Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
Balingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, capital of the district of Zollernalbkreis. It is located near the Swabian Jura, approx,35 km to the south of Tübingen,35 km northeast of Villingen-Schwenningen, and 60 km southwest of Stuttgart. It is home to the Bizerba and Ideal companies, balingen is first mentioned in 863. Initially a possession of the lords of Haigerloch, in 1162 it was acquired by the count of Hohenberg, in the 13th century it received the title of city from Friedrich der Erlauchte, it was largely rebuilt on the left bank of the river Eyach. In 1403 it was sold to the County of Württemberg, whose chancellor maintained a residence there until the 18th century, balingen became part of the unified Germany in 1870. The city was destroyed by a fire in 1809, from only the Protestant church, the castle. The Protestant churchs construction finished in 1541, it has a sundial in the apse. The castle was reconstructed in 1935
Margraviate of Baden
The Margraviate of Baden was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Spread along the east side of the Upper Rhine River in southwestern Germany, it was named a margraviate in 1112 and existed until 1803, in 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden. The rulers of Baden belonged to the Swabian House of Zähringen, emperor Henry III had promised the ducal throne to the Zähringen scion Berthold, upon Henrys death in 1056 his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Rudolf of Rheinfelden Duke of Swabia. Berthold renounced his rights and was compensated with the Duchy of Carinthia, not able to establish himself, he finally lost both territories, when he was deposed by King Henry IV of Germany during the Investiture Controversy in 1077. Berthold retired to his Swabian home territory, where he died the next year, like his father, Herman II insisted on his margravial title. He chose to establish his residence in Germany, as he had been born and his lordship of choice was Baden, where his father had gained the right to rule by marrying the heiress, Judit von Backnang-Sulichgau, Countess of Eberstein-Calw.
In Baden, Herman II had Hohenbaden Castle built, construction began about 1100, and when completed in 1112, he marked the occasion by adopting the title of a Margrave of Baden. Because Baden was the capital, the new Margraviate was known as Baden, Herman II would continue to be Margrave until his death in 1130. His son and grandson, Hermann III and Herman IV, added to their territories, around 1200, these lands were divided for the first time. Two lines, Baden-Baden and Baden-Hochberg, were founded, the latter was divided about a hundred years to create the third line – Baden-Sausenberg. In the 12th and 13th centuries Baden was a loyal and steadfast supporter of the House of Hohenstaufen, even against its own relatives from Zähringen-Swabia, in 1219 he moved his seat of power to Pforzheim. He had to abandon his claims to Zähringen and Braunschweig, but he gained the title of Graf von Ortenau and Breisgau and his son and grandson, Herman VI, Margrave of Baden and Frederick I, Margrave of Baden, claimed the titles of Dukes of Austria and Styria.
The Austrians rejected them as they did not want to be ruled by outsiders, Margrave Bernard I, Margrave of Baden-Baden united all of the acquisitions in 1391. A soldier of renown, Bernard continued the mission of his predecessors. Since 1291, Baden-Pforzheim had its own Margraviate, but in 1361 it ran out of heirs, founded in 1190, it lasted until 1418, when it too died with no male heirs. Bernard, being the closest heir, claimed Baden-Hochberg, Baden-Sausenberg, continued its own Margraviate until 1503, when the lack of its own heirs sent it back to the House of Baden-Baden. The consolidation of the Margraviate came in 1442, in that year, one-half of the dominions of Lahr and Mahlberg was brought into the fold, creating the link between the two main areas, the Breisgau in the south and Baden-Baden in the north. In 1462 the dispute over the election of the new Archbishop of Mainz sent Charles I to fight the war against Frederick I, the Count Palatine of the Rhine
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print, the block is cut along the wood grain. The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with a roller, leaving ink upon the flat surface. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks, single-leaf woodcut is a term for a woodcut presented as a single image or print, as opposed to a book illustration. Among these the best known are the 16th century Hieronymus Andreae, Hans Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, all of whom ran workshops, the formschneider in turn handed the block on to specialist printers. There were further specialists who made the blank blocks and this is why woodcuts are sometimes described by museums or books as designed by rather than by an artist, but most authorities do not use this distinction.
