Fullback (gridiron football)
A fullback is a position in the offensive backfield in American and Canadian football, is one of the two running back positions along with the halfback. Fullbacks are larger than halfbacks and in most offensive schemes their duties are split between power running, pass catching, blocking for both the quarterback and the other running back. Many great runners in the history of American football have been fullbacks, including Jim Brown, Marion Motley, Jim Taylor, Franco Harris, Larry Csonka, John Riggins, Christian Okoye, Levi Jackson. However, many of these runners would retroactively be labeled as halfbacks, due to their position as the primary ball carrier. Examples of players who have excelled at the hybrid running-blocking-pass catching role include Mike Alstott, Daryl Johnston, Lorenzo Neal. In the days before two platoons, the fullback was the team's punter and drop kicker; when at the beginning of the 20th century, a penalty was introduced for hitting the opposing kicker after a kick, the foul was at first called "running into the fullback", inasmuch as the deepest back did the kicking.
Before the emergence of the T-formation in the 1940s, most teams used four offensive backs, lined up behind the offensive line, on every play: a quarterback, two halfbacks, a fullback. The quarterback began each play a quarter of the way "back" behind the offensive line, the halfbacks began each play side by side and halfway "back" behind the offensive line, the fullback began each play the farthest "back" behind the offensive line; each offensive back was known by a position name that described his relative distance behind the offensive line. As the quarterback was the offensive back who first touched the ball after the snap, quarterbacks were the offensive back most to pass the ball, although any eligible player may do so; as the game evolved and alternate formations came in and out of fashion, halfbacks emerged as the offensive back most to run the ball, again, any eligible player may do so. "Halfback" came to be synonymous with "running back". Fullbacks were used as blocking backs with only occasional ball carrying duties.
As formations began to favor placing the blocking back ahead of/ closer to the line of scrimmage than the running back, these blocking backs retained the name "fullback" though they were closer to the offensive line than the halfback. "Fullback" became a misnomer, the term "halfback" declined in usage, replaced variously with the more descriptive term "tailback" or the generic term "running back". In the modern game, when the quarterback is under center, the fullback most lines up directly behind the quarterback and in front of the halfback or tailback; the fullback position has seen a decline in recent time, with only 17 full time fullbacks playing in 2016. The trend can be traced back to teams choosing to pass more, the use of the 11 personnel, the use of h-backs. Fullbacks are known less for speed and agility and more for muscularity and the ability to shed tackles. In the modern NFL, while deployed as ball carriers, are primarily a lead blocker to allow running backs to get to the secondary of the opposing team's defense.
In the early 2000s, many NFL teams used blocking fullbacks, such as Tony Richardson and Lorenzo Neal, with great success. These backs cleared the way for some of the decade's great running backs; some teams have phased the fullback position out of their offense altogether, with those teams either all but eschewing the I-formation, or instead utilizing either a tight end, h-back, or backup running back in the role. There are still fullbacks who remaining prominent in the NFL, among them Aaron Ripkowski, Andy Janovich, Jamize Olawale, James Develin, John Kuhn, Tommy Bohanon, Patrick DiMarco, Mike Tolbert, Kyle Juszczyk, Marcel Reece. However, in spite of their infrequent carries in modern NFL offenses, some fullbacks have led their team in rushing – notably, Le'Ron McClain was the rushing leader for the Baltimore Ravens in 2008 and Tony Richardson led the Kansas City Chiefs in rushing in 2000. Former Browns running back Peyton Hillis started his NFL career as a fullback before being converted into a halfback.
Although technically a running back fullbacks are valued for their blocking in most modern-day offenses. The most common and simple runs, the Dive and the Blast, both employ the fullback as the primary blocker to "make way" for the halfback. In the flexbone formation, the fullback can be used as the primary rushing threat. In many other offensive schemes, the fullback is used as a receiver when the defense blitzes. In selected plays, some teams will have a defensive lineman report as an eligible receiver to line up as a fullback or tight end in a "Miami" package in goalline formation. Examples of such players who have been used as situational fullbacks include Haloti Ngata, Dontari Poe, Jared Allen while with the Kansas City Chiefs, Richard Seymour while with the New England Patriots, Isaac Sopoaga while with the San Francisco 49ers, while Dan Klecko and Nikita Whitlock have played both as a defensive tackle and fullback. Defensive Tackle William "The Refrigerator" Perry scored a touchdown in Super Bowl XX from the fullback position.
