University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a public research university in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it had existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. In Fall 2018 the university had 31,702 students enrolled, most at its main campus in Norman. Employing nearly 3,000 faculty members, the school offers 152 baccalaureate programs, 160 master's programs, 75 doctorate programs, 20 majors at the first professional level. David Boren, a former U. S. Senator and Oklahoma Governor, served as the university's president from 1994 to 2018. James L. Gallogly succeeded Boren on July 1, 2018; the school ranks in the top ten among public universities in enrollment of National Merit Scholars and graduation of Rhodes Scholars. US News & World Report ranks OU No. 58 in the "Top Public Schools – National Universities" category. PC Magazine and the Princeton Review rated it one of the "20 Most Wired Colleges" in both 2006 and 2008, while the Carnegie Foundation classifies it as a research university with "very high research activity."
Its Norman campus has the Fred Jones Jr.. Museum of Art, specializing in French Impressionism and Native American artwork, the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, specializing in the natural history of Oklahoma; the school, well known for its athletic programs, claims multiple national championships in multiple sports, including seven football national championships and two NCAA Division I baseball championships. The women's softball team has won the national championship four times: in 2000, 2013, consecutively in 2016 and 2017; the gymnastics teams have won a combined 11 national championships since 2002, with the men's team winning eight in the last 15 years, including three consecutive titles from 2015 to 2017. With the support of Governor George Washington Steele, on December 18, 1890 the Oklahoma Territorial legislature established three universities: the state university in Norman, the agricultural and mechanical college in Stillwater and a normal school in Edmond. Oklahoma's admission into the union in 1907 led to the renaming of the Norman Territorial University as the University of Oklahoma.
Norman residents donated 407 acres of land for the university 0.5 miles south of the Norman railroad depot. The university's first president ordered the planting of trees before the construction of the first campus building because he "could not visualize a treeless university seat." Landscaping remains important to the university. The university's first president, David Ross Boyd, arrived in Norman in August 1892, the first students enrolled that year; the university established a School of Pharmacy in 1893 because of high demand for pharmacists in the territory. Three years the university awarded its first degree to a pharmaceutical chemist; the "Rock Building" in downtown Norman held the initial classes until the university's first building opened on September 6, 1893. On January 6, 1903, the university's only building burned down and destroyed many records of the early university. Construction began on a new building, as several other towns hoped to convince the university to move. President Boyd and the faculty were not dismayed by the loss.
Mathematics professor Frederick Elder said, "What do you need to keep classes going? Two yards of blackboard and a box of chalk." As a response to the fire, English professor Vernon Louis Parrington created a plan for the development of the campus. Most of the plan was never implemented, but Parrington's suggestion for the campus core formed the basis for the North Oval; the North and South Ovals are now distinctive features of the campus. The campus has a distinctive architecture, with buildings designed in a unique "Cherokee Gothic" style; the style has many features of the Gothic era but has mixed the designs of local Native American tribes from Oklahoma. This term was coined by the renowned American architect Frank Lloyd Wright when he visited the campus; the university has built over a dozen buildings in the Cherokee Gothic style. In 1907, Oklahoma entered statehood. Up until this point, Oklahoma's Republican tendencies changed with the election of Oklahoma's first governor, the Democratic Charles N. Haskell.
Since the inception of the university, different groups on campus were divided by religion. Early in the university's existence, many professors were Presbyterian. Under pressure, Boyd hired several Baptists and Southern Methodists; the Presbyterians and Baptists got along but the Southern Methodists conflicted with the administration. Two notable Methodists, Rev. Nathaniel Lee Linebaugh and Professor Ernest Taylor Bynum, were critics of Boyd and activists in Haskell's election campaign; when Haskell took office, he fired many of the Republicans at the university, including President Boyd. The campus expanded over the next several decades. By 1932, the university encompassed 167 acres. Development of South Oval allowed for the southern expansion of the campus; the university built a new library on the oval's north end in 1936. President Bizzell was able to get the Oklahoma legislature to approve $500,000 for the new library up from their original offer of $200,000; this allowed for an greater collection of research materials for students and faculty.