The division of labour had the advantage that a trained artist could adapt to the medium relatively easily, there were various methods of transferring the artists drawn design onto the block for the cutter to follow. Either the drawing would be made directly onto the block, or a drawing on paper was glued to the block, either way, the artists drawing was destroyed during the cutting process. Other methods were used, including tracing, in both Europe and the Far East in the early 20th century, some artists began to do the whole process themselves. In Japan, this movement was called sōsaku-hanga, as opposed to shin-hanga, in the West, many artists used the easier technique of linocut instead. Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and engraving, only low pressure is required to print, as a relief method, it is only necessary to ink the block and bring it into firm and even contact with the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print. In Europe a variety of woods including boxwood and several nut and fruit woods like pear or cherry were commonly used, in Japan, there are three methods of printing to consider, Used for many fabrics and most early European woodcuts.
Used for European woodcuts and block-books in the fifteenth century, used for many Western woodcuts from about 1910 to the present. The block goes face up on a table, with the paper or fabric on top, the back is rubbed with a hard pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a leather frotton. A traditional Japanese tool used for this is called a baren, in Japan, complex wooden mechanisms were used to help hold the woodblock perfectly still and to apply proper pressure in the printing process. This was especially helpful once multiple colors were introduced and had to be applied with precision atop previous ink layers, printing in a press, presses only seem to have been used in Asia in relatively recent times. Printing-presses were used from about 1480 for European prints and block-books, simple weighted presses may have been used in Europe before the print-press, but firm evidence is lacking
Freiburg Charterhouse is a former Carthusian monastery, or charterhouse, in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Freiburg Charterhouse was founded in 1345 or 1346 by Johannes Schnewlin, knight and it was dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, in honour of the Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble, and was known as Sankt Johannisberg or St. Johannes des Täufers Berg. It was to begin with a very modest establishment of two monks cells, increased on the death of the founder in 1347 to five. The original endowment consisted of a piece of land on the Mussbach below Sankt Ottilien, in the early 16th century, the premises were extended by the addition of the refectory and the church, which was constructed in the Late Gothic style with ribbed vaulting and flying buttresses. It featured magnificent stained glass windows to designs by the Swabian painter Hans Baldung Grien, at its height the charterhouse maintained close contact with the University of Freiburg. From 1502 to 1525 the prior was Gregor Reisch, a significant representative of late Scholasticism, the monastery supported impoverished students and in its turn received donations and novices from the circles round the university.
For example, in 1537 the monastery inherited the library and the estate of Otmar Nachtgall, the Thirty Years War and the ravages of the Swedish army caused a huge disruption. Like many other Carthusians the monks of Freiburg took refuge in Ittingen Charterhouse in Switzerland, the priors attempt to attain the rank of prelate caused an internal revolt, which was put aside in 1781, after the monastery had suffered a serious fire the previous year. Emperor Joseph II commanded the dissolution of all Carthusian monasteries, including Freiburg and its buildings and lands became the property of the state and were sold to the Baron von Baden in 1783. The library was dispersed, only a few incunabula can now be traced, after the dissolution the buildings were converted for a country house of the nobility, with the priors lodging as the main residence. The cloisters with the cells were demolished to make way for a park. The precious stained glass windows were sold off to various villages, in 1897 Heinrich Hansjakob, the priest of Sankt Martin, was granted three rooms, by the intervention of the Bürgermeister and chairman of the charity committee, Otto Winterer.
These rooms have kept until today as a memorial. In 1969, the home moved to the newly built St. Johns Home next door. The buildings are mostly empty, as a refurbishment is economically unfeasible. From fall 2014 onwards, the facilities will accommodate a college of the UWC which will be called Robert Bosch College, Peter, Kartause mit bewegter Geschichte, Gutshof und Altenheim. In, Badische Zeitung 17 June 2005 Mertens, Zum Buchbesitz der Kartause Mons Sancti Johannis bei Freiburg im Breisgau, in, Bücher, Bibliotheken und Schriften der Kartäuser
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Alexander von Humboldt
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian geographer, naturalist and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. He was the brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher. Humboldts quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography, Humboldts advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America and his description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. Humboldt was one of the first people to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined and this important work motivated a holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity. Alexander von Humboldt was born in Berlin in Prussia on 14 September 1769 and he was baptized as a baby in the Lutheran faith, with the Duke of Brunswick serving as godfather.
