2016 Republican National Convention
The 2016 Republican National Convention, in which delegates of the United States Republican Party chose the party's nominees for President of the United States and Vice President of the United States in the 2016 U. S. presidential election, was held July 18 -- 2016, at Quicken Loans Arena in Cleveland, Ohio. The event marked the third time Cleveland has hosted the Republican National Convention and the first since 1936. In addition to determining the party's national ticket, the convention ratified the party platform. There were 2,472 delegates to the Republican National Convention, with a simple majority of 1,237 required to win the presidential nomination. Most of those delegates were bound for the first ballot of the convention based on the results of the 2016 Republican presidential primaries; the convention formally nominated Donald Trump for President and Indiana Governor Mike Pence for Vice President. Trump and Pence went on to win the general election with a majority of the electoral votes, although Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton and her running mate Tim Kaine received the largest number of popular votes.
In 2016, both the Democratic and Republican conventions were held before the Summer Olympics instead of after, as was the case in 2008 and 2012. One reason the Republican Party scheduled their convention in July was to help avoid a longer, drawn-out primary battle similar to what happened in 2012, which left the party fractured heading into the general election and led to Mitt Romney losing the election to Barack Obama; the Democratic Party followed suit, scheduling their convention in Philadelphia the week after the Republicans' convention, to provide a quicker response. On May 3, Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus declared Donald Trump the presumptive nominee after Texas senator Ted Cruz dropped out of the race; the next day, Ohio Governor John Kasich suspended his campaign making Trump the presumptive Republican presidential nominee. Trump was the first presidential nominee of a major party since Wendell Willkie, the Republican candidate in 1940, who has held neither political office nor a high military rank prior to his nomination.
He was the first presidential nominee of a major party without political experience since General Dwight D. Eisenhower first captured the Republican presidential nomination in 1952; this was the first Republican National Convention to be held in July since 1980. Twitter and CBS News live streamed the convention via Twitter. On April 2, 2014, the Republican National Committee announced that Cincinnati, Dallas, Kansas City and Las Vegas were the finalists for hosting the convention. In late June 2014, Cleveland and Dallas were announced as the final two contenders to be the host city. Cleveland was selected on July 8, 2014; the 2016 Cleveland Host Committee, an Ohio nonprofit corporation with no political affiliation, is the official and federally designated Presidential Convention Host Committee for the convention. It is responsible for "organizing and funding" the convention; the Host Committee is composed of prominent Ohio business executives, civic leaders, other community leaders. David Gilbert, CEO of Destination Cleveland and the Greater Cleveland Sports Commission, is the President and CEO of the host committee.
Organizers have found it hard to raise the money needed to put on the convention, supported by corporate donations. Corporations that donated hundreds of thousands of dollars to the 2012 convention but nothing in 2016 include JPMorgan Chase, General Electric, Ford Motor Company, Motorola Solutions and Amgen. Reluctance to be associated with Trump, or concern that the convention might be disrupted by floor fights or violence, were sometimes cited as factors in the decision to withhold funds. In July as the convention got under way, the Cleveland Host Committee said it had raised $58 million of its $64 million goal, they asked billionaire Sheldon Adelson, who contributes to Republicans, to make up the $6 million shortfall. Quicken Loans Arena was selected in July 2014 as the host site for the 2016 Republican National Convention; the arena hosted the first Republican presidential debate of the 2016 election, aired by Fox News Channel, on August 6, 2015. The convention was held July 18–21, 2016; the Cleveland 2016 Host Committee, who "facilitated construction of the'cloakroom" space' for Republican lawmakers, which consisted of an "exclusive office and gathering space" built on the Cleveland Cavaliers practice court, received $923,100 from the Friends of the House 2016 LLC".
