Chasing Mavericks is a 2012 American biographical drama film directed by Curtis Hanson and Michael Apted about the life of American surfer Jay Moriarity. It was the final film directed by Hanson, before his death in 2016. In 1987, an 8-year-old boy in Santa Cruz, Jay Moriarity, is saved from drowning by his next door neighbor, surfer Frosty Hesson; this ignites his passion for the sport. One morning, now 15, sees Frosty leaving early and hitches a ride on his van, he sees Frosty and three of his friends riding a gigantic swell known as Mavericks, which with El Niño coming in will be at its height in three months' time. Reluctantly, Frosty agrees to teach Jay how to surf Mavericks, but insists that Jay learn about the "foundation pillars of surfing"; these involve him learning to paddle board 36 miles across Monterey Bay, treading water for 40 minutes and being able to hold his breath for four minutes. While training, Frosty encourages Jay to write essays to focus on the task, his first essay is about Kim, his crush, whose dog he saved when he was 8, which caused him to nearly drown.
Jay gets closer to Kim as he trains encouraged by Frosty's wife, Brenda. A few weeks before the biggest swell of the season hits Mavericks, Brenda dies. A few days distraught from Brenda's death, Frosty paddles out into the bay. Jay follows him, using the knowledge from his training, he helps Frosty back to shore. Frosty realizes. Frosty takes Jay to Mavericks at Half Moon Bay and watches with his three friends as Jay treads water against the tide; the group agrees. For Jay's 16th birthday on June 15, 1994, his mother gives him a radio so he can listen to the weather broadcasts and track the swell. Frosty gives him a custom-made "big wave gun". Kim reveals her feelings for him and they share a kiss. Frosty had wanted to keep Mavericks a secret, but Jay's notebook that he had been using for preparation ends up in the hands of his rival Sonny; when Jay and Frosty go to Half Moon Bay, there is boats taking surfers out. Many of the newcomers wipe out before getting to surf Mavericks. Jay wipes out at first, but retrieves his board and rides Mavericks.
A title card reveals that he died at age 22 while free-diving in the Maldives. The film ends with Frosty, an assemblage of others holding a surfers' memorial service for Jay. Jonny Weston as Jay Moriarity Gerard Butler as Frosty Hesson Elisabeth Shue as Kristy Moriarity Abigail Spencer as Brenda Hesson Leven Rambin as Kim Greg Long as Magnificent 1 Peter Mel as Magnificent 2 Zach Wormhoudt as Magnificent 3 Devin Crittenden as Blond Taylor Handley as Sonny Cooper Timberline as Young Jay Harley Graham as Young Kim Scott Eastwood as Gordy Colter Sanders as Alexander Patrick and Asher Tesler as infant Lake Hesson The film went into production in October 2011 with a scheduled release date of October 26, 2012. On December 19, Gerard Butler was hospitalised after being injured during a surfing stunt. Gerard Butler was mentored by big-wave surfer Grant Washburn. Michael Apted received second-position director credit for this film because he took over as director during the last 15 days of principal photography, while Curtis Hanson recovered from complications arising from recent heart surgery.
Other songs used in the filmThe Offspring – "Come Out and Play" Jules Larson – "Honey Baby" The film has received mixed reviews from critics. It received a 45% rating from Metacritic. Roger Ebert praised the film, saying that "Chasing Mavericks is made with more care and intelligence than many another film starting with its template might have been. It's better than most movies targeted at teens, and the cinematography of the big Mavericks scene by Oliver Euclid and Bill Pope is so frightening that you sort of understand why Frosty stays on the shore, watching Jay with binoculars." Rotten Tomatoes gives it a score of 31% based on 79 reviews, with the consensus stating: "It's sweet and affably modest, but Chasing Mavericks is pulled under by an unconvincing script and a puzzling lack of energy." Chasing Mavericks was released on DVD and Blu-ray Disc on February 26, 2013. In October 2012, Frosty Hesson published Making Mavericks with Zola Books; the book is a memoir filled with Hesson's life-affirming lessons and described his experience mentoring Jay Moriarity.