At age 42, Alexander Georg was rewarded for his services in the Seven Years War with the post of Royal Chamberlain and he profited from the contract to lease state lotteries and tobacco sales. He first married the daughter of Prussian General Adjutant Schweder, in 1766, Alexander Georg married Maria Elisabeth Colomb, a well-educated woman and widow of Baron Hollwede, with whom she had a son. Alexander Georg and Maria Elisabeth had three children, a daughter, who died young, and two sons and Alexander and her first-born son and Alexanders half-brother, was something of a neer do well, not often mentioned in the family history. Alexander Georg died in 1779, leaving the brothers Humboldt in the care of their emotionally distant mother, Humboldts mother expected them to become civil servants of the Prussian state. The money Baron Holwede left to Alexanders mother became, after her death, instrumental in funding Alexanders explorations, due to his youthful penchant for collecting and labeling plants and insects, Alexander received the playful title of the little apothecary.
On April 25,1789, he matriculated at Göttingen, known for the lectures of C. G. Heyne and his brother Wilhelm was already a student at Göttingen, but they did not interact much since their intellectual interests were quite different. His vast and varied interests were by this time fully developed, at Göttingen he met Georg Forster, a naturalist who had been with Captain James Cook on his second voyage. Humboldt traveled with Forster in Europe, the two traveled to England, Humboldts first sea voyage, The Netherlands, and France. In England, he met Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society, the scientific friendship between Banks and Humboldt lasted until Bankss death in 1820, and the two shared botanical specimens for study. Banks mobilized his scientific contacts in years to aid Humboldts work, Humboldts scientific excursion up the Rhine resulted in his 1790 treatise Mineralogische Beobachtungen über einige Basalte am Rhein. Humboldts passion for travel was of long standing, Humboldts talents were devoted to the purpose of preparing himself as a scientific explorer.
During this period, his brother Wilhelm married, but Alexander did not attend the nuptials, Humboldt graduated from the Freiberg School of Mines in 1792 and was appointed to a Prussian government position in the Department of Mines as an inspector in Bayreuth and the Fichtel mountains
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with a population of about 220,000. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain. The city is known for its medieval minster and Renaissance university, as well as for its standard of living. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region, according to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany and held the all-time German temperature record of 40.2 °C from 2003 to 2015. Freiburg was founded by Konrad and Duke Berthold III of Zähringen in 1120 as a market town, hence its name. Frei means free, and Burg, like the modern English word borough, was used in those days for a city or town. The German word Burg means a town, as in Hamburg. Thus, it is likely that the name of place means a fortified town of free citizens. This town was located at a junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, and the Rhine and Danube rivers.
In 1200, Freiburgs population numbered approximately 6,000 people, at about that time, under the rule of Bertold V, the last duke of Zähringen, the city began construction of its Freiburg Münster cathedral on the site of an older parish church. Begun in the Romanesque style, it was continued and completed 1513 for the most part as a Gothic edifice, in 1218, when Bertold V died, Egino V von Urach, the count of Urach assumed the title of Freiburgs count as Egino I von Freiburg. The city council did not trust the new nobles and wrote down its established rights in a document, at the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg. Egino II raised taxes and sought to limit the freedom, after which the Freiburgers used catapults to destroy the counts castle atop the Schloßberg. The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of Strasbourg, Konradius von Lichtenberg, the bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg.
According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July 1299. It was a Pyrrhic victory, since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of 300 marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until 1368, in 1366 the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid. Eventually the citizens were fed up with their lords, and in 1368 Freiburg purchased its independence from them, the city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs, who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom. Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach, the patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city until the guildsmen revolted
Science Museum at Wroughton
The Science Museum at Wroughton, near Swindon, contains the large-object store of the Science Museum and the Science Museum Library & Archives. It is part of the Science Museum Group, the Science Museum took ownership of the 545 acre former RAF Wroughton airfield in 1979, to be used as a storage facility for the largest objects of the Science Museum. A collection of approximately 26,000 objects is currently kept in six of the hangars, from the first hovercraft to MRI scanners, the store is particularly notable for its extensive collection of vintage aircraft, road transport vehicles, agricultural machinery and industrial collections. In 2016 the Science Museum at Wroughton started to be featured in The Grand Tour, the shows three ex Top Gear hosts use some of the roads surrounding the museum buildings as a vehicle test track each week. The object collections at Wroughton are not normally open to the public, in the past there were regular open days when the public could view the collections.