Most teams in the NFL do not have a substitute fullback. The role can be filled by backup or number three or four tight ends or bigger and less-frequently-used running backs. Defensive
2007 Jacksonville Jaguars season
The 2007 Jacksonville Jaguars season was the franchise's 13th season in the National Football League and the 5th under head coach Jack Del Rio. They improved upon their 8–8 record in 2006 where they finished third in the AFC South and returned to the playoffs for the first time since 2005; this was the last season that the Jaguars had a winning season and a playoff berth, going on a 9-year drought before ending it in 2017. After the 2006 season, the Jaguars announced that offensive coordinator Carl Smith, special teams coordinator Pete Rodriguez, quarterbacks coach Ken Anderson, wide receivers coach Steve Walters would not be returning. Along with these, special teams assistant Mark Michaels' contract had expired and would not be renewed; when hiring, Del Rio created a new position on the staff, assistant wide receivers coach, so needed to fill six positions. By early February he completed the staff with Dirk Koetter as offensive coordinator, Mike Shula as quarterbacks coach, Todd Monken as wide receivers coach, Robert Prince as wide receivers assistant, Joe DeCamillis as special teams coordinator, Tom Williams as special teams assistant.
Along with the new staff, assistant head coach Mike Tice will take over coaching of the tight ends. After a number of player arrests from the end of 2006 season, cornerback Ahmad Carroll, signed by the Jaguars in October after being waived by the Green Bay Packers and played in only one game with the Jaguars, was arrested in May on weapons and drug charges, prompting the Jaguars to release him. In a move that shocked the Jaguars players, nine-year veteran strong safety Donovin Darius was released. On August 31, 2007 Jaguars coach Jack Del Rio announced in a press conference that Byron Leftwich would be traded or released within the next 72 hours, that David Garrard would take over the starting duties; the specific reasons were not disclosed. Del Rio was quoted as saying that he "felt a conviction in his heart that Garrard was the guy for the job and he's earned it"; the Jaguars released 19 players, traded one player, placed two players on injured reserve to meet the 53 man roster requirements for the beginning of the season.
Byron Leftwich, Dan Connolly, Jamaal Fudge, Nick Greisen, Seth Payne, Charles Sharon, Bruce Thornton, Dee Webb, Josh Gattis, Joe Anoa'i, Kevis Coley, Walter Curry, Ryan Gibbons, Tyler King, Jamar Landrom, Roy Manning, Pete McMahon, Rashod Moulton, Isaac Smolko were released. Alvin Pearman was traded to the Seattle Seahawks for an undisclosed draft choice. James Wyche and Mike Walker were placed on injured reserve for injuries to groin and knee respectively; the off-season brought the arrival of seven free agents to the Jaguars. On offense, offensive tackle Tony Pashos and tight ends Jermaine Wiggins, Richard Angulo and Isaac Smolko were signed. On defense, safety Kevin McCadam and cornerback Bruce Thornton. Additionally, first-year punter Tony Yelk was signed to the special teams. In addition to the new signings to the team, Tony Gilbert, Derrick Wimbush, Kenny Pettway, Quinn Gray Ernest Wilford and Josh Scobee signed contracts and unrestricted free agent LaBrandon Toefield re-signed; the Jacksonville Jaguars pre-season schedule was announced on April 11, 2007.
With the loss, the Jaguars started the season out at 0–1. With the win, the Jaguars improved to 1–1. With the win, the Jaguars went into their bye week at 2–1. With the win, the Jaguars improved to 3–1. After the Texans took a 3–0 lead in the first quarter, the Jags were able to erase it for a 10–6 halftime lead. Going into the 2nd half, the Jags outscored the Texans 27–11 to improve to 4–1 on the season. After their huge win over the Texans, the Jaguars stayed home for a game against the Colts; the Colts scored first with Kenton Keith scoring a touchdown on a 3-yard run making it 7–0. In the 2nd quarter, the Colts increased their lead with Peyton Manning rushing for a 1-yard touchdown to make it 14–0 and Adam Vinatieri scored a 36-yard field goal to make the score 17–0 at halftime. Coming back into the game, the Jags managed to get on the board with Maurice Jones-Drew running for a 1-yard touchdown to dip the lead to 17–7. However, the Colts went ahead 19–7 when Jaguars backup QB Quinn Gray was sacked in the end zone.
