign, the Philadelphia campaign before being appointed quartermaster general of the Continental Army in 1778. In October 1780, General Washington appointed Greene as the commander of the Continental Army in the southern theater.
After taking command, Greene engaged in a successful campaign of guerrilla warfare against the numerically superior force of General Charles Cornwallis. He inflicted heavy losses on British forces at Battle of Guilford Court House, the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, the Battle of Eutaw Springs, eroding British control of the Southern United States. Major fighting on land came to an end following the surrender of Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown in October 1781, but Greene continued to serve in the Continental Army until late 1783. After the war, he sought to become a successful planter in the South, but died in 1786 at his Mulberry Grove Plantation in Chatham County, Georgia. Many places in the United States are named after Greene. Greene was born on August 7, 1742, on Forge Farm at Potowomut in the township of Warwick, Rhode Island, part of British North America, he was Nathanael Greene Sr. a prosperous Quaker merchant and farmer. Greene was descended from John Greene and Samuel Gorton, both of whom were founding settlers of Warwick.
Greene had two older half-brothers from his father's first marriage, was one of six children born to Nathanael and Mary. Due to religious beliefs, Greene's father discouraged book learning, as well as dancing and other activities. Nonetheless, Greene convinced his father to hire a tutor, he studied mathematics, the classics and various works of the Age of Enlightenment. At some point during his childhood, Greene gained a slight limp that would remain with him for the rest of his life. In 1770, Greene moved to Coventry, Rhode Island to take charge of the family-owned foundry, he built a house in Coventry called Spell Hall. In the year and his brothers inherited the family business after their father's death. Greene began to assemble a large library that included military histories by authors like Caesar, Frederick the Great, Maurice de Saxe. In July 1774, Greene married the nineteen-year-old Catharine Littlefield, a niece-by-marriage of his distant cousin, William Greene, an influential political leader in Rhode Island.
That same year, one of Greene's younger brothers married a daughter of Samuel Ward, a prominent Rhode Island politician who became an important political ally until his death in 1776. Greene and Catherine's first child was born in 1776, they had six more children between 1777 and 1786. After the French and Indian War, the British Parliament began imposing new policies designed to raise revenue from British North America. After British official William Dudington seized a vessel owned by Greene and his brothers, Greene filed an successful lawsuit against Dudington for damages. While the lawsuit was pending, Dudington's vessel was torched by a Rhode Island mob in what became known as the Gaspee Affair. In the aftermath of the Gaspee Affair, Greene became alienated from the British government. At the same time, Greene drifted away from his father's Quaker faith, he was suspended from Quaker meetings in July 1773. In 1774, after the passage of revenue-raising measures that colonials derided as the "Intolerable Acts," Greene helped organize a local militia known as the Kentish Guards.
Because of his limp, Greene was not selected as an officer in the militia. The American Revolutionary War broke out with the April 1775 Battles of Concord. In early May, the legislature of Rhode Island established the Rhode Island Army of Observation and appointed Greene to command it. Greene's army marched to Boston, where other colonial forces were laying siege to a British garrison, he missed the June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill because he was visiting Rhode Island at the time, but he returned immediately after the battle and was impressed by the performance of colonial forces. That same month, the Second Continental Congress established the Continental Army and appointed George Washington to command all colonial forces. In addition to Washington, Congress appointed sixteen generals, Greene was appointed as a brigadier general in the Continental Army. Washington took command of the Siege of Boston in July 1775, bringing with him generals such as Charles Lee, Horatio Gates, Thomas Mifflin. Washington organized the Continental Army into three divisions, each consisting of regiments from different colonies, Greene was given command of a brigade consisting of seven regiments.
The Siege of Boston continued until March 1776. After the end of the siege, Greene served as the commander of military forces in Boston, but he rejoined Washington's army in April 1776. Washington established his headquarters in Manhattan, Greene was tasked with preparing for the i