The Science Museum Library & Archives collections are part of the Science Museum in London and its holdings include original scientific and medical works from the last 500 years. The Library is free to use and open to the public and it is open on Fridays 10.00 -17.00. The Science Museum Library was founded in 1883 as the Science Library of the South Kensington Museum and it was formed of collections from the South Kensington Educational Library and the library of the Museum of Practical Geology. In 1907 it moved to the Royal College of Science building, when the Science Museum gained its independence in 1909, the Science Library became its responsibility. In 1992 the Library joined with Imperial College London to form the Imperial College & Science Museum Libraries. Due to the demand for space in South Kensington, about 85% of the collections. The largest object at Wroughton is thought to be the Wood Press, the press was acquired in 2001 and weighs 140 tonnes. It is the size of two small houses, charles Babbages notebooks, engineering plans, social diary and letters.
Barnes Wallis’s plans for the bouncing bomb, pearson PLC engineering papers and photographs. The New Cyclopaedia, or, Universal Dictionary of the Arts, list of museums in Wiltshire Science Museum at Wroughton website. Unofficial list of aircraft stored at Wroughton
Johann Maier von Eck was a German Scholastic theologian and defender of Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation. Johann Eck was born Johann Maier at Eck, and derived his surname from his birthplace. His father, Michael Maier, was a peasant and bailiff, or Amtmann, the boys education was undertaken by his uncle, Martin Maier, parish priest at Rottenburg on the river Neckar. At the age of twelve he entered the University of Heidelberg, after taking his masters degree in 1501, he began the study of theology under Johann Jakob Lempp, and studied the elements of Hebrew and political economy with Konrad Summenhart. In 1508 he entered the priesthood in Strasbourg and two years obtained his doctorate in theology. At odds with his colleagues, he was glad to accept a call to a chair at Ingolstadt in November 1510, receiving at the same time the honors. In 1512 he became prochancellor at the university and made the institution a bulwark of Catholicism and his wide knowledge found expression in numerous writings.
As a political economist he defended the lawfulness of putting out capital at interest, and successfully argued his view at disputations at Augsburg and Bologna, where he disputed about predestination. These triumphs were repeated at Vienna in 1516, through these successes he gained the patronage of the Fuggers, but they scandalized Martin Luther. A ducal commission, appointed to find a way of ending the strife between rival academic parties, asked Eck to prepare fresh commentaries on Aristotle and Peter of Spain. During these early years, Eck was considered a modern theologian and his aim, had been to find a via media between old and new. He championed the cause of the papacy, the result of this new resolve were his chief work, De primatu Petri, and his Enchiridion locorum communium adversus Lutherum ran through 46 editions between 1525 and 1576. In 1530-1535 he published a collection of his writings against Luther, Opera contra Ludderum and he attacked an old friend and jurist Ulrich Zasius, for a doctrine proclaimed ten years before, and Erasmuss Annotationes in Novum Testamentum.
Eck died at Ingolstadt, fighting to the last and worn out before his time and his vast learning was the result of a powerful memory and unwearied industry, but he lacked creative imagination. He was a debater, but his victories were those of a dialectician. As early as the spring of 1517 Eck had entered into relations with Martin Luther, who had regarded him as in harmony with his own views. Luther replied in his Asterisci adversxes obeliseos Eccii, while Andreas Karlstadt defended Luthers views of indulgences, the disputation between Eck and Karlstadt began at Leipzig on 27 June 1519. He was less successful against Luther, who, as Eck himself confessed, was his superior in memory, after a disputation on the supremacy of the papacy, penance, etc. lasting twenty-three days, the arbitrators declined to give a verdict
Johann Petreius was a German printer in Nuremberg. He studied at the University of Basel, receiving the Master of Arts in 1517, two years later, he worked as a proofreader for his relative Adam Petri. He became a citizen of Nuremberg in 1523, where he working as a printer by at least 1524. After his death the company was run by Gabriel Hayn, about 800 publications by him are known, including works in theology, science and the classics. He printed music, using Pierre Attaingnants single-impression technique, though the amount of music was small, it was distinguished by its high quality. His most famous work is the edition of Nicolaus Copernicuss De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium in 1543, after an initiative of Georg Joachim Rheticus. Petreius had sent a copy to Hieronymus Schreiber, an astronomer from Nuremberg who died in 1547 in Paris, via Michael Mästlin, the book came to Johannes Kepler, who uncovered Osianders deed. Georg Rithaymer, De orbis terrarum situa compendium, johann Petreius, Nürnberg,1538 Michael Stifel, Arithmetica Integra.
Epistole Euangelii Lectioni vulgari in lingua toschana, Lorenzo Morgiani and Johannes Petri, for Piero Pacini,27 July 1495. Storia di Ottinello e Giulia. Storia di Ottinello e Giulia