In the last quarter, Vinatieri scored a 20-yard field goal to make the score 22–7 wrapped the game up with Peyton Manning's 35-yard touchdown pass to Dallas Clark, dropping the Jags to 4–2 on the season. QB Quinn Gray got to start against the Buccaneers with David Garrard out due to knee injury; the team improved to 5–2 on the season. With the loss, the Jags fell to 5–3 on the season. Jacksonville gained only 239 yards of offense, but still managed to win on Josh Scobee's 25-yard field goal with 37 seconds left in the game; the Jaguars defense sacked Steelers quarterback Ben Roethlisberger six times, intercepted three of his passes, forced him to lose a fumble on the final drive of the game. Pittsburgh opened up the scoring by marching 80 yards in 10 plays on their first drive and finishing it off with Najeh Davenport's 1-yard touchdown run, but Jaguars running back Maurice Jones-Drew returned the ensuing kickoff 96 yards to the 1-yard line, Fred Taylor scored a 1-yard touchdown run on the next play.
Early in the second quarter, Jacksonville defensive back Rashean Mathis intercepted pass from Roethlisberger and returned it 63 yards for a touchdown. Shortly after the kickoff, Mathis intercepted another pass at the Steelers 46-yard line, setting up David Garrard's 43-yard touchdown pass to Jones-Drew and making the score 21–7. In the second quarter, the Steelers took advantage of a missed Scobee field goal by driving all the way to the Jaguars 21-yard line, but defensive tackle Derek Landri int
2014 NFL season
The 2014 NFL season was the 95th season in the history of the National Football League. The season began on Thursday, September 4, 2014, with the annual kickoff game featuring the defending Super Bowl XLVIII champion Seattle Seahawks hosting the Green Bay Packers, which resulted with the Seahawks winning, 36-16; the season concluded with Super Bowl XLIX, the league's championship game, on Sunday, February 1, 2015, at University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, with the New England Patriots defeating the Seattle Seahawks, 28–24. The 2014 league year began at 4 pm EST on March 11, which marked the start of the league's free agency period; the per-team salary cap was set at a $10 million increase from the previous year. The so-called "legal tampering" period during which time agents representing prospective unrestricted free agent players were allowed to have contact with team representatives with the purpose of determining a player's market value and to begin contract negotiations, began at noon on March 8.
A total of 471 players were eligible for some form of free agency at the beginning of the free agency period. In addition, a number of paid players were released after the start of the league year to allow their teams to regain space under the salary cap. Among the high-profile players who changed teams via free agency were cornerbacks Darrelle Revis, Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie, Aqib Talib and Alterraun Verner. Four players were assigned the non-exclusive franchise tag by their teams, which ensured that the team would receive compensation were the player to sign a contract with another team; these players were defensive end Greg Hardy, tight end Jimmy Graham, placekicker Nick Folk and linebacker Brian Orakpo. Two other teams used the transition tag, which offers the player's current team a chance to match offers from other franchises and guarantees draft pick compensation if a tagged player signs elsewhere. Players given the transition tag were Jason Worilds and Alex Mack. Mack signed a five-year, $42 million offer sheet with the Jacksonville Jaguars which included $26 million in guaranteed money and a player option to void the contract after two seasons.
The Browns retained Mack who became the league's highest paid center. One restricted free agent switched teams in 2014: wide receiver Andrew Hawkins of the Bengals was signed by the Browns. Restricted free agents are players with three or fewer seasons in the league whose contracts have expired. Teams may tender contract offers which allow them to match offers from other teams and may trigger draft pick compensation to be received from the signing team. Hawkins was tendered at the minimum level, which means the Bengals would not receive any draft compensation; the Browns signed him to a $13.6 million, four-year offer. Saints safety Rafael Bush signed an offer from the Falcons, but the Saints retained Bush by matching the offer; the 2014 NFL Draft was held May 8 -- 2014, in New York City. The draft process began with the NFL Scouting Combine, where draft-eligible players were evaluated by team personnel, held in Indianapolis on February 19–25; the draft included a record number of 98 non-seniors.
The event was delayed two weeks compared to its traditional position on the NFL calendar in late April due to a scheduling conflict at Radio City Music Hall, the draft venue since 2006. In the draft, the Houston Texans made University of South Carolina defensive end, now outside linebacker Jadeveon Clowney the first overall selection. There was discussion leading up to the draft as to the future of the event in New York City, where it had been held since 1965. Given the increased interest in the draft over the past decade, there was a belief that the event may have outgrown Radio City Music Hall, the venue for the past nine drafts; the possibility of extending the draft to four days was being discussed. On October 2, 2014, Auditorium Theatre in Chicago was announced as the official site for the following year's draft. Training camps for the 2014 season were held in late July through August. Teams may start training camp no earlier than 15 days before the team's first scheduled preseason game.