Bank records obtained by the Center for Public Integrity show that Comcast, the American Petroleum Institute, Koch Companies Public Sector, PhRMA, other trade and lobby groups, "funded a limited liability company called'Friends of the House 2016 LLC' to pay for the'cloakroom.' The convention is designated as a National Special Security Event, meaning that ultimate authority over law enforcement goes to the Secret Service and Department of Homeland Security. A publicized online petition by gun activists to allow the open carry of guns inside Quicken Loans Arena garnered 45,000 signatures; the Secret Service has the autho
Kimberly Ann Guilfoyle is an American television news personality and attorney who co-hosted The Five on Fox News. On July 20, 2018, she left Fox News, she joined America First Policies, a pro-Trump super PAC, to campaign for Republicans in the 2018 midterm elections. Prior to entering television, she was a prosecuting attorney in Los Angeles, she served as an assistant District Attorney in San Francisco from 2000–04. She is the former wife of California politician Gavin Newsom and was First Lady of San Francisco during Newsom's first two years as mayor of that city, she began work at Fox News in 2006 until July 2018, at which time a Fox spokesman stated that the network had "parted ways" with her. Guilfoyle was born in San Francisco on March 6, 1969, to an Irish father, she was raised in her parents' Roman Catholic faith. She is a graduate of Mercy High School. Guilfoyle's mother, taught special education, died of leukemia when Guilfoyle was eleven. "My mother was just everything to me, I loved her so much.
I loved. She was a warm woman. I got my sense of giving back and how when you have many blessings, pay it forward", Guilfoyle said in a 2015 interview, her father, Anthony "Tony" Guilfoyle, was born in Ennis, County Clare and immigrated to the United States in 1957 at the age of 20 against the wishes of his family. In 1958, despite not yet holding U. S. nationality and still an Irish citizen, he was drafted and served for four years in the U. S. Army. After being discharged from the army, Tony Guilfoyle took up work in the construction trades, he became a real estate investor and a close advisor to Mayor Newsom, until his death in 2008. Guilfoyle graduated magna cum laude from the University of California and received her Juris Doctor from the University of San Francisco School of Law in 1994. While in law school, she interned at the San Francisco district attorney's office, as well as doing modelling work for Macy's and Victoria's Secret, she studied at Trinity College, Dublin in Ireland. While there, she published research in international children's rights and European Economic Community law.
After law school, Guilfoyle worked as a prosecutor in San Francisco, but lost her job in 1996 when Terence Hallinan was elected District Attorney and fired 14 of the city's prosecutors. Guilfoyle spent four years in Los Angeles as a Deputy District Attorney, working on adult and juvenile cases, including narcotics, domestic violence, robbery, sexual assault, homicide cases, she received several awards at the Los Angeles District Attorney's Office, including Prosecutor of the Month. In 2000, Guilfoyle was re-hired by Hallinan in the San Francisco District Attorney’s Office, where she served as an Assistant District Attorney from 2000 to 2004. While Assistant D. A. she earned a conviction while co-prosecuting with James Hammer in the 2002 case People v. Noel and Knoller, a second-degree murder trial involving a dog mauling that received international attention. In 2008, she was a member of La Raza Lawyers Association. In January 2004, Guilfoyle moved to New York to host the program Both Sides on Court TV, as well as to work as a legal analyst on Anderson Cooper 360°.
She joined Fox News in February 2006. The Lineup was canceled. Guilfoyle remained a regular contributor for the network and was picked up as co-host of The Five, in 2011, she remained a host on the show until 2018. In 2014, she began co-hosting Outnumbered until the show settled on more permanent hosts, she appeared weekly on the recurring segment "Is it Legal?" on The O'Reilly Factor until that show's cancellation in 2017, as a weekly Thursday guest on Brian Kilmeade's Kilmeade and Friends radio show. Guilfoyle guest-hosted Hannity, On the Record, Justice with Judge Jeanine, Fox and Friends. In 2015, Guilfoyle released a semi-autobiographical book titled "Making the Case: How to Be Your Own Best Advocate" on her experiences growing up, working as a prosecutor, encouraging people to always advocate for themselves, it was announced on June 2017 that Guilfoyle signed a long-term contract extension with Fox. As of the spring of 2018, Guilfoyle appeared nightly on The Five. In December 2016, it was reported that Guilfoyle was being considered to serve as press secretary for President Donald Trump.