Like many universities, OU had a drop in enrollment during World War II. Enrollment in 1945 dropped to 3,769, from its pre–World War II high of 6,935 in 1939. Many infrastructure changes have occurred at the university; the southern portion of south campus in the vicinity of Constitution Avenue, still known to long-time Norman residents as
College Football All-America Team
The College Football All-America Team is an honor given annually to the best American college football players at their respective positions. The original use of the term All-America seems to have been to the 1889 College Football All-America Team selected by Caspar Whitney and published in This Week's Sports in association with football pioneer Walter Camp. Camp took over the responsibility for picking the All-America team and was recognized as the official selector in the early years of the 20th century; as of 2009, the College Football All-America Team is composed of the following College Football All-American first teams: Associated Press, Football Writers Association of America, American Football Coaches Association, Walter Camp Foundation, The Sporting News, Sports Illustrated, Pro Football Weekly, ESPN, CBS Sports, College Football News, ProFootballFocus, Rivals.com, Scout.com. As of 2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recognizes the All-America teams selected by the AP, AFCA, FWAA, Sporting News, the WCFF to determine consensus All-Americans.
If three of these organizations select a player to their first team, he automatically receives the "consensus" honor. If a player is named an All-American by all five organizations, he receives "unanimous All-America" recognition. Depending upon the distribution of first team honors at any given position, it is possible to be consensus with fewer than three first-team selections; the University of Oklahoma has produced the most unanimous All Americans of any program, with 35. There have been 2,868 players from 156 colleges and universities since 1889 who were selected to at least one All-American first team. Only four players have earned that honor four times: They are: Marshall Newell, Tackle, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893 Harvard Frank Hinkey, End, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894 Yale Gordon Brown, Guard, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900 Yale T. Truxtun Hare, Guard, 1897, 1898, 1899, 1900 Pennsylvania The Associated Press has a panel of sportswriters who vote to determine the AP All-America Team, it has selected an All-America team since 1925.
The American Football Coaches Association has selected an All-America team every year since 1945. It is referred to as the "Coaches' All-America Team"; the Selection Process is an All-America Selection Committee is made up of three head coaches from each of the AFCA's nine I-A districts, one of whom serves as a district chairman, along with another head coach who serves as the chairman of the selection committee. The coaches in each district are responsible for ranking the top players in their respective districts; the Coaches’ All-America Team has been sponsored by various entities throughout the years but it is now under its own banner, the AFCA. These are the sponsors/publishers of the team throughout the years. 1945–1947: Published in Saturday Evening Post1948–1956: Published in Collier's1957–1959: General Mills1960–1993: Eastman Kodak1994: Schooner's International1995–1996: AFCA1997–1999: Burger King2000–present: AFCA The Football Writers Association of America Team, the second longest continuously published team in college football, has been a staple of the college football scene since 1944.
It is sometimes referred to as the "Writers' All-America Team". The FWAA has selected an All-America team with the help of its members and an All-America Committee which represents all the regions in the country; some who have helped to select this team over the years: Mark Blaudschun, Grantland Rice, Bert McGrane, Blackie Sherrod, Furman Bisher, Pat Harmon, Fred Russell, Edwin Pope, Murray Olderman, Paul Zimmerman. The All-America team is selected by a committee of writers representing all conferences and regions of the NCAA; the Writers' Team has been highlighted in various media forums. From 1946-70, Look published the FWAA team and brought players and selected writers to New York City for a celebration. During that 25-year period, the FWAA team was introduced on national television shows by Bob Hope, Steve Allen, Perry Como and others. After Look folded, the FWAA started a long association with NCAA Films, which produced a 30-minute television show and sold it to sponsors; the team was part of ABC Television's 1981 College Football Series.
From 1983-90, the team was either on ABC or ESPN, since 1991 has returned to the national spotlight on ABC. The corporate sponsor for the Writers' team is AT&T, after several years of Cingular being the sponsor; the Walter Camp Football Foundation All-America team is selected by the head coaches and sports information directors of the 120 Football Bowl Subdivision schools and certified by UHY Advisors, a New Haven-based accounting firm. Walter Camp, "The Father of American Football," first selected an All-America team in 1889; the WCF claims an 80% participation rate in the voting for its All-America team. Sporting News known as The Sporting News and known colloquially as TSN, have teams college football editors and staff select teams, which they have been doing since 1934. From that year through the 1962 season TSN's All-America team was picked by a poll of sportswriters. Beginning in 1964 the team was selected by "professional scouts and observers"; the Sporting News cited the advent of two-platoon football as the need to go to that system.
