Defender (association football)
In the sport of association football, a defender is an outfield player whose primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring goals. There are four types of defenders, centre-back, sweeper, full-back, the centre-back and full-back positions are essential in most modern formations. The sweeper and wing-back roles are more specialised for certain formations, a centre-back defends in the area directly in front of the goal, and tries to prevent opposing players, particularly centre-forwards, from scoring. Centre-backs accomplish this by blocking shots, tackling, intercepting passes, contesting headers, with the ball, centre-backs are generally expected to make long and pinpoint passes to their teammates, or to kick unaimed long balls down the field. For example, a clearance is a long unaimed kick intended to move the ball as far as possible from the defenders goal, during normal play, centre-backs are unlikely to score goals. In this case, other defenders or midfielders will temporarily move into the centre-back positions, in the modern game, most teams employ two or three centre-backs in front of the goalkeeper. The 4–2–3–1, 4–3–3, and 4–4–2 formations all use two centre-backs, the sweeper is a more versatile centre-back who sweeps up the ball if an opponent manages to breach the defensive line. This position is more fluid than that of other defenders who man-mark their designated opponents. Because of this, it is referred to as libero. For example, the system of play, used in Italian football in the 1960s. The more modern libero possesses the qualities of the typical libero while being able to expose the opposition during counterattacks. The Fundell-libero has become popular in recent time with the sweeper transitioning to the most advanced forward in an attack. This variation on the position requires great pace and fitness, while rarely seen in professional football, the position has been extensively used in lower leagues. Modern libero sit behind centre-backs as a sweeper before charging through the team to join in the attack, some sweepers move forward and distribute the ball up-field, while others intercept passes and get the ball off the opposition without needing to hurl themselves into tackles. If the sweeper does move up the field to distribute the ball, they will need to make a speedy recovery, in modern football, its usage has been fairly restricted, with few clubs in the biggest leagues using the position. Though it is used in modern football, it remains a highly respected. A recent and successful use of the sweeper was made by Otto Rehhagel, Greeces manager, Rehhagel utilized Traianos Dellas as Greeces sweeper to great success, as Greece surprisingly became European champions. The full-backs take up the wide positions and traditionally stayed in defence at all times
Norwich City F.C.
Norwich City Football Club is an English professional football club based in Norwich, Norfolk. The club currently plays in the Championship, the tier of English football. They were first promoted to the top flight in 1972, Norwich have won the League Cup twice, in 1962 and 1985. The club has never won the top flight, but finished third in 1993, the club was founded in 1902. The fans song On the Ball, City is regarded as being the oldest football song in the world which is still in use, the club plays in characteristic yellow and green kits and are nicknamed The Canaries after the history of breeding the birds in the area. They joined the Norfolk & Suffolk League for the 1902–03 season, but following a FA Commission, the club was ousted from the amateur game in 1905, deemed a professional organisation. Later that year Norwich were elected to play in the Southern League and with increasing crowds, they were forced to leave Newmarket Road in 1908, moving to The Nest, a disused chalk pit. During the First World War, with football suspended and facing spiralling debts, the club was officially reformed on 15 February 1919 – a key figure in the events was Charles Frederick Watling, future Lord Mayor of Norwich and the father of future club chairman, Geoffrey Watling. When, in May 1920, the Football League formed a third Division and their first league fixture, against Plymouth Argyle, on 28 August 1920, ended in a 1–1 draw. The club went on to endure a mediocre decade, finishing no higher than eighth, the inaugural match, held on 31 August 1935, against West Ham United, ended in a 4–3 victory to the home team and set a new record attendance of 29,779. The biggest highlight of the four seasons was the visit of King George VI to Carrow Road on 29 October 1938. However, the club was relegated to the Third Division at the end of the season, the league was suspended the following season as a result of the outbreak of the Second World War and did not resume until the 1946–47 season. City finished this and the season in 21st place, the poor results forcing the club to apply for re-election to the league. The 1958–59 season saw Norwich reach the semi-final of the FA Cup as a Third Division side, in the 1959–60 season, Norwich were promoted to the Second Division after finishing second to Southampton, and achieved a fourth-place finish in the 1960–61 season. In 1962 Ron Ashman guided Norwich to their first trophy, defeating Rochdale 4–0 on aggregate in a final to win the League Cup. They made their first appearance at Wembley Stadium in 1973, losing the League Cup final 1–0 to Tottenham Hotspur. Relegation to the Second Division in 1974 came after Saunders had departed and been succeeded by John Bond, a highly successful first season saw promotion back to the First Division and another visit to Wembley, again in the League Cup final, this time losing 1–0 to Aston Villa. Bond departed to Manchester City in the autumn of 1980 and the club were relegated six months later, Norwich had also been the beneficiaries of one of English footballs first million-pound transfers when they sold striker Justin Fashanu to Nottingham Forest in August 1981
The Hartford Bicentennials was a soccer team based out of Hartford, Connecticut that played in the North American Soccer League. The team played at Dillon Stadium, after the 1976 season the team moved to New Haven, Connecticut and was renamed the Connecticut Bicentennials. Their home field was the Yale Bowl, the team name took its roots from the fact that the United States was approaching its bicentennial anniversary in 1976 and Connecticut was one of the original British colonies. The franchise was relocated to Oakland, California for the 1978 season, the Stompers were only in the Bay Area for one season before moving to Edmonton, Alberta to become the Edmonton Drillers for the 1979 through 1982 seasons
Torquay United F.C.
Torquay United Football Club is a professional association football club based in Torquay, Devon, England. The club participates in the National League, the tier of English football. They are based at Plainmoor and are managed by player-manager. The original Torquay United was formed in 1899 by a group of school-leavers under the guidance of Sergeant-Major Edward Tomney, relations between the two Torquay clubs were poor, but in 1921 matters finally came to a head. From 1923 onwards the league was split into Eastern and Western halves, in 1925, the club battled through five qualifying rounds to reach the first round proper of the FA Cup for the first time in the clubs history. Captain Percy Mackrill lead the team through two 1–1 draws before a strong Reading side won the second replay 2–0 at Plainmoor. The club then went on to lose the Southern League Championship final against the Eastern Champions Brighton & Hove Albion Reserves 4–0, finally the town of Torquay had a professional league team and had joined Plymouth and Exeter in the football league at last. The side for that first game was, Millsom, Cook, Smith, Wellock, Wragge, Conner, Mackey, Turner, Jones, McGovern, a crowd of 11,625 watched a 1–1 draw with Torquays goal coming from Bert Turner. Throughout the 1930s Torquay struggled against financial problems, such as having to replace the roof when it was blown off in 1930. They also failed to finish higher than 10th in twelve seasons, in the last few seasons before league football was suspended during the Second World War, Torquay struggled in Division Three South, finishing 20th, 20th and 19th out of 22 teams. In 1939, Torquay qualified for the final of the Third Division South Cup, however, the 1939 final was never played due to the outbreak of the Second World War. When league football was resumed in 1946, United continued to struggle, with the change of colours came a change in fortunes starting with the clubs greatest ever FA Cup moment that very season. After defeating Cambridge United 4–0 at home and Blyth Spartans 1–3 away, Torquay were drawn against Leeds United, away, in the third round of the Cup. The Torquay United versus Huddersfield Town fourth round FA Cup game at Plainmoor will always live on in the memory of those who attended the match on 29 January 1955. Torquay lost 1–0 to the higher-placed Division One club, but the attendance of 21,908 remains a Club record. Following their FA Cup heroics, in the 1956–57 season Torquay just missed out on promotion to Division Two on goal average, the season had begun well – and by April, the possibility of a first promotion to Division Two was the talk of the town. A trip to Crystal Palace for the team and over 1,500 Torquay fans travelling on the last day of the season beckoned. However, after two seasons in the Third Division they were again relegated on the last day of the campaign, with a 4–2 away defeat at Barnsley
Coventry City F.C.
