Gregor Johann Mendel was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia. Mendel was born in a German-speaking family in Silesian part of Austrian Empire, Mendel worked with seven characteristics of pea plants, plant height, pod shape and color, seed shape and color, and flower position and color. With seed color, he showed that when a yellow pea, however, in the next generation of plants, the green peas reappeared at a ratio of 1,3. To explain this phenomenon, Mendel coined the terms “recessive” and “dominant” in reference to certain traits and he published his work in 1866, demonstrating the actions of invisible “factors”—now called genes—in providing for visible traits in predictable ways. The profound significance of Mendels work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century with the independent rediscovery of these laws. Erich von Tschermak, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and William Jasper Spillman independently verified several of Mendels experimental findings, Mendel was born into a German-speaking family in Hynčice, at the Moravian-Silesian border, Austrian Empire. He was the son of Anton and Rosine Mendel, and had one sister, Veronika. They lived and worked on a farm which had been owned by the Mendel family for at least 130 years, during his childhood, Mendel worked as a gardener and studied beekeeping. Later, as a man, he attended gymnasium in Opava. He had to take four months off during his studies due to illness. From 1840 to 1843, he studied practical and theoretical philosophy and physics at the Philosophical Institute of the University of Olomouc and he also struggled financially to pay for his studies, and Theresia gave him her dowry. Later he helped support her three sons, two of whom became doctors and he became a friar because it enabled him to obtain an education without having to pay for it himself. He was given the name Gregor when he joined the Augustinian friars, upon recommendation of his physics teacher Friedrich Franz, Mendel entered the Augustinian St Thomass Abbey in Brno and began his training as a priest. Born Johann Mendel, he took the name Gregor upon entering religious life, Mendel worked as a substitute high school teacher. In 1850, he failed the oral part, the last of three parts, of his exams to become a high school teacher. In 1851, he was sent to the University of Vienna to study under the sponsorship of Abbot C. F. Napp so that he could get more formal education, at Vienna, his professor of physics was Christian Doppler. Mendel returned to his abbey in 1853 as a teacher, principally of physics, in 1856, he took the exam to become a certified teacher and again failed the oral part. In 1867, he replaced Napp as abbot of the monastery, Mendel died on 6 January 1884, at the age of 61, in Brno, Moravia, Austria-Hungary, from chronic nephritis
Image: Gregor Mendel 2
Dominant and recessive phenotypes. (1) Parental generation. (2) F1 generation. (3) F2 generation.