United Press International is a defunct organization that selected players in a national poll of sportswriters and began selecting teams in 1925 as "United Press". In 1958, after it merged with the International News Service, it became United Press International; the INS had chosen teams since 1913. UPI continued to choose an All-Americ
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Hugh Green (American football)
Hugh Donell Green is a former professional American football player, a linebacker in the National Football League for eleven seasons during the 1980s and 1990s. He played college football for the University of Pittsburgh, was recognized as a three-time consensus All-American. Green was selected in the first round of the 1981 NFL Draft, played professionally for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and the Miami Dolphins. Green was born in Mississippi, he attended North Natchez High School. Green attended the University of Pittsburgh, where he played defensive end for the University of Pittsburgh Panthers from 1977 to 1980, he was a three-time consensus first-team All-American and a second-team All-America selection as a freshman in 1977. He was a consensus four-time All-East selection as well. In the 4 years Green played, the Pittsburgh Panthers compiled a 39–8–1 record, winning three bowl games en route, his No. 99 jersey was retired at halftime of his final home game in the 1980 season. After the season, he played in both the Hula Japan Bowl All-star games.
Green left the university with 53 career sacks in his college career. According to USC and Tampa Bay Buccaneers coach John McKay, "Hugh Green is the most productive player at his position I have seen in college"; the table is a year-by-year showing of Green's defensive statistics. In 1980, Green won the Walter Camp Award, the Maxwell Award, the Lombardi Award and was the Sporting News Player of the Year, the UPI Player of the Year and finished second in the Heisman Trophy balloting, losing to running back George Rogers of the University of South Carolina. Green's second-place finish in the voting was the best a defensive specialist had attained until 1997, when Charles Woodson won the award. Green was selected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1996 and was named the fifth greatest college football player of All-Time by collegefootballnews.com. He was named to the all-time All-American team compiled by The Sporting News in 1983. In 2007, Green was ranked No. 14 on ESPN's Top 25 Players In College Football History list.
He was named to Sports Illustrated's College Football All-Century team in 1999. Green was selected as the seventh overall pick of the first round by the Buccaneers in the 1981 NFL Draft, he was a 1982 All-Pro and 1983 All-Pro and was elected to the Pro Bowl twice in his career, in 1982 and 1983. In his career he suffered several injuries, including a car accident in the middle of the 1984 season for a fracture near the eye, he was traded to the Miami Dolphins in the middle of the 1985 season. In the 1985 season he was on to a career-high in sacks and ended the season getting 7.5 while playing all 16 games despite the mid-season trade. In Miami, Green played six more solid seasons before retiring, he was a member of Don Shula's teams which were playoff contenders and Green was a starter on those teams, racking up 7.5 sacks in 1989, to tie a career-high, for example. Pro Football Reference.com JT-SW.com
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
The Outland Trophy is awarded to the best college football interior lineman in the United States as adjudged by the Football Writers Association of America. It is named after John H. Outland. One of only a few players to be named an All-American at two positions, Outland garnered consensus All-America honors in 1898 as a tackle and consensus honors as a halfback in 1899. Outland had always contended that football tackles and guards deserved greater recognition and conceived the Outland Trophy as a means of providing this recognition. In 1988, Jim Ridlon was commissioned to sculpt the Outland Trophy. A member of the National College Football Awards Association, the award has become one of college football's most prestigious. Lombardi Award Rimington Trophy UPI Lineman of the Year Outland Trophy website
Nacogdoches is a small city in East Texas and the county seat of Nacogdoches County, United States. The 2010 U. S. Census recorded the city's population to be 32,996. Nacogdoches is a sister city of the smaller and similarly-named Natchitoches, the third-largest city in the Southern Ark-La-Tex. Nacogdoches is the home of Texas' largest azalea garden. Local promotional literature from the Nacogdoches Convention and Visitors Bureau describes Nacogdoches as “the oldest town in Texas”. Evidence of settlement at the same site dates back to 10,000 years ago, it is on the site of Nevantin, the primary village of the Nacogdoche tribe of Caddo Indians. Nacogdoches remained a Caddo Indian settlement until the early 19th century. In 1716, Spain established a mission there, Mission Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Nacogdoches; that was the first European construction in the area. The “town” of Nacogdoches got started after the French had vacated the region, Spanish officials decided that maintaining the mission was too costly.