Coventry City Football Club is a professional football club in Coventry, West Midlands, England, which plays in League One, the third tier of English football. Coventry City formed as Singers F. C. in 1883 and they won their only major trophy in 1987 when they beat Tottenham Hotspur 3–2 to win the FA Cup. They are one of five clubs to have ever won the FA Cup and FA Youth Cup in the same season. They returned to Wembley in April 2017, beating Oxford United 2-1 to win the English Football League Trophy. Following eleven seasons in the second-tier Football League Championship, Coventry were relegated to Football League One in 2012, Coventry have qualified for European competitions twice. In the 1970–71 season, they competed in the European Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, despite beating Bayern Munich 2–1 in their home leg, they had lost 1–6 in the first leg in Munich to go out of the competition. They were unable to compete in the 1987–88 UEFA Cup Winners Cup due to the ban on English clubs at that time, from 1899 to 2005, Coventry City played at Highfield Road. A return to the Ricoh Arena was announced on 21 August 2014 by the club after a one-year absence,1883 – The club is founded by employees of Singer, the cycle firm, with William Stanley one of the leading lights. 1898 – The clubs name is changed from Singers F. C. to Coventry City,1899 – The club move to Highfield Road following stints at Dowells Field and Stoke Road. 1901 – The club suffer their worst ever defeat with an 11–2 loss against Worcester-based Berwick Rangers in the round of the FA Cup. 1919 – The club are voted into the Football League, where they have remained ever since,1928 – In February, and with Coventry struggling near the foot of Division Three South, the clubs worst ever attendance is recorded. Only 2,059 turn up for the match against Crystal Palace,1932 – Centre-forward Clarrie Bourton heads the Football League scoring lists with 49 goals. The following season he scored 40 goals,1934 – City record their biggest ever victory a 9–0 league drubbing of Bristol City. 1936 – Coventry City win the Third Division South championship after a final day 2–1 victory over Torquay United. 1958 – Goalkeeper Alf Wood becomes the oldest player to start a game for the club and he played against Plymouth Argyle in the FA Cup aged 43 years and 207 days. 1961 – Former Fulham player and PFA chairman Jimmy Hill is appointed following an embarrassing FA Cup defeat at home to non-league Kings Lynn. 1964 – Jimmy Hill guides Coventry to promotion from Division Three as champions after a final day 1–0 victory over Colchester United,1967 – Coventry City promoted as Second Division champions to the top flight for the first time in their history. This made manager and BBC Sport presenter Jimmy Hill a legend at the club, Coventrys record attendance was also set in this year – officially recorded as 51,455, against Wolverhampton Wanderers, the team that finished a close second to Coventry at the top of the table
Birmingham City F.C.
Birmingham City Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Birmingham, England. Formed in 1875 as Small Heath Alliance, they became Small Heath in 1888, then Birmingham in 1905, the team compete in the EFL Championship, the second tier of the English football league system. As Small Heath, they played in the Football Alliance before becoming founder members, the most successful period in their history was in the 1950s and early 1960s. They won the competition for the second time in 2011. St Andrews has been their ground since 1906. They have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with Aston Villa, their nearest neighbours, the clubs nickname is Blues, due to the colour of their kit, and their fans are known as Bluenoses. Birmingham City were founded as Small Heath Alliance in 1875, the club turned professional in 1885, and three years later became the first football club to become a limited company with a board of directors, under the name of Small Heath F. C. Ltd. From the 1889–90 season they played in the Football Alliance, which ran alongside the Football League, in 1892, Small Heath, along with the other Alliance teams, were invited to join the newly formed Football League Second Division. The club adopted the name Birmingham Football Club in 1905, and moved into their new home, St Andrews Ground, matters on the field failed to live up to their surroundings. Birmingham were relegated in 1908, obliged to apply for two years later, and remained in the Second Division until after the First World War. Frank Womacks captaincy and the creativity of Scottish international playmaker Johnny Crosbie contributed much to Birmingham winning their second Division Two title in 1920–21, Womack went on to make 515 appearances, a club record for an outfielder, over a twenty-year career. 1920 also saw the debut of the 19-year-old Joe Bradford, who went on to score a club record 267 goals in 445 games, and won 12 caps for England. In 1931, manager Leslie Knighton led the club to their first FA Cup Final and they were finally relegated in 1939, the last full season before the Football League was abandoned for the duration of the Second World War. The name Birmingham City F. C. was adopted in 1943, under Harry Storer, appointed manager in 1945, the club won the Football League South wartime league and reached the semifinal of the first post-war FA Cup. Two years later won their third Second Division title, conceding only 24 goals in the 42-game season. Storers successor Bob Brocklebank, though unable to stave off relegation in 1950, when Arthur Turner took over as manager in November 1954, he made them play closer to their potential, and a 5–1 win on the last day of the 1954–55 season confirmed them as champions. In their first season back in the First Division, Birmingham achieved their highest league finish of sixth place. They also reached the FA Cup final, losing 3–1 to Manchester City in the game notable for Citys goalkeeper Bert Trautmann playing the last 20 minutes with a bone in his neck
Hereford United F.C.
Hereford United Football Club was an English association football club based in the city of Hereford that last played in the Southern League Premier Division, the seventh tier of English football. Founded in 1924, the club was elected to the Football League in 1972, the club reached the old Second Division in 1976, its best league performance, but was relegated after only one season at that level. Hereford achieved national prominence in 1972 when, as a Southern League club, Hereford played at Edgar Street for their entire history. They were nicknamed The Whites or The Lilywhites, after their predominantly white kit, the clubs motto was Our greatest glory lies not in never having fallen, but in rising when we fall. The club was affiliated to the Herefordshire County FA, on 19 December 2014, the club was wound up in the High Court after a petition had been brought against it by HM Revenue and Customs. Following the demise of United, a new club was being set up. The new club incorporates the words Forever United into its crest design, for league and cup performance, see List of Hereford United F. C. seasons. Hereford United Football Club was founded in 1924 with the merger of two local clubs St Martins and RAOC, with the intention of sustaining a higher class of football in the city of Hereford, Hereford joined the Birmingham Combination and lost its first match 2–3 to Atherstone United. The clubs second match was an FA Cup Preliminary Round tie against future rivals Kidderminster Harriers which they lost 2–7. Hereford progressed to the Birmingham & District League in 1928 where the club spent 11 seasons, at the same time the club became a limited company. When football resumed after the war, Hereford finished 1st in their first full season in the only to be demoted to 2nd behind Chelmsford City. In 27 seasons in the Southern League, Hereford finished as runners-up three times, and also lifted the Southern League Cup three times, when the league was regionalised for one season in 1958–59, Hereford also won their regional division to add to their third League Cup win. In 1966 Hereford signed John Charles, the former Leeds United, Juventus and Welsh international and he became manager a year later and set about building a team to challenge at the top of the Southern League and gain election to the Football League. With the club becoming one of the best-supported non-league clubs in the country Charles used his standing within the game to canvass votes from member clubs for election to the Football League. The 1971–1972 season saw the club second in the Southern League. Charles had departed the club in October 1971 and his successor Colin Addison inherited a side that defeated top-flight Newcastle United in the FA Cup. The star player was Dudley Tyler, Ronnie Radford and Ricky Georges goals earned the club a Fourth Round tie against West Ham United where they were defeated in a replay at Upton Park. The Cup run played a part in the successful election to the Fourth Division
Raunds Town F.C.