Official website Chasing Mavericks on IMDb Chasing Mavericks at Box Office Mojo Chasing Mavericks at Rotten Tomatoes Chasing Mavericks at Metacritic
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Leyland is a town in the South Ribble borough, in the county of Lancashire, England. It is six miles south of the city of Preston; the population of the town was estimated as 35,600 at the 2011 Census. Throughout the 20th and 21st century, the community has seen a large growth in industry and farming; the name of the town is of old Anglo-Saxon origin, meaning "untilled land". English Leyland was an area of fields, with Roman roads passing through, from ancient Wigan to Walton-le-Dale, it was left undisturbed for many centuries. Leyland is mentioned in the Domesday Book. In 1066, King Edward the Confessor presided over the whole of Leyland; the manor was divided into three large ploughlands. In the 12th century, it came under the barony of Penwortham; the area of Worden, now Worden Park, was one of nine oxgangs of land granted to the Knights Hospitaller, by Roger de Lacy, in Lancashire, but the land was not assigned to any individual and a local man, a close friend of de Lacy, Hugh Bussel, was assigned holder of the land in 1212.
Notable features that remain include the St Andrew's Parish Church, built around 1200 AD and the large stone Leyland Cross, thought to date back to Saxon times. The town is famous for the bus and truck manufacturer Leyland Motors, which between the 1950s and 1970s expanded and grew to own several British motor manufacturers, including British Motor Corporation, Standard-Triumph and Rover, culminating in the massive British Leyland company; the truck business still operates today as Leyland Trucks, is owned by Paccar. Leyland is home to one of the leading maintenance and utility companies in the United Kingdom, Enterprise plc on Centurion Way; the Leyprint company is situated on Leyland Lane, a company which produces menus and other printed items. A large superstore of Tesco was built in July 2002, it stands near the police station; the old BTR Factory was knocked down to make way for new housing in 2004, in July 2006, the town was installed with a Morrisons, a Homebase and an Argos. The Leyland Band have recently moved to the town, after several years in various other rehearsal locations, now have a permanent home in Farington Business Park.
Chronic 4 is a professional eSports organisation from Leyland participating in tournaments for games like Wii Sports. Leyland railway station is operated by Northern. There is one train an hour between Preston. There is one train an hour between Manchester Victoria/Hazel Grove to Blackpool North. There is a marker adjacent to the old Leyland Motors Spurrier works declares the halfway point on the railway journey between Glasgow and London, some 198 miles in either direction. John Fishwick & Sons served, they connected the town to Chorley and Preston. The company ceased trading on 24 October 2015, Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire have taken over their core route 111. High schools in Leyland include Balshaw's CE High School near Leyland Cross, St Mary's Catholic High School, Worden Sports College, a smaller high school situated to the west of the town and Wellfield High School near the town centre. To the east of Worden Park is Runshaw College; the college received the best Ofsted report, for any further education college in the United Kingdom, for the year of 2005.
Most of the housing in Leyland falls under the semi-detached and bungalow categories. There are a few modern housing estates, but about 65% of the accommodation in the town was built in the 1970s. Leyland is made up by six different areas, the town centre itself counts as the main retail side, with the railway station and shops nearby; the other areas include Moss Side, Worden Park, Turpin Green and the Wade Hall estate. Notable people who have grown up or lived in Leyland include: Fred Beardsworth, footballer William Bennett, 1920s footballer Clarke Carlisle, was educated at Balshaw's CE High School Trevor Hemmings, multi millionaire philanthropist spent his teenage years in Leyland Allen Hill, played in the first cricket Test Phil Jones, footballer Frank Moss, football manager and former player, known for his six-year contract with Arsenal Danny Mayor, footballer Mike Salmon, retired goalkeeper, who works as a football manager Kevin Simm, Liberty X singer grew up in the area and attended St Anne's Primary School and St Mary's High School Mark Strange, martial arts expert and film producer Chris Tuson, rugby league player John Woodcock, executed by the Stuarts in 1646, for his Catholicism Listed buildings in Leyland, Lancashire BBC Online Schools in Lancashire, Education\League Tables, 19 January 2006 BBC Online Institutions in Lancashire, Education\League Tables, 19 January 2006 Hunt, D.
The History of Leyland and District, Carnegie Press, ISBN 0-948789-48-4 Hunt, D. and Waring, W. The Archive Photograph Series: Leyland, Chalford Publishing Company, ISBN 0-7524-0348-6 Smith, J, and Now: Leyland, Tempus Publishing, ISBN 0-7524-2672-9 South Ribble Borough Council – Leyland Town Centre Masterplan Leyland Historical Society
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Phillip LaDon Phillips Jr. is an American singer and actor who won the eleventh season of American Idol on May 23, 2012. His coronation song, "Home," became the all time best selling song from American Idol, his debut album The World from the Side of the Moon was released on November 19, 2012. His second album, Behind the Light, was released on May 19, 2014, his third album, Collateral was released January 19, 2018. Phillips was born in Albany, Georgia, to Sheryl and Phillip LaDon "Donnie" Phillips, Sr. and moved to Leesburg, Georgia when he was 12. He has two older sisters, LaDonna, the eldest, Lacey. Phillips grew up in Sasser and Leesburg, attended Lee County High School, he graduated from Albany Technical College with a major in Industrial Systems Technology, but missed the graduation ceremony due to his obligations to American Idol. Prior to appearing on American Idol, he worked at his family's pawn shop. Phillips started playing music the guitar, when he was 14, he was mentored by his long-time friend and brother-in-law, Benjamin Neil, whom he credits for piquing his interest in music.