Sean Spicer was selected. On the May 12, 2017 edition of The Five, co-host Bob Beckel hinted that Guilfoyle turned the job down. However, in an interview with Bay Area News Group on May 15, 2017, Guilfoyle confirmed she was in contact with the White House about the position following Spicer's resignation. "I'm a patriot, it would be an honor to serve the country", Guilfoyle said. "I think it'd be a fascinating job, it's a challenging job, you need someone determined and focused, a great communicator in there with deep knowledge to be able to handle that position." However, on May 19, Guilfoyle said. One month she extended her contract with Fox. In 2018, The Washington Post described Guilfoyle as a "conservative cheerleader for President Trump." Guilfoyle left Fox News in July 2018 to work for a pro-Donald Trump Super PAC. A week after her announcement, the Huffington Post reported claims by an anonymous source who said that Guilfoyle did not leave the network voluntarily, but rather had been forced out due to allegations that she had engaged in sexual harassment."
This was countered by other anonymous sources in Th
Inauguration of Donald Trump
The inauguration of Donald Trump as the 45th president of the United States marked commencement of the four-year term of Donald Trump as President and Mike Pence as Vice President. An estimated 150,000 people attended the public ceremony held on Friday, January 20, 2017, on the West Front of the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D. C; the event was the 58th presidential inauguration. Held in Washington, D. C. from January 17 to 21, 2017, inaugural events included concerts, the swearing-in ceremony, a Congressional luncheon, inaugural balls, the interfaith inaugural prayer service. Administered by Chief Justice of the United States John Roberts, the presidential oath was taken by Trump as his first task after becoming president at noon, in keeping with Article Two, Section 1, Clause 8 and the 20th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, with the vice presidential oath taken by Pence and administered by Associate Justice Clarence Thomas preceding it. Trump was sworn in with his left hand on a pair of his personal copy and the Lincoln Bible.
The inauguration was accompanied by protests worldwide. In March 2019, it was reported multiple shell companies tied to foreigners gave money to the inauguration; the inauguration marked the formal culmination of the presidential transition of Donald Trump that began when he won the U. S. became the President-elect. Trump and his running mate, Mike Pence, were formally elected by the Electoral College on December 19, 2016; the win was certified by an electoral vote tally by a joint session of Congress on January 6, 2017. Upon his inauguration, Trump became the first person to become President without any prior public sector experience, he is the oldest person to assume the Presidency, as well as the wealthiest. His wife, Melania, is the second First Lady to be born outside the U. S. the first naturalized citizen to become First Lady, the first born in the 1970s. The inauguration was planned by two committees: the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies and the 2017 Presidential Inaugural Committee.
The election was scheduled for November 8, 2016, but the congressional committee began construction of the inaugural platform on September 21. A number of artists who were approached to perform refused, including Jennifer Holliday, intended to perform, but withdrew herself from the program after further consideration; the swearing-in ceremony and the inaugural luncheon for President-elect Trump and Vice President-elect Pence were planned by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, a committee composed of United States Senator Roy Blunt of Missouri, the committee chair, Senate party leaders Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and Chuck Schumer of New York, House Speaker Paul Ryan of Wisconsin and House party leaders Kevin McCarthy of California and Nancy Pelosi of California. The committee was overseen by the U. S. Senate Committee on Rules and Administration; the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies chose the inaugural theme "Uniquely American" to highlight the inaugural ceremony as "a uniquely American expression of our Constitutional system" and stress the peaceful transition of power.
The Inauguration Committee released the full schedule of the January 20 inaugural events on December 21, 2016. Military support to the 58th inauguration was coordinated by Joint Task Force National Capital Region, providing musical military units, marching bands, color guards, firing details, salute batteries; the 2017 Presidential Inaugural Committee organized several other inauguration-related events at the direction of the President‑elect and Vice President‑elect of the United States, such as the concerts, parade and prayer service. The chairman of the committee was Thomas J. Barrack Jr. a real estate investor and longtime Trump friend and ally, the founder of Colony Capital. The co-chairs of the committee were Roy Bailey. Committee members included casino magnates Sheldon Adelson and Miriam Adelson, Steve Wynn and Phil Ruffin, oil entrepreneur Harold Hamm, businesswoman Diane Hendricks, coal businessman Joe Craft, Gail Icahn, wife of Carl Icahn, Dallasites Ray Washburne, Gentry Beach, Roy Bailey, Woody Johnson, owner of the New York Jets.