Raunds Town F. C. is a football club based at Raunds, Northamptonshire, England. The play in the United Counties League Division One and they were FA Vase semi-finalists in 1994–95. Raunds Town was founded in 1946, there had been other teams with Raunds in the title as long ago as 1896–97, but at a meeting in the towns Temperance Hall in May 1946 a new amalgamated club was formed. The club is nicknamed The Shopmates in reference to the boot and shoe industry. In 1950 the Shopmates joined the United Counties League, playing in the Second Division and they did not set the league on fire, and after switching between the divisions settled in Division One after the former first division was redesignated the Premier Division. Raunds Town embarked upon an ambitious programme, having played at Greenhouse Field for two years at the start, they moved to The Berristers for thirty-three seasons and in 1991 they moved to Kiln Park. The stadium adjacent to the A45 was designed to host football at a higher level, the Shopmates’ on-field performance matched this munificence. In 1994–95 the Shopmates lost the FA Vase semi-final against Arlesey Town having led 3–0 after the first leg, the following season they were eliminated in the quarter-final by Bristol club Mangotsfield United. In 2006–07 the Shopmates eliminated Isthmian League side Enfield from the FA Cup by way of a 2–1 away win, meanwhile, in the United Counties League, the leadership of manager Keith Burt led an assault on the top of the table. Having lost out on the championship on goal difference in 1994–95 and they were duly promoted to the Southern League, where they took their place in the Midland Division. This had financial implications, not least the cost of travelling, manager Keith Burt resigned, and the club had little option but to apply for re-admission to the United Counties League at the end of 1999–2000. In the 2012–13 season, Raunds Town are playing in the United Counties Football League Division One, led by manager Stuart Brown
Kettering Town F.C.
Kettering Town Football Club is an English football club originating in Kettering, Northamptonshire but currently based in the town of Burton Latimer. The club participates in the Southern League Premier Division, the tier of English football. Kettering Town were originally formed in 1872, turning professional in 1891, the club graduated through twelve different leagues from 1892 until they became founding members of the Alliance Premier League in 1979. The club maintained its status in the top flight of football until the 2000–01 season. Many honours have found their way to Rockingham Road, winning the Midland Football League title in 1896 and 1900, the Southern League Championship was won on three occasions by the club, in 1928 and 1957 under Tommy Lawton and in 1973 under the guidance of Ron Atkinson. In the 1930s the club won the East Midlands League and in 1948 the Poppies became Birmingham League Champions, during the 1970s, Kettering Town sought election to the Football League, coming five votes short of election in 1974. The deal was brokered by chief executive and manager Derek Dougan, four days later, The Football Association ordered the club to remove the slogan, but Dougan changed the words on the shirts to Kettering T, and claimed that the T stood for Town. Nonetheless, the FA ordered the club to remove the words, shirt sponsorship was eventually permitted within the English game in 1977, although the ban on shirt sponsors in televised games wasnt lifted until 1983. Kettering are also the first ever British team to have their initials on their grounds floodlights, the club finished runners-up in the Football Conference in 1981,1989,1994 and 1998. The GMAC Cup was won in 1987 and the Poppies were runners-up in 1995, County competitions have been won regularly by Kettering Town, with the Northants Senior Cup won on 28 occasions and the Maunsell Cup 13 times. The FA Cup has brought success and publicity to Rockingham Road with the first round proper being reached on 41 occasions. During the 1994–95 season the club made their debut live on Sky TV in a first round tie against Plymouth Argyle, as of 2016 the Poppies had scored more goals than any other team in the FA Cups history, with 870 goals scored in 381 appearances. Wembley has been reached on two occasions before, the Poppies lost 2–0 to Stafford Rangers in the 1979 FA Trophy Final. More recently, the FA Trophy Final in 2000 saw the Poppies lose a closely fought final with Kingstonian 3–2, most recently, the club were narrowly relegated on the last day of the 2000–01 season which ended 30 years in the top flight of non-league football. The following season was a disappointment and the club, rarely out of the bottom three, were again demoted – this time to the Isthmian League. Carl Shutt left the club in April 2003 and Dominic Genovese, after a period as acting manager. After a poor run of results and a disappointing defeat to Boreham Wood in the FA Cup Dominic Genovese was replaced by former Northampton Town manager. Changes to the team were made and the finished the season on a 12-game unbeaten run
Redditch United F.C.
Redditch United Football Club is an English football club based in Redditch, Worcestershire. The club participates in the Southern League Premier Division, and play their games at The TRICO Stadium. Redditch Town were established in 1891 and immediately joined the Birmingham Combination, the club achieved its first success by winning the Worcestershire Senior Cup in 1894 and becoming runners-up in 1898. In 1914 they won the Birmingham Combination Championship for the first time and, finally, the 1930s were a much more rewarding period for the club and its supporters, starting by winning the Worcestershire Senior Cup and the Birmingham Senior Cup in successive seasons. Reds almost achieved a double in 1932–33 when, having won the Combination. Apart from an appearance in the Birmingham Senior Cup final just before the World War. In 1953 Redditch regained the Combination Championship and were runners-up in the Worcestershire Senior Cup and this Championship success was repeated in 1955. In 1957 they were runners-up in the Birmingham Senior Cup, in 1971–72 the club reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, losing 6–0 in the replay at Peterborough United after a 1–1 draw at home in front of a crowd of 4,500. At the end of the season they finished sixth in the West Midlands League Premier Division and they won the Worcestershire Senior Cup in 1974 and 1975. The following season they won Division One North and were promoted to the Premier Division, in 1978–79 they finished eighth in the league, and became founder members of the Alliance Premier League. However, they finished bottom in its first season, and dropped into the Southern Leagues Midland Division, after finishing as runners-up in 1985–86, the club were promoted to the Premier Division, where they remained until relegation in 1989. The following season, they reached the first round of the FA Cup, at the end of the season they beat Northwich Victoria 4–3 over the two-legged final of the Staffordshire Senior Cup. In 1997–98 the Reds reached two cup finals, the Southern League Cup and the Birmingham Senior Cup, both were lost, and the cup run caused a large fixture backlog that resulted in the club having to play nine matches in nine days at the end of the season. In 2003–04 the club won the Southern League Western Division, due to league reorganisation caused by the establishment of the Conference North and South, the club entered play-offs to be promoted to the new leagues. After beating Kings Lynn 1–0 and Merthyr Tydfil 3–0, the club were promoted to the Conference North, after a ninth-place finish in 2004–05, Redditch struggled in 2005–06, only avoiding relegation on the final day of the season. After a very difficult 2010–11 campaign in the Conference North, Redditch were relegated to the Southern League Premier Division where they remain currently, on 17 March 2011, businessman Chris Swan took over the club, after a previous attempt to purchase Kidderminster Harriers fell through. This is 5 recent Redditch United seasons for a full history look List of Redditch United F. C. seasons Note, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Players with international caps in bold See Redditch United F. C
Merthyr Tydfil F.C.