In 1772, they ordered all settlers in the area to move to San Antonio. Some were eager to escape the wilderness, it was one of the original European settlements in the region, populated by Adaeseños from Fort Los Adaes. Colonel Antonio Gil Y'Barbo, a prominent Spanish trader, emerged as the leader of the settlers, in the spring of 1779, he led a group back to Nacogdoches; that summer, Nacogdoches received designation from Spain as a pueblo, or town, thereby making it the first “town” in Texas. Y'Barbo, as lieutenant governor of the new town, established the rules and laws for local government, he laid out streets with the intersecting El Camino Real and La Calle del Norte/North Street as the central point. On the main thoroughfare, he built a stone house for use in his trading business; the house, or Old Stone Fort as it is known today, became a gateway from the United States to the Texas frontier. The city has been under more flags than the state of Texas. In addition to the Six Flags of Texas, it flew under the flags of the Magee-Gutierrez Republic, the Long Republic, the Fredonian Rebellion.
People from the United States began moving to settle in Nacogdoches in 1820 and Texas' first English-language newspaper was published there. However, the first newspaper published was in Spanish. An edition of the newspaper is shown at the local museum. In 1832, the Battle of Nacogdoches brought many local settlers together, as they united in their stand to support a federalist form of government, their successful venture drove the Mexican military from East Texas. Thomas Jefferson Rusk was one of the most prominent early Nacogdoches Anglo settlers. A veteran of the Texas Revolution, hero of San Jacinto, he signed the Texas Declaration of Independence and was secretary of war during the Republic of Texas, he was president of the Texas Statehood Commission and served as one of the first two Texas U. S. Senators along with Sam Houston, he worked to establish Nacogdoches University, which operated from 1845 to 1895. The Old Nacogdoches University Building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.
Rusk suffered from depression as a result of the untimely death of his wife, killed himself on July 29, 1857. Sam Houston lived in Nacogdoches for four years prior to the Texas Revolution and opened a law office downtown, he courted Anna Raguet, daughter of one of the leading citizens, but Anna rejected him after finding that he was not divorced from his first wife Eliza Allen of Tennessee. William Goins, the son of a white mother and black father, operated a local inn, trucking service, blacksmith works and maintained a plantation outside Nacogdoches on Goins Hill, he was owned slaves. He was appointed as an agent to treat with the Cherokees and was prominent in providing assistance to the Texas Army during the Revolution. Adolphus Sterne was a merchant of German Jewish extraction, he was visited by famous luminaries such as Sam Houston, Thomas Rusk, Chief Bowles, David Crockett, many others, so his diary is one of the best sources for early Nacogdoches history. Nacogdoches contains one of the last surviving family-owned homestead plantations in East Texas, the August Tubbe Plantation and operated by the same family which established it in 1859.
August Tubbe was a German-born immigrant, who with his elderly mother, left Germany in 1858 and arrived in Nacogdoches by 1859. Their lives are recounted in several books, including a historical fiction novel by Gisela Laudi entitled “This is what I want to give ye report on. Tubbe plantation is significant in the formation of early life in East Texas, not only in its cotton and sugarcane, but because it played an important part in milled-lumber production. Tubbe Sawmill was the first water-, steam-powered, sawmill in Nacogdoches. During renovations of the Cason-Monk buildings in the early 21st century, boards stamped with Tubbe Mill logos made dating the building possible; the estate contains one of the largest owned genealogical archives pertaining to the Tubbe family in existence, providing important insight into early settlers life during the 19th century. The family has been featured in a number of German museums including the Expo2000 in Bremerhaven Germany; the estate and archives are owned and maintained by a descendant of its original founder, are available for study through