The inaugural committee raised an unprecedented $107 million "from wealthy donors who gave $1 million or more." This was twice the amount raised by any previous inauguration committee. Observers agree that the actual inauguration expenses would have been a fraction of that amount, the advocacy group Public Citizen has been seeking to know what happened to the remaining funds. Committee officials said. In September 2017 the committee said it had given $3 million to three separate hurricane rescue organizations. An unspecified amount had been used for redecorating the White House and Vice President Mike Pence's Washington residence. Thomas Barrack, the committee chair, said that further information about charitable donations would be released in November 2017, but no such announcement was made; the inauguration committee reported having $2.8 million in the bank as of October 2017. According to a tax filing released on February 15, 2018, the committee donated $5 million to charity in 2017 - namely, the announced donations to hurricane relief, the White House Historical Association, the Vice President's Residence Foundation.
The majority of the committee's outlay - $57 million - went to four event planning companies. The largest amount, $26 million, went to a California firm called WIS Media Partners, created in December 2016 by a close friend and advisor to Melania Trump named Stephanie Winston Wolkoff, whose staff s
Marathon Oil Corporation simply referred to as Marathon Oil, is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in the Marathon Oil Tower in Houston, Texas. As of December 31, 2015, the company had 2.163 billion barrels of oil equivalent of estimated proved reserves, of which 44% was in the United States, 32% was in Canada, 12% was in Equatorial Guinea, 11% was in other countries in Africa Libya. The company has concessions with the Waha Oil Company in Libya. Libya accounts for 235 million barrels of oil equivalent of estimated proved reserves, although the company did not sell any product from these operations in 2015 since operations were interrupted by civil and political unrest. In Canada, the company was focused on the Athabasca oil sands project, in which the company owned a 20% interest; the company's proved reserves consisted 40% of petroleum, 32% synthetic crude, 19% natural gas and 9% natural gas liquids. In 2015, the company sold 438 thousand barrels of oil equivalent per day.
In 2015, the company derived 13% of its revenues from sales to Irving Oil and 11% of its revenues from sales to Shell Oil. In 2016, the company plans to spend $1.4 billion on capital expenditures, of which $1.2 billion will be spent in North America, including $600 million in the Eagle Ford and $200 million in the Bakken formation. The company owns 277,000 net acres in the Bakken formation. Marathon began as The Ohio Oil Company in 1887. In 1889, it was purchased by John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil, it remained a part of Standard Oil until Standard Oil was broken up in 1911. In 1930, The Ohio Oil Company bought the Transcontinental Oil Company and established the "Marathon" brand name. In 1962, the company changed its name to "Marathon Oil Company". In 1982, Mobil made a hostile offer to buy the company. A legal battle ensued thereafter. After the merger, the headquarters was moved to Houston, Texas in 1990 but the company's refining subsidiary maintained its headquarters in Findlay, Ohio. In 1984, Marathon purchased the U.
S. unit of Husky Energy for $505 million. In 1998, Marathon and Ashland, Inc. contributed their refining operations to Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC, now Marathon Petroleum. In 2001, USX, the holding company that owned United States Steel and Marathon, spun off the steel business and, in 2002, USX renamed itself Marathon Oil Corporation. In 2003, Marathon sold its Canadian operations to Husky Energy. In 2003, the company sold its interest in the Yates Oil Field to Kinder Morgan for $225 million. In late 2003, Marathon Oil and its partners Noble Energy and AMPCO started the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project in Equatorial Guinea. Malaria control activities included indoor residual spraying, improved diagnosis and case management, capacity building to contain future outbreaks. BIMCP had proven being successful in reducing malaria transmission, reducing the proportion of children with malaria parasites, improving iron status. BIMCP is perceived as a model of hands-on corporate involvement in a humanitarian effort with government, non-profits and academic organizations to reduce the burden of malaria in countries located in Equatorial Africa.