Merthyr Tydfil Football Club was a Welsh football club based at the Penydarren Park ground in Merthyr Tydfil. In 2010 the club was liquidated and reformed under the name Merthyr Town, the club was formed in 1945, and joined the Welsh League. In their first season, they finished as runners-up, and joined the Southern League, the club were immensely successful in their first few seasons, winning the championship in 1947–48, 1949–50, 1950–51, 1951–52 and 1953–54. In the 1947–48 championship-winning season, Merthyr only dropped one point at home, however, despite their success, the club failed to be elected to the Football League. The 1950–51 season ended with Merthyr winning the Southern League, the Welsh Cup, the Southern League Cup and this time, winning the championship meant promotion to the Football Conference, the fifth level of English football. The club finished ninth in their first two seasons, and then fourth, however, they then went into decline, and were relegated back to the Southern League in 1995, where they remained until reforming in 2010. They should have been relegated a season earlier, but were reprieved when Northern Premier League champions Marine failed to meet the criteria for the league. The clubs best FA Cup performance was reaching the second round, the only time the club managed to defeat a Football League club in the FA Cup was in the first round of the 1946–47 cup, when they beat Bristol Rovers 3–1. The club were more successful in the Welsh Cup, which they won on three occasions,1949,1951 and 1987. In addition, the finished as runners-up in 1947 and 1952. After winning the final in 1987, the club were allowed to enter the European Cup Winners Cup, in the first round, they were drawn against the Italian club Atalanta. The club managed a win in the first leg at home, however, the return leg was lost 2–0, and the club were out. Historically, the clubs biggest rivals are Gloucester City, the two clubs played over 120 times in their history, making it one of the most played Anglo-Welsh derbies in football. In the late 1990s and early 2000s Newport County were local rivals but the teams have not met in the same league for many years
Worcester City F.C.
Worcester City Football Club is an English football club based in Worcester, Worcestershire. The club participates in the National League North, the tier of English football. Established in 1902, they have spent the majority of their history in non-league football and they currently play at Victoria Ground, home to Bromsgrove Sporting, after leaving St Georges Lane in 2013. Initially they played on Pitchcroft on an area called Severn Terrace. They played there until the start of the 1905 season and it was in 1905 that they reached the first round of the FA Cup, losing 6–0 at home to Watford. In 1924–25 they won the league for the first time, the club won back-to-back league titles in 1928–29 and 1929–30, also reaching the FA Cup first round in the former, losing 3–1 at Walsall. In 1938 they joined the Southern League, in 1940 they won the Southern League Cup beating Chelmsford 7–3 over two legs under the guidance of former Fulham F. C. legend Syd Gibbons. During World War II the club returned to the Birmingham & District League for two seasons, after the war Worcester rejoined the Southern League. In 1958–59 the club reached the first round of the FA Cup again, after beating Chelmsford City in a replay and then Millwall 5–2 in the second round, they were drawn against Liverpool. A 2–1 win saw Worcester qualify for the round against Sheffield United. They were defeated 2–0 in front of a home attendance of 17,042 at St Georges Lane. In 1973–74 the club were relegated to Division One North of the Southern League and they returned to the Premier Division as Division One champions in 1977, and in 1978–79 won the title. The following season they became members of the Alliance Premier League. However, they were relegated at the end of the 1984–85 season, the 1973–74 season saw City reach the quarter-final of the FA Trophy. They beat Taunton Town 1–0 away from home and then a 5–1 home win over Bletchley saw the club reach the third round. Having beaten Sandbach Ramblers 4–1, City progressed to the last eight where a 2–0 away defeat followed a draw against South Shields ended their cup run. In the 1978–79 season, Worcester reached the semi-finals after beating Cardiff City 3–2 in the quarters and they again played Shrewsbury, this time losing 2–0 away. The club remained in the Southern League Premier Division until 2004, in 2008 they were moved to the Conference South after no southern teams were relegated from the Conference National
Forest Green Rovers F.C.
Forest Green Rovers Football Club is a professional football club based in Nailsworth, Gloucestershire, England. Affiliated to the Gloucestershire County FA, they are members of the National League. The club was established in 1889 by Reverend E. J. H, peach, representing the Forest Green area of Nailsworth. The name Rovers was adopted in 1893, and the year the club were founder members of the Mid-Gloucestershire League. Their first home match on 6 October was a 1–1 draw with Brimscombe. As Nailsworth had become a district in 1894, there was an effort to ensure the town was represented by a football team. However, the club withdrew from the league during the 1896–97 season, the club was re-established in 1898 under the Forest Green Rovers name, and absorbed Nailsworth Thursday shortly afterwards. They joined both Division One of the Mid-Gloucestershire League and also the Dursley & District League for the 1899–1900 season, the Mid-Gloucestershire League folded in 1901, with Forest Green left playing in the Dursley & District League. In 1902–03 they joined the new Stroud & District League, also continuing in the Dursley & District League, as a result, a play-off match was held to decide the championship, with over 1,000 spectators watching Forest Green win 2–1 in extra time. In 1906–07 they finished bottom of the Stroud & District League with zero points and they withdrew from the Dursley & District League in 1908. They entered a team into the Dursley & District League in 1912–13, after World War I the club rejoined the league and the 1919–20 season saw them finish joint top of the table with Chalford and Stonehouse. The league subsequently held a draw to decide the championship, with Forest Green drawn against Stonehouse in a semi-final, however, Stonehouse beat Forest green 3–2 in the semi-final match. In 1920 the club entered a team into the North Gloucestershire League. They repeated the league championship the following season. They were founder members of the Gloucestershire Northern Senior League in 1922, Forest Green finished as runners-up in 1924–25 and 1925–26, before rejoining the Gloucestershire Northern Senior League in 1926. They went on to finish as runners-up in 1926–27 before leaving the league again to play in the new Stroud Premier League. After finishing fourth in the league, the returned to the Northern Senior League at the end of the season. The club withdrew from the Stroud Premier League in 1930, the league for a time in 1934
AFC Bridgnorth is a football club based in the town of Bridgnorth, Shropshire, England. AFC Bridgnorth are the phoenix club of the old Bridgnorth Town. The club badge depicts the hall in Bridgnorths high town. Runners-up, 2014–15, 2015–16 West Midlands League First Division, winners, 2013–14 TJ Vickers Cup Runners-up, 2013–14 Official website
Malvern Town F.C.
Malvern Town Football Club is an English football club based in Malvern, Worcestershire. The clubs first team play in the West Midlands League Premier Division and have reached the third qualifying round of the FA Cup. They have a team who also play in the WMRL. Malvern Town were formed shortly after World War II and joined the Worcestershire Combination in 1955 and they remained in the league, later renamed the Midland Combination, until 1979 and only twice finished outside the top ten, although they never managed to claim another title. For the 1979-80 season they switched to the West Midlands League Premier Division, after this former Collets Green manager Bert Green took over and although results on the field improved marginally, Green set a blue print for the club that would reap dividends in future years. Establishing Youth and Reserve sides, Malvern began to develop young talent as well as adding experience to the first team squad. Green resigned in 2000 after guiding Malvern to a top 10 West Midlands League finish, in the meantime current first team manager Les Jones was given the responsibility of growing and developing the Youth structure. This success was matched by both the youth and reserve sides who not only picked up trophies but also developed players who played a key role in the first teams success, Malvern Town finished 17th in the 2006-07 season, but thereafter the clubs fortunes have suffered dramatically. In the 2007-08 season Malvern finished bottom but one of the league, in the 2008-09 season, Malvern Town finished 22nd of 22 teams - this time there would be no reprieve, and they were thus relegated to the Midland Alliance for the 2009-10 season. During the course of season, Malvern suffered a number of extremely heavy defeats - the worst coming against Chesham United away when they were beaten 11-0. Chris Palmers reign at Malvern Town came to an end just before the beginning of the 2010–11 season, with Palmer, Richard Webb left the club after a short spell at Langland Stadium, forcing Martin Stephens to search for a replacement number two. That void was filled by former Malvern Town, Huddersfield Town, Swindon Town and Worcester City player Darren Bullock, who had ironically left Archdale 73, where he replaced Stephens and Webb. Stan Cullen was announced as the chairman on March 11,2011. However Nigel Soley, the Director of Football, left to manager at rivals Malvern Rangers. Ray Pearce and former Swansea City player Mark Tipton managed the side until the end of the season, Les Jones, formerly manager of Malvern Towns neighbours Malvern Rangers, became the clubs latest manager in June 2011 and is still presently the first team manager. Since taking over at the club a number of improvements have made to the facilities. In the 2014-15 season the first team won the Worcestershire Senior Urn, the very first game for the reformed Hereford F. C. was against Malvern Town at Langland, on 7 July 2015, which produced a record crowd for the club and ground. Malvern Town at the Football Club History Database Mike and Tony Williams, Malvern Gazette Malvern Town FC page Official Malvern Town Football Club website Malvern Town F. C. Twitter page
Great Yarmouth Town F.C.