In 2009, he formed the Phillip Phillips Band with Neil and another brother-in-law, Todd Urick, performed in various local venues and events. He won a local singing competition, "Albany Star," in 2010. Phillips' favorite singer is Jonny Lang, other favorites include John Butler, Dave Matthews and Damien Rice, he enjoyed Mumford & Sons and Tool, he grew up listening to'60s and'70s music like Jimi Hendrix and Led Zeppelin. He has described his music as "jazz and rock alternative sound."Prior to trying out for American Idol, he auditioned on the second season of America's Got Talent. Phillips auditioned in Georgia, he sang "Superstition" by Stevie Wonder. The judges asked him to perform a second song with his guitar, he performed Michael Jackson's "Thriller." He advanced to the Hollywood rounds, to the Las Vegas round. On February 23, 2012, Phillips was chosen as one of the Top 25 semi-finalists, was voted into the Top 13, his performance style on the show has been compared to Dave Matthews, he covered one of his songs, "The Stone," in the competition.
When asked about Phillips' imitation of his style, Dave Matthews said: "More power to him, I don't mind," and added "He should kick my ass, maybe I can retire and he can take over my band." Mentor Stevie Nicks said Phillips would have been good enough to join Fleetwood Mac back in 1975, after his performance of Jonny Lang's Still Rainin, which he received a standing ovation from the judges. After the Top 13 performance night, Phillips was taken to a doctor for possible kidney stones, he had eight procedures while he was on Idol, considered quitting the show due to the pain. For his Top 3 performance, Phillips sang Bob Seger's "We've Got Tonight." For Top 4, he did a cover of Damien Rice's Volcano -, heralded as one of the best American Idol performances of all time. As the sole contestant, never in jeopardy of elimination in any week of the competition, Phillips became the winner on the finale against Jessica Sanchez after a record-breaking 132 million votes were cast, his coronation song, "Home," was released after his performance, had the biggest digital sales week for any Idol winner's coronation song.
^Note 1 Due to the judges using their one save on Jessica Sanchez, the Top 7 remained intact for another week. After winning American Idol, Phillips went on the American Idol LIVE Tour from July to September with the rest of the Top 10 finishers of season 11, he performed the National Anthem at the opening game of the 2012 World Series on October 24, 2012. On November 15, he joined forces with the PS22 chorus of Staten Island for a concert to raise money for those affected by Hurricane Sandy, he performed at the National Christmas Tree Lighting ceremony on December 6, 2012. Phillips' coronation song, "Home," was a great success with sales of over 5 million copies in the US, it has been used in NBC's coverage of the Olympics, L. A. Marathon, various commercials, film trailers, TV shows, he performed "Home" on the PBS Independence Day celebration TV special, A Capitol 4th. He appeared at the 83rd MLB All-Star Game held at Kansas City on July 10 and sang his coronation song. On October 9, 2012, he joined other musicians in the One World concert held in Syracuse University to honor the Dalai Lama.
He performed "Home" on the CNN Heroes special aired on December 2, 2012, the CBS's A Home for the Holidays on December 19, 2012. Phillip has performed on The Today Show and Good Morning America Concert Series, Late Show with David Letterman, Jimmy Kimmel Live!, The Tonight Show With Jay Leno, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, Live With Kelly, The View, Conan. He has appeared on the American Music Awards and Billboard Music Awards. Phillip Phillips made the Forbes Highest Earning American Idol list each of the three years he was qualified. For the list published in January 2014 and January 2015, he ranked #3. For the list published January 2016, he ranked #4 Phillips released his debut album, The World from the Side of the Moon, on November 19, 2012; the album was produced by Gregg Wattenberg, with Phillips writing or co-writing the majority of the disc. On November 6, 2012, "Where We Came From" was released in advance of the album as a free download on pre-order and for sale; the album debuted at No. 4 in the Billboard 200 with sales of 169,000 copies, was certified Platinum by RIAA in August 2013.
In January 2013, Phillip Phillips appeared on the cover of Billboard magazine with Interscope Records founder and C
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time