The president of Equatorial Guinea, Obiang Nguema, is one of the world's worst dictators, according to Parade Magazine. Marathon's humanitarian efforts have mitigated some of the criticism resulting from its dealings with Nguema's regime. In 2008, Marathon Oil and Lestis Private Capital Group started the Central Basin Control Project In 2007, Marathon acquired Western Oil Sands for $6.6 billion and gained ownership of its 20 percent stake in the Athabasca Oil Sands Project in northern Alberta and other assets in the midwestern United States. The Athabasca project's Muskeg River Mine was producing 155,000 barrels a day of bitumen at the time. In 2011, Marathon completed the corporate spin-off of Marathon Petroleum, distributing a 100% interest to its shareholders. In June 2013, Marathon sold its Angolan gas field to Sinopec for $1.52 billion. In September 2013, Marathon announced it would sell a 10% stake in an oil and gas field offshore Angola for around $590 million to Sonangol Group. In June 2014, Marathon Oil Norge AS was acquired by Det Norske Oljeselskap ASA for US$2.1 billon.
Marathon Petroleum Standard Oil James C. Donnell List of oil exploration and production companies Marathon Oil Company Website Marathon Oil: Our History Evaluating the welfare implications of the first round of indoor residual spraying in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea Marathon CEO discusses America's energy security
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School, he was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels and golf courses. Trump started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products, he managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal, he owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, he produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion. Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries.
His campaign received extensive free media coverage. Commentators described his political positions as populist and nationalist. Trump has made many misleading statements during his campaign and presidency; the statements have been documented by fact-checkers, the media have described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, he became the oldest and wealthiest person to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, the fifth to have won the election despite having lost the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist. During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns, he enacted a tax cut package for individuals and businesses, which rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge.
He repealed the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He has pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U. S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, negotiated with North Korea seeking denuclearization, he nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. The Justice Department investigated links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference; when Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, in charge of the investigation, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with the probe. The Special Counsel investigation led to guilty pleas by five Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, tax fraud.
Trump denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". Attorney General William Barr wrote that the special counsel's final report did not find that Trump or his campaign had "conspired or coordinated" with Russia during the 2016 election, but did not reach a conclusion regarding obstruction of justice, neither implicating him regarding obstruction of justice nor exonerating him. Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City, his parents were Frederick Christ Trump, a real estate developer, Mary Anne MacLeod. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.
After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at Elizabeth Trump & Son, he graduated in May 1968 with a B. S. in economics. When Trump was in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student draft deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination and in July 1968, a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. In October 1968, he was given a medical deferment that he attributed to spurs in the heels of both feet, which resulted in a 1-Y classification: "Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency." In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number that would have given him a low probability to be called to military service without the 1-Y. In 1972, he was reclassified as 4-F. In 1973 and 1976, The New York Times reported that Trump had graduated first in his class at Wharton. However, a 1984 Times profile of Trump noted.
In 1988, New York magazine reported Trump conceding, "Okay, maybe not'first,' as myth has it, but he had'the highest grades possible.'" Michael Cohen, Trump's former attorney, testified to the House Oversight Committee in February 2019 that Trump "directed me to threaten his high school, his colleges and the College Board to never release his grades or SAT scores." Days after Trump stated in 2011, "I heard [Barack O
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Columbus is a city in and the county seat of Bartholomew County, United States. The population was 44,061 at the 2010 census. In its built environment, the small city has provided a unique place for noted Modern architecture and public art, commissioning numerous works since the mid-20th century. Located about 40 mi south of Indianapolis, on the east fork of the White River, it is the state's 20th-largest city, it is the principal city of the Columbus, Indiana metropolitan statistical area, which encompasses all of Bartholomew County. Columbus is the birthplace of former Indiana Governor and current Vice President of the United States, Mike Pence. National Geographic Traveler ranked Columbus 11th on its historic destinations list in late 2008, describing the city as "authentic and unspoiled." Columbus won the national contest "America in Bloom" in 2006, in 2004 it was named as one of "The Ten Most Playful Towns" by Nick Jr. Family Magazine; the July 2005 edition of GQ magazine, Columbus was named as one of the "62 Reasons to Love Your Country".