Great Yarmouth Town Football Club is a football club based in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England. The club is affiliated to the Norfolk County FA, in their first season in existence, the new club won the same trophy, beating Lynn Town 4–3 in a replay after a 0–0 draw in the first match. They won the cup five years in a row between 1902 and 1906, each time defeating Lynn Town in the final, the clubs were founder members of the Norfolk & Suffolk League, winning it in 1913–14, 1926–27 and 1927–28. In 1935 they became members of the Eastern Counties League. The club remained in the division until 2005, when they were relegated to Division One. In the 1947–48 season the club reached the first round of the FA Cup and they reached the second round again the following season, beating Crystal Palace 1–0 before another record crowd of 8,944, before losing 5–2 at Barrow. The club won the Eastern Counties League for the first, after relegation to Division One in 2005, the club remained at that level until winning the division in 2009–10. Great Yarmouth dropped back to Division One two seasons later, with a backdrop of financial difficulties threatening to put the club out of business and they were promoted to the Premier Division after finishing third in 2015–16. C. On Twitter Great Yarmouth Town at the Football Club History Database
Dereham Town F.C.
Dereham Town Football Club is a football club based in Dereham, Norfolk, England. They are currently members of the Isthmian League Division One North, the club was founded as Dereham Football Club in 1884, spending many of its early years in the Dereham & District League. In 1891–92 the club reached the final of the Norfolk Senior Cup, by 1910 the club were playing in the Norwich & District League and had been renamed East Dereham. In 1920 they adopted their current name and in 1935 they joined the Norfolk & Suffolk League, when the Norfolk & Syffolk Legaue merged into the Anglian Combination, the club were placed in the Senior B Division. They won the division at the first attempt and were promoted Premier Division and they were renamed Dereham Hobbies United in 1986 after a local Sunday league team merged into the club. The club were relegated from the Premier Division at the end of the 1988–89 season, in 1991 they returned to the name Dereham Town. In 1997–98 Dereham won the Anglian Combination Premier Division, earning promotion to Division One of the Eastern Counties League, in 2001–02 the club finished second in Division One, beating Stanway Rovers 1–0 on the final day to overtake them and earn promotion to the Premier Division. The club won the Norfolk Senior Cup in 2006, defeating Norwich United 1–0 in the final, in 2012–13 they won the Eastern Counties League Premier Division, earning promotion to Division One North of the Isthmian League. After the club were promoted to the Isthmian League, the team joined Division One of the Eastern Counties League. Prior to World War II the club played at Bayfields Meadow, however, the council owned the ground and there was no scope for upgrading it. In 1991, the purchased a 10. 2-acre site on the outskirts of the town in order to build a new £750,000 stadium. The club moved to the new ground at Aldiss Park in December 1996, at the start of 2000–01 season Norwich City visited Aldiss Park for a pre-season friendly and although the club lost 9–0, a new record attendance of 1,800 was set. Norwich City visited for another match in July 2001, with a new record of 3,000 being set. C. Players Dereham Town F. C. managers Official website Dereham Town Youth
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Norwich City F.C. Player of the Season
The Norwich City Player of the Season award is voted for annually by Norwich Citys supporters, in recognition of the best overall performance by an individual player throughout the football season. As a mark of respect, the trophy is named The Barry Butler memorial trophy after the captain who was killed in a car accident on 9 April 1966. This is the more prestigious of just two awards made by Norwich City itself each year to its players, the other being the Young Player of the Year accolade. The 2003–04 winner Craig Fleming made clear just how important this award is to Norwich City players and it is such a prestigious award. Other awards available are awarded by other bodies, namely the Capital Canaries, Norwich City Independent Supporters Association, since the inaugural award was made to Terry Allcock, eight players have won the award twice and one three times, Grant Holt in 2010,2011 and 2012. World Cup winner Martin Peters was the first to win the trophy in consecutive seasons, just two winners have gone on to manage the club, Dave Stringer, the 1972 winner, and double-winner Bryan Gunn. This award is voted for by the fans of the club, a percentage of the votes from the Player of the Month awards throughout the season also count towards the final votes for Player of the year. Norwich City F. C. Hall of Fame inductee Player name in bold represents players still on the playing staff of the club
Carrow Road is an association football stadium located in Norwich, Norfolk, England, and is the home of Norwich City Football Club. The stadium is located toward the east of the city, not far from Norwich railway station, the club originally played at Newmarket Road before moving to The Nest. The stadium has been altered and upgraded several times during its history, having once accommodated standing supporters, the ground has been all-seater since 1992. The grounds current capacity is 27,244, the most recent works being the addition of approximately 1,000 seats in the summer of 2010. The stadiums record attendance since becoming a ground is 27,137. In the days when fans could stand on terraces, Carrow Road saw a crowd of 43,984 when hosting Leicester City for an FA Cup match in 1963. Carrow Road has also hosted international football and a number of concerts, including performances by Elton John. The Carrow Road site includes catering facilities and a Holiday Inn hotel offering rooms with views of the pitch, Norwich City F. C. played at Newmarket Road from 1902 to 1908, with a record attendance of 10,366 in 1908. Following a dispute over the conditions of renting Newmarket Road, the moved to a new home in 1908. The new ground became known as The Nest, named for Norwich Citys nickname, by the 1930s, the ground capacity was proving insufficient for the growing crowds, The Nests largest crowd was 25,037 in the 1934–35 FA Cup. The physical limitations of the site of The Nest meant that expansion was not possible, the club began looking for alternative accommodation in 1926, their hand forced finally when one corner of the pitch subsided up to 30 feet after old chalk workings collapsed. The clubs dilemma was acute, the FA no longer approved of large crowds at The Nest, about half a mile south of The Nest, they found a new site, the Boulton Paul Sports Ground in Carrow Road, which belonged to J. & J. Colman. The new stadium took its name from the street which encloses the ground on three sides, the boundary being the River Wensum. The name Carrow originally refers to the former Carrow Abbey that once stood on the riverside, its name in turn having possible Norse origins. In 1800, John Ridges, owner of the Carrow Abbey Estate, by 1811, Philip M. Martineau, a surgeon, owned the building, lands and manor of Carrow, including the adjacent Thorpe land. Carrow Hill Road was created on his Carrow Abbey Estate, to work for the poor in the community. The road linked Martineaus Bracondale Estate to Carrow Toll Bridge, installed in 1810. Norwich Railway Co. had acquired the land in Thorpe around Carrow Road by the 1840s, the stadiums Thorpe Corner acknowledges this historical link
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
1987 FA Cup Final