Prior to the start of the regular season, each team played four preseason exhibition games. The preseason schedule got underway with the Pro Football Hall of Fame Game on Sunday evening, August 3; the Hall of Fame game is a traditional part of the annual Pro Football Hall of Fame induction weekend celebrating new Hall of Fame members. It was played at Fawcett Stadium, located adjacent to the Hall of Fame building in Canton, Ohio; the game, televised in the U. S. on NBC, featured the New York Giants and Buffalo Bills, with the Giants winning 17–13. Continuing the recent trend of scheduling teams that are associated with former players be
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Atlantic Coast Conference
The Atlantic Coast Conference is a collegiate athletic conference in the United States of America in which its fifteen member universities compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the highest levels for athletic competition in US-based collegiate sports. The ACC sponsors competition in twenty-five sports with many of its member institutions' athletic programs held in high regard nationally. Current members of the conference are Boston College, Clemson University, Duke University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Florida State University, North Carolina State University, Syracuse University, the University of Louisville, the University of Miami, the University of North Carolina, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Wake Forest University. ACC teams and athletes have claimed dozens of national championships in multiple sports throughout the conference's history.
The ACC's top athletes and teams in any particular sport in a given year are considered to be among the top collegiate competitors in the nation. The conference enjoys extensive media coverage; the ACC was one of the five collegiate power conferences, which had automatic qualifying for their football champion into the Bowl Championship Series. With the advent of the College Football Playoff in 2014, the ACC is one of five conferences with a contractual tie-in to a New Year's Six bowl game, the successors to the BCS; the ACC was founded on May 8, 1953 by seven universities located in the South Atlantic States, with the University of Virginia joining in early December 1953 to bring the membership to eight. The loss of South Carolina in 1971 dropped membership to seven, while the addition of Georgia Tech in 1979 for non-football sports and 1983 for football brought it back to eight, Florida State's arrival in 1991 for non-football sports and 1992 for football increased the membership to nine. Since 2000, with the widespread reorganization of the NCAA, seven additional schools have joined, one original member has left to bring it to the current membership of 15 schools.
The additions in recent years extended the conference's footprint into the Midwest. ACC member universities represent a range of well-regarded private and public universities of various enrollment sizes, all of which participate in the Atlantic Coast Conference Academic Consortium whose purpose is to "enrich the educational missions the undergraduate student experiences, of member universities"; the ACC has 15 member institutions located within the borders of 10 states. Listed in alphabetical order, these 10 states within the ACC's geographical footprint are Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia; the geographic domain of the conference is predominantly within the Southern and Northeastern United States along the US Atlantic coast and stretches from Florida in the south to New York in the North and from Indiana in the west to Massachusetts farthest east. In two sports and baseball, the ACC is divided into two non-geographic divisions of seven teams each, labeled the "Atlantic" and "Coastal" divisions.
Notre Dame does not participate in ACC football and Syracuse does not participate in ACC baseball, leaving 14 total ACC schools for each of those sports. For all other sports, the ACC operates as a single unified league with no divisions; when Notre Dame joined the ACC, it chose to remain a football independent. However, its football team established a special scheduling arrangement with the ACC to play a rotating selection of five ACC football teams per season. Since July 1, 2014, the 15 members of the ACC are: On July 1, 2014, The University of Maryland departed for The Big Ten Conference as The University of Louisville joined from The American Athletic Conference. In 1971, The University of South Carolina left The ACC to become an independent joining The Metro Conference in 1983 and moving to its current home, The Southeastern Conference, in 1991. Full members Non-football members The ACC was established on June 14, 1953, when seven members of the Southern Conference left to form their own conference.
These seven universities became charter members of the ACC: Clemson, Maryland, North Carolina, North Carolina State, South Carolina, Wake Forest. They left due to that league's ban on post-season football play. After drafting a set of bylaws for the creation of a new league, the seven withdrew from the Southern Conference at the spring meeting on the morning of May 8, 1953 at the Sedgefield Country Club in Greensboro, North Carolina; the bylaws were ratified on June 14, 1953, the ACC was created, becoming the second conference formed by schools collectively withdrawing from the SoCon, after the Southeastern Conference. On December 4, 1953, officials convened in Greensboro, North Carolina, admitted Virginia, a SoCon charter member, independent since 1937, into the conference. In 1960, the ACC implemented a minimum SAT score for incoming student-athletes of 750, the first conference to do so; this minimum was raised to 800 in 1964, but was struck down by a federal court in 1972. On July 1, 1971, South Carolina left the ACC to become an independent.