Columbus is the headquarters of the engine company Inc.. The land developed as Columbus was bought by General John Tipton and Luke Bonesteel in 1820. Tipton built a log cabin on Mount Tipton, a small hill overlooking White River and the surrounding flat forested and swampy valley, it held wetlands of the river. The town was first known as Tiptonia, named in honor of Tipton; the town's name was changed to Columbus on March 20, 1821. General Tipton was decided to leave the newly founded town, he was appointed as the highway commissioner for the State of Indiana and was assigned to building a highway from Indianapolis, Indiana to Louisville, Kentucky. When the road reached Columbus, Tipton constructed the first bypass road built. Joseph McKinney was the first to plot the town of Columbus. Local history books for years said that the land on which Columbus sits was donated by General Tipton, but in 2003, Historic Columbus Indiana acquired a deed showing. A ferry was established below the confluence of the Flatrock and Driftwood rivers, which form the White River.
A village of three or four log cabins developed around the ferry landing, a store was added in 1821. That year, Bartholomew County was organized by an act of the State Legislature and named to honor the famous Hoosier militiaman, General Joseph Bartholomew. Columbus was incorporated on June 28, 1864; the first railroad in Indiana was constructed to Columbus from Madison, Indiana in 1844. This became the Madison branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad; the railroad fostered the growth of the community into one of the largest in Indiana, three more railroads reached the city by 1850. Columbus is host to the oldest theater in Indiana, The Crump Theatre, built in 1889 by John Crump. Today the building is included within the Columbus Historic District. Before it closed permanently in 2010, it was an all-ages venue with occasional musical performances. Columbus was host to the oldest continually operated bookstore in Indiana, Cummins Bookstore, which began operations in 1892, it closed in late 2007. The Irwin Union Bank building was built in 1954.
It was designated as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 2001 in recognition of its unique architecture. The building consists of a one-story bank structure adjacent to a three-story office annex. A portion of the office annex was built along with the banking hall in 1954; the remaining larger portion, designed by Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates, was built in 1973. Eero Saarinen designed the bank building with its glazed hall to be set off against the blank background of its three-story brick annex. Two steel and glass vestibule connectors lead from the north side of this structure to the annex; the building was designed to distance the Irwin Union Bank from traditional banking architecture, which echoed imposing, neoclassical style buildings of brick or stone. Tellers were behind iron bars and removed from their customers. Saarinen worked to develop a building. Columbus has been home to many manufacturing companies, including Noblitt-Sparks Industries and Arvin Industries, now Meritor, Inc.
After merging with Meritor Automotive on July 10, 2000, the headquarters of the newly created ArvinMeritor Industries was established in Troy, the home of parent company, Rockwell International. It was announced in February 2011 that the company name would revert to Inc.. Cummins, Inc. is by far the region's largest employer, the Infotech Park accounts for a sizable number of research jobs in Columbus proper. Just south of Columbus are the North American headquarters of Toyota Material Handling, U. S. A. Inc. the world's largest material handling manufacturer. Other notable industries include a discipline for which Columbus is famous worldwide; the late J. Irwin Miller launched the Cummins Foundation, a charitable program that helps subsidize a large number of architectural projects throughout the city by up-and-coming engineers and architects. Early in the 20th century, Columbus was home to a number of pioneering car manufacturers, including Reeves, which produced the unusual four-axle Octoauto and the twin rear-axle Sextoauto, both around 1911.
Nearly 19,000 workers commute into the city from villages. In recent years city officials have explored ways to revitalize the city, they recognize the value of J. Irwin Miller's supp