The 1987 FA Cup Final took place on 16 May 1987 at Wembley Stadium. It was contested between Coventry City and Tottenham Hotspur, Spurs were going for a record eighth victory and had never lost a final. In an exciting match, Coventry eventually triumphed 3–2 after extra time, BBC commentator John Motson stated it was the finest Cup Final Ive had the pleasure of commentating on. It was a clean, good-willed yet well-contested final, with no bookings, both teams exercised quick, neat passing ability interspersed with exciting wing play and it was generally considered a good advertisement for English football. Spurs played the game in their new kit for the following 1987–88 season, due to a mix up only half of the Spurs players wore the Holsten sponsorship on their shirts. In an attempt to show some reward for their achievement, Coventry arranged the Anglo-Scottish Challenge Cup, after a 1–1 draw at Highfield Road, attended by fewer than 5,000 spectators, the second leg at Love Street was postponed and eventually forgotten. In Keith Houchens 2006 book A Tenner and a Box of Kippers, The Story of Keith Houchen, the cross came in and I never took my eyes off it. I had to throw myself at it, or I would never have got on the end of it, I can’t say I was consciously thinking, ‘If it comes in, I’m going to dive and head it. ’ It’s all instinct. When it is perfect timing, it’s like a dance — it all comes together, when I scored, I was totally disorientated. I hit the ground, bounced back up again and off I went, all you could hear was this deafening noise. I always thought I’d score in the Cup, the fact it was such a spectacular goal made it sweeter. There was only one going to win. It’s like two boxers, all of a sudden, one punch changes everything, Steve Ogrizovic, who remained with Coventry until retiring as a player in 2000, was Coventrys last remaining player from the game when he played his last game for them. Gary Mabbutt, who remained with Tottenham until 1998, was the last player to leave runners-up Tottenham. Clive Allen scored his 49th goal of the season for Tottenham in the final, London rockers Chas & Dave released a song called Hot Shot Tottenham. It reached No.18 in the charts, Coventrys single Go For It reached No.61. After only two minutes, Clive Allen scored his 49th goal of the season, heading past keeper Steve Ogrizovic at the near-post from a perfect Chris Waddle cross from the right. Within seven minutes though, the Sky Blues were level through Dave Bennett, Bennett collected the ball in the box and got around the advancing goalkeeper to hit left footed into the net past Steve Hodge on the line
Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club /ˈtɒtnəm, -tənəm/, commonly referred to as Spurs, is an English football club located in Tottenham, Haringey, London, that competes in the Premier League. The clubs home stadium is White Hart Lane and their newly developed training ground is in Bulls Cross on the northern borders of the London Borough of Enfield. Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After successfully defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners Cup, in 1967, Spurs won the FA Cup for a third time in the 1960s. In the 1970s Tottenham won the League Cup on two occasions and were the winner of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. In the 1980s Spurs won several trophies, the FA Cup twice, FA Community Shield, in the 1990s the club won the FA Cup and the League Cup. When they won the League Cup once more in 2008, it meant that they had won a trophy in each of the last six decades – an achievement only matched by Manchester United. The clubs Latin motto is Audere est Facere, and its emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football, the club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby neighbours Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby. The club was formed in 1882, as Hotspur F. C. and played in the Southern League from 1896 until 1908, when they were elected into the Football League Second Division. Before this promotion Tottenham had won the FA Cup in 1901, since then, Tottenham have won the FA Cup a further seven times, the Football League twice, the Football League Cup four times, the UEFA Cup twice and also the UEFA Cup Winners Cup. The Cup Winners Cup victory in 1963 made Tottenham the first English team to win a UEFA competition, in 1960–61 they became the first team to complete The Double in the 20th century. Tottenham played their first matches at Tottenham Marshes on the public pitches. It was at this ground that Spurs first played archrivals Arsenal, there were occasions on which fights would break out on the marshes in dispute of the teams that were allowed to use the best pitches. Crowd sizes were regularly increasing and a new site was becoming needed to accommodate these supporters, in 1898 the club moved from the marshes to Northumberland Park and charged an admission fee of 3d. They only remained at this ground for a year as in April 1899,14,000 fans turned up to watch Spurs play Woolwich Arsenal. The ground was no able to cope with the larger crowds and Spurs were forced to move to a new larger site 100 yards down the road. The White Hart Lane ground was originally a disused nursery owned by the brewery Charringtons, the landlord spotted the increased income he could enjoy if Tottenham played their matches behind his pub and in 1899 the club moved in. They brought with them the stand they used at Northumberland Park which gave shelter to 2,500 fans, notts County were the first visitors to the Lane in a friendly watched by 5,000 people and provided in £115 in receipts, Spurs won 4–1
Highfield Road was a football stadium in the city of Coventry, England. It was the ground for Coventry City F. C. for 106 years. A concert by pop star Elton John was held at the stadium afterwards, the club then moved to the Ricoh Arena, at Foleshill in the north of the city. Highfield Road had one of the largest playing surfaces in the English leagues and was the English leagues first all-seater stadium, the stadiums record attendance was 51,455 when Coventry City played their West Midlands rivals Wolverhampton Wanderers in a Football League Division 2 game in 1967. The stadium had by then been well-developed with one corner filled to provide a modern look. However, it lacked facilities compared to the new stadia of similar-sized clubs, another reason for relocation was that parking facilities in the local area were inadequate. When the stadium was first given the go-ahead in 1999, it had planned to build a 45. However, Englands failure to win the bid to host the tournament - combined with Coventrys relegation in 2001 - saw the stadiums capacity scaled down, Demolition work began in February 2006 and was completed by the end of the following month. The site of the stadium was regenerated by George Wimpey plc to provide housing on the areas which were originally the car parks, the area which was the playing surface was relaid with grass so that the local children can continue the tradition of playing football on that space. Redevelopment Stadium Guide Article Demolition of Highfield Road Photo Gallery
Edgar Street is a football stadium in Hereford and was the home of Hereford United Football Club from the clubs formation in 1924 until December 2014, when the club was wound up. It is now the home of Hereford FC, a club formed to replace the former club. It is the largest football stadium in the county of Herefordshire and is located on the edge of Hereford City Centre, the name of the stadium directly derives from the name of the street where it is located, which is also the A49. The site has been used as a stadium since the late 19th century, the stadium was originally owned by the Hereford Athletic Ground Company and was also used by amateur football side Hereford City. Even in the early days Hereford United struggled financially and the landlord obligingly reduced the rent to help the club, in 1931 the stadium was purchased by Hereford City Council for £3,000, and in 1952 United secured a lease on the stadium for the first time. Although now showing its age, the history does have some notable landmarks, such as the installation of floodlights in March 1953. In 1974, following the most recent major development seen at Edgar Street, at 76 yards the ground had, until the advent of new stadia, one of the widest pitches in the Football League. The extreme width of the pitch was created when the old running track was turfed over, due to the clubs financial crisis in 1997, the lease was handed over to developers. In 2000 an electronic scoreboard was put up at the Blackfriars Street End, on 19 February 2015, Herefordshire County Council rejected a proposal by Redditch United, a team based 50 miles away, to play at Edgar Street. Later that same week, on 24 February, the council confirmed that Hereford FC, the stadiums record attendance is 18,114 when Hereford United played against Sheffield Wednesday in the 1958-59 season FA Cup Third Round. Hereford FCs record attendance for a game at Edgar Street is 4,683, for a 1-0 win in the FA Vase semi-finals against Salisbury. The Merton Stand, on the side of the ground is the only all-seater stand in the ground and was built in 1968. It currently has a capacity of 1818, initially it was flanked on either side by standing areas known as the Cowsheds, but when the club progressed into the Football League the stand was extended to cover the entire length of the pitch. The Merton Stand is the family stand and includes the directors and press boxes. In front of the stand lie the dugouts next to the players tunnel, all of the club facilities, such as offices, changing rooms, boardroom and corporate hospitality are located underneath the stand. The result of this is a number of windows at pitch level, the Meadow End is located at the northern end of the ground and is traditionally populated with the clubs most vocal supporters. It is a covered terrace and has a distinctive curve to its shape. The flat area in front of the terracing enables supporters to stand directly behind the wall of the pitch
