Domingo María Cristóbal French was an Argentine revolutionary who took part in the May Revolution and the Argentine War of Independence. Domingo María French was the son of peninsular Patricio French, an Andalusian, the son of an Irish nobleman and a Spanish noblewoman, criolla Isabel Urreaga y Dávila. During his childhood and early years, French spent his time between studies, commercial activities, helping his father in his business. In 1802 French became the first mail carrier of Buenos Aires. During the first English invasion, French organized, alongside Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, the corps of Husars. Due to his bravery, he was named lieutenant colonel by the viceroy Santiago de Liniers in 1808. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, French was a freemason. During the week preceding the May Revolution, he supported the movement with enthusiasm. On May 21, the Plaza de la Victoria was occupied by some 600 armed men, headed by Domingo French and Antonio Luis Beruti, under a group known as the "chisperos", who shouted requests for the forming of an open Cabildo and the deposement of Viceroy Cisneros.
Alarmed by the commotion on the square, the viceroy agreed to a meeting for the following day and called Cornelio Saavedra, commander of the Patricios Regiment, to calm the citizenry at the square. Saavedra communicated to the "chisperos" that there would be an open cabildo on May 22 and asked them to stand down. To ensure they reached their goal, the group controlled the list of invitees and denied entry to the cabildo to known royalists. French and their followers gave each patriot member a light blue and white emblem to differentiate them from the royalists; when on May 24, the Cabildo opened deliberations directed by a Junta with Cisneros at its head, French opposed them and, upon the general rejection the Junta dissolved. On the morning of the 25th of May, 1810, groups of citizens joined at the square with the support of the "chisperos" requesting Cisneros stepped down and the formation of a new government. Once a new government was formed, the Primera Junta at the onset of the revolution, French joined the more radical faction, the morenistas.
French was tasked with the creation of an infantry corps called América, formed as "the Star". He accompanied Juan José Castelli to Córdoba Province and took part in the execution of Santiago de Liniers and his accomplices; when the Junta Grande was formed, the morenista faction was weakened, as from that moment on, decisions had to take the whole country into account, not just the point of view of the city of Buenos Aires. On 5 and 6 April 1811, a popular protest demanded total separation from the morenista movement and to make laws considering the whole of the country, not only for Buenos Aires and its elite, they saw Cornelio Saavedra as their leader. Saavedra did not favor a revolution and became less involved in government. After these first successes, along with other morenistas were stripped of their posts and power and exiled to Patagonia, he rejoined the army. French took part on the siege of Montevideo in 1814 and in the Army of the North in 1815, he opposed the policies of the Directorio.
He denounced the conspiration of Carlos María de Alvear in Brazil and rejected Supreme Director Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. He was persecuted and exiled to the United States of America along with Manuel Dorrego in February 1817, he again rejoined the army. He fought in the Battle of Cañada de la Cruz. After regaining his freedom, he retired in Buenos Aires, where he died on June 4, 1825. Domingo French belonged to an illustrious family of Buenos Aires, being the son of Patricio French Alcalá, a Spanish merchant, María Isabel de Urreaga, a noble woman, daughter of Domingo de Urreaga, born in Biscay, Bernardina Dávila, born in Buenos Aires, he was married to Juana Josefa de Posadas Dávila