The ACC operated with seven members until the addition of Georgia Tech from the Metro Conference, announced on April 3, 1978 and taking effect on July 1, 1979 except in football, in which Tech would remain an independent until joining ACC football in 1983. The total number of member schools reached nine with the addition of Florida State formerl
Anterior cruciate ligament
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments in the human knee. The two ligaments are called cruciform ligaments, as they are arranged in a crossed formation. In the quadruped stifle joint, based on its anatomical position, it is referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament; the term cruciate translates to cross. This name is fitting because the ACL crosses the posterior cruciate ligament to form an “X”, it assists in controlling excessive motion. This is done by limiting mobility of the joint; the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to anterior tibial displacement at 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. The ACL is the most injured ligament of the four located in the knee; the ACL originates from deep within the notch of the distal femur. Its proximal fibers fan out along the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. There are two bundles of the ACL: the anteromedial and the posterolateral, named according to where the bundles insert into the tibial plateau.
The tibia plateau is a critical weight-bearing region on the upper extremity of the tibia. The ACL attaches in front of the intercondyloid eminence of the tibia, where it blends with the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus; the purpose of the ACL is to resist the motions of anterior tibial translation and internal tibial rotation. This function prevents anterior tibial subluxation of the lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints, important for the pivot-shift phenomena; the ACL has been proven to have mechanoreceptors that detect changes in direction of movement, position of the knee joint, changes in acceleration and tension. A key factor in instability after ACL injuries is having altered neuromuscular function secondary to diminished somatosensory information. For athletes who participate in sports involving cutting and rapid deceleration it is important for the knee to be stable in terminal extension, the screw-home mechanism. An ACL tear is one of the most common knee injuries, with over 100,000 tears occurring annually in the US.
Most ACL tears are a result of a non-contact mechanism such as a sudden change in a direction causing the knee to rotate inward. As the knee rotates inward additional strain is placed on the ACL, since the femur and tibia, which are the two bones that articulate together forming the knee joint, move in opposite directions causing the ACL to tear. Most athletes will require reconstructive surgery on the ACL, in which the torn or ruptured ACL is removed and replaced with a piece of tendon or ligament tissue from the patient or from a donor. Conservative treatment has poor outcomes in ACL injury since the ACL is unable to form a fibrous clot as it receives most of its nutrients from the synovial fluid which washes away the reparative cells making it difficult for new fibrous tissue to form; the two most common sources for tissue are the hamstrings tendon. The patellar ligament is used, since bone plugs on each end of the graft are extracted which helps integrate the graft into the bone tunnels, during reconstruction.
The surgery is arthroscopic, meaning. The camera sends video to a large monitor. In the event of an autograft, the surgeon will make a larger cut to get the needed tissue. In the event of an allograft, in which material is donated, this is not necessary since no tissue is taken directly from the patient's own body; the surgeon will drill a hole forming the tibial bone tunnel and femoral bone tunnel, allowing for the patient's new ACL graft to be guided through. Once the graft is pulled through the bone tunnels, two screws are placed into the tibial and femoral bone tunnel. Recovery time ranges between one and two years or longer, depending if the patient chose an autograft or allograft. A week or so after the occurrence of the injury, the athlete is deceived by the fact that he/she is walking and not feeling much pain; this is dangerous as some athletes start resuming some of their activities such as jogging which, with a wrong move or twist, could damage the bones as the graft has not become integrated into the bone tunnels.
It is important for the injured athlete to understand the significance of each step of an ACL injury to avoid complications and ensure a proper recovery. ACL reconstruction is the most common treatment for an ACL tear, however it is not the only treatment available for individuals; some individuals may find it more beneficial to complete a non-operative rehab program. Both individuals who are going to continue with physical activity that involves cutting and pivoting, individuals who are no longer participating in those specific activities are candidates for the non-operative route. A study was completed comparing operative and non-operative approaches to ACL tears and there were few differences noted by both surgical and nonsurgical groups. However, there was no significant differences in regard to knee function or muscle strength reported by the patient; the main goals to achieve during rehabilitation of an ACL tear is to regain sufficient functional stability, maximize full muscle strength, decrease risk of re-injury.
There are three phases involved in non-operative treatment. These phases include the Acute Phase, the Neuromuscular Training Phase, the Return to Sport Phase. During the acute phase, the rehab is focusing on the acute symptoms that occur right after the injury and is causing an impairment; the use