Wroxham Football Club is an English football club based in the town of Wroxham, about four miles north-east of Norwich, in Norfolk. The club are members of the Isthmian League Division One North. They joined the league from the Anglian Combination in 1988 when it added a division and were promoted to the Premier Division at the first attempt. Since then they have won the Premier Division on eight occasions and reached the FA Vase final, the club have played home matches at Trafford Park since World War II. Wroxham F. C. were established in 1892 by GE Preston, a captain of the Norfolk County team. The club played matches until joining the East Norfolk League. In 1935 they joined the East Anglian League, before dropping down to the Norwich and District League in the 1950s, in 1963 the club became founder members of the Anglian Combination. A successful spell during the mid-1970s saw the club rise through the divisions, in 1975 the club won its first major trophy, the Norfolk Junior Cup. The following season they won Division Two, and the season after, in 1981 the club won the Knock-Out Cup, and in 1981–82 they won the Premier Division, retaining the title in 1982–83, 1983–84 and 1984–85, also winning the knock-out cup in 1983 and 1985. They did another league and cup double in 1986–87 In 1988 the club joined the newly formed Division One of the Eastern Counties League and they won the division in their first season, beating Halstead Town to the title on goal difference. After finishing twelfth in their first season in the Premier Division, in 1993–94 they won a third consecutive title. After a gap of two seasons, the won the Premier Division again with 109 points in 1996–97, also winning the Senior Cup again. They retained the title and the Senior Cup in 1997–98, before winning the league for a time in a row in 1998–99. They won the Senior Cup again in 2000,2002,2004, the Premier Division in 2006–07, in 2009–10 the club reached the final of the FA Vase, but lost 6–1 to holders Whitley Bay. Since the club was formed, Wroxham F. C. have played at several venues, the first was just off Norwich Road and subsequent grounds were at The Avenue and Keys Hill. The Avenue ground has now reverted to use, whilst the others have been built upon. Around the time of World War II, Wroxham moved to their current ground, Trafford Park, the club took with them an old timber pavilion that was erected and used as a primitive clubhouse. Fifteen years later this was replaced by pre-fabricated buildings, which were flattened to make way for a new permanent clubhouse that was opened in 1994
A player-coach is a member of a sports team who simultaneously holds both playing and coaching duties. A player-coach may be a coach or an assistant coach. They may make changes to the squad and also play on the team, very few current major professional sports teams have head coaches who are also players, though it is extremely common for senior players to take a role in managing more junior athletes. Historically, when professional sports had much money to pay players and coaches or managers. Likewise, where player-coaches exist today, they are common at the lower levels where money is less available. The player-coach was, for decades, a long-time fixture in professional basketball. Many notable coaches in the NBA served as player-coaches, including Bill Russell and this was especially true up through the 1970s, when the league was not as financially successful as it is today, and player-coaches were often used to save money. The practice fell out of favor in the 1980s, therefore, if a player is to serve as a coach, he would have to receive commission from his contract as a player. The player, then, is not technically an official coach of his team, one example of a player in recent years who was groomed for eventual official coaching duties using this practice was Avery Johnson. In the early days of professional American football, player-coaches were common, jimmy Conzelman was player-coach for four different teams during the 1920s. As professional football became more respectable, and began to more money. In the mid-1950s Tom Landry played defensive back while serving as coordinator for the New York Giants. In the early 1970s, when Landry was coach of the Dallas Cowboys, in association football, this situation usually arises when a manager leaves a team suddenly, and the chairman has to make a quick decision to appoint someone new as a caretaker manager. The chairman will usually either ask a coach to take charge or turn to the one of clubs most senior players. If this particular player gains good results for the team during his time in charge, he may be appointed full-time manager, however, there are instances when a free agent is appointed by a new team as a manager and offers his playing abilities. He then succeeded Dalglish as Liverpool manager just before Rangers won another Scottish league title, but at the age of 38 he did not register himself as a player for Liverpool. In 1997, Ruud Gullit won the FA Cup with Chelsea in his first season as player-manager, also making history by being the first foreign and he was sacked nine months later, and Chelsea appointed another player-manager in his place. Within weeks of taking over, Vialli guided Chelsea to victory in the League Cup, a number of bigger clubs have appointed player-managers on a temporary basis but not given them permanent contracts
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Martin Stanford Peters MBE is an English former footballer and manager and a member of the England team which won the 1966 FIFA World Cup as well as playing in the 1970 FIFA World Cup. Born in Plaistow, Essex, he played football for West Ham United, Tottenham Hotspur, Norwich City. He briefly managed Sheffield United before retiring from football in 1981. Known as the midfielder as he could pass the ball well with either foot, was good in the air. A free kick specialist, Peters was described by England manager Sir Alf Ramsey, after a game against Scotland in 1968, as being ten years ahead of his time. His versatility was such that while he was at West Ham he played in position in the team, including goalkeeper in his third game. With his transfer from West Ham United to Tottenham Hotspur in 1970, under manager Ted Fenton, Peters came through the productive ranks at West Ham United after signing as an apprentice in 1959. He made his debut on Good Friday 1962 in a 4–1 home win against Cardiff City and he scored his first goal for West Ham in a 6–1 away win at Manchester City on 8 September 1962. The following year, however, he established himself as a first team regular and was victorious at Wembley when West Ham won the European Cup Winners Cup with victory over 1860 Munich and he was usually partnered in midfield by Eddie Bovington and Ronnie Boyce. Peters began to impose himself on West Hams game, and another chance for silverware came in 1966 when West Ham reached the League Cup final, the occasion was still a two-legged affair with each of the finalists hosting a leg, and Peters played in both matches. He scored in the game but opponents West Bromwich Albion emerged as 5–3 winners on aggregate. The 1968–69 season saw Peters only hat-trick for West Ham in a 4–0 home defeat of West Bromwich Albion and it was also his most prolific season,24 goals coming from 48 games. Feeling he was in the shadows of Bobby Moore and Geoff Hurst, in March 1970, West Ham received a record-breaking £200,000 for Peters from Tottenham Hotspur and Peters moved to White Hart Lane, with Spurs and England striker Jimmy Greaves going the other way. On 21 March 1970 Peters scored on his Spurs debut against Coventry City and he won his first domestic winners medal in 1971 when Spurs beat Aston Villa 2–0 in the League Cup final. In 1973, Peters won the League Cup again with Spurs, Peters, now aged 31, made his debut appearance for Norwich on 15 March 1975 in a 1–1 away draw to Manchester United. He was voted Norwich City F. C, player of the Season two years running, in 1976 and 1977, and in 2002 was made an inaugural member of the Norwich City F. C. Hall of Fame. In 1978, whilst still a Norwich City player, Peters was awarded an MBE for services to association football and he joined Sheffield United on 31 July 1980 as player-coach with the intention of replacing Harry Haslam as manager. He scored once in a 3–0 victory, Alf Ramsey had seen Peters potential quickly, and in May 1966 he gave the young midfielder his debut for England against Yugoslavia at Wembley
He was working as the goalkeeping coach at Everton and United States. But, with the departure of David Moyes, he followed him to Manchester United to replace Eric Steele as the new goalkeeping coach, in June 2015 he became goalkeeping coach at West Ham United. Woods was Peter Shiltons long-time understudy in the England team in the mid to late 1980s, in all, he managed to accrue 43 caps in an eight-year international career. Woods was a confident, brave, and agile goalkeeper, Shilton came to the club in September 1977 and did not miss a match. Forest reached the final where they played Liverpool at Wembley and Woods, still only 18, was thrust on to the big stage as an unknown outside of Nottingham, the game ended 0–0. He kept a clean sheet in the replay and a John Robertson penalty won Forest the game. Woods heroics were, however, never going to displace Shilton, Forest went on to win the League Cup again in 1979, but this time Shilton played. Woods was on the bench when Forest then won the European Cup with a 1–0 win over Malmö in Munich, and therefore gained a medal. In the summer, Queens Park Rangers offered £250,000 for Woods, the move took place and Woods settled into Second Division life as QPRs first-choice goalkeeper. He played two seasons there before Norwich City offered £225,000 to take Woods to East Anglia and it was during his time at Norwich City that Woods firmly established himself as a top-class goalkeeper. Norwich were relegated at the end of season, but England coach Bobby Robson had seen enough to take Woods on a post-season tour of America. The following season, Woods won a division championship medal as Norwich won promotion back to the top flight at the first attempt. In 2002, he was voted into the clubs Hall of Fame, after the 1986 World Cup, Woods left Norwich for Rangers in a £600,000 deal as one of the original English invasion of players brought to Glasgow by manager Graeme Souness. Woods won a Scottish Premier Division title and a Scottish League Cup medal in his first season, from November 1986 to January 1987, Woods set a British record by playing 1196 consecutive minutes of competitive football without conceding a goal. His record finally came to an end from a goal by Adrian Sprott for Hamilton Academicals in a 1-0 win over Rangers at Ibrox in a Scottish Cup tie, meanwhile, Woods won another Scottish League Cup winners medal with Rangers. They also regained the Scottish Premier League in 1989, though Woods missed half the season with an ear infection which, crucially for a goalkeeper, by the summer of 1991, Woods had won another Scottish title medal with Rangers. In August 1991, Rangers accepted an offer of £1.2 million from Sheffield Wednesday manager Trevor Francis, Wednesday had just won the League Cup and promotion to the First Division, so Woods was back in English footballs top flight again after a six-season absence. His club career was full of disappointments in 1993, as Wednesday reached the League Cup final again
Stephen Roger Steve Bruce is an English professional football manager and former player who is currently manager of Aston Villa. Born in Corbridge, Northumberland, he was a schoolboy footballer but was rejected by several professional clubs. He was on the verge of quitting the game altogether when he was offered a trial with Gillingham, Bruce was offered an apprenticeship and went on to play more than 200 games for the club before joining Norwich City in 1984, winning the Football League Cup in 1985. In 1987, he moved to Manchester United, with whom he achieved success, winning the Premier League, FA Cup, Football League Cup. He also became the first English player of the 20th century to captain a team to the Double, despite his success on the field, he was never selected to play for the England national team. Commentators and contemporaries have described him as one of the best English players of the 1980s and 1990s never to play for his country at international level. Bruce began his career with Sheffield United, and spent short periods of time managing Huddersfield Town, Wigan Athletic. He twice led Birmingham to promotion to the Premier League during his tenure of six years. At the end of the 2008–09 season he resigned to take over as manager of Sunderland, a post he held until he was dismissed in November 2011. Seven months later, he was appointed manager of Hull City and he took over at Aston Villa four months later. Bruce was born in Corbridge in Northumberland, the elder of two sons of Joe and Sheenagh Bruce and his father was local, and his mother had been born in Bangor in Northern Ireland. The family lived in Daisy Hill near Wallsend, and Bruce attended Benfield School and they were my team, I went to support them as a boy and being a Geordie its in-bred, you follow the club still the same today. Like several other future professionals from the area, he played football for Wallsend Boys Club and he travelled down to Kent with another player from the Wallsend club, Peter Beardsley, but although Gillingham signed Bruce as an apprentice, they turned Beardsley away. Bruce spent the 1978–79 season in Gillinghams reserve team and, despite playing in defence, in January 1979, he was selected to represent the England Youth team, and he went on to gain eight caps, participating in the 1980 UEFA European Under-18 Championship. He went on to more than 200 appearances for the club. Confident that he was being targeted by clubs from higher divisions and he returned in time to play a key role in Gillingham achieving two draws against Everton in the FA Cup in 1984, attracting the attention once again of scouts from First Division clubs. Arthur Cox, manager of Bruces beloved Newcastle United, expressed an interest in signing the player, Bruce eventually opted to sign for Norwich City in August 1984 for a fee variously reported as £125,000 or £135,000. In 2009, he was voted into Gillinghams Hall of Fame, Bruce was voted Norwich City Player of the Year, but the team was relegated to the Second Division
Bryan James Gunn is a Scottish former professional goalkeeper and football manager. After learning his trade with Aberdeen in the early 1980s, he spent most of his career at Norwich City. This was followed by a spell back in Scotland with Hibernian before his retirement as a player in 1998. Gunn feels the peak of his career was making what he calls the save of his life in the UEFA Cup match against Bayern Munich in 1993. This event was called the summit of Norwich Citys history by The Independent and he is one of only nine Norwich players to win the clubs Player of the Year award twice. He was made a member of Norwich Citys Hall of Fame. He was a member of the Scotland national football team, making six appearances for his country in the early 1990s, Gunn worked for years behind the scenes at Norwich in a variety of roles, from matchday hosting to coaching. He was appointed temporary manager towards the end of the 2008–09 season, however, after a 7–1 home defeat in the opening game to local rivals Colchester United, he lost his job a week into the 2009–10 Football League One season. Since the death of his daughter from leukaemia in 1992, Gunn has been extensively involved in fundraising to combat the disease. As of 2011 he has raised more than £1 million for research into childhood leukaemia, the money has been used to fund projects to improve the lives of children with leukaemia and their families, notably a national telephone support line. The city of Norwich recognised Gunns charity work and his association with the citys football club by naming him Sheriff for 2002. Published in 2006, his autobiography, In Where it Hurts, My Autobiography, Gunn was born on 22 December 1963 in Thurso, Scotland, twenty miles from John o’Groats. James was a sportsman, playing football on the right wing for local team Invergordon F. C. The Gunn family home in Thurso was a farm, and the young Bryan would often pester the farmhands to play football with him and they would use a turnip if no ball was available. By the age of four he was keen on goalkeeping, he was fearless of injury, when Bryan was four-and-a-half, the family moved to Invergordon,20 miles from Inverness. He attended Park Primary School in the town and joined the football team. Future professional Bobby Geddes was favoured over him as goalkeeper for the team. Gunn attended secondary school at Invergordon Academy from 1975 to 1980 and he failed his French exam after taking it while on the road with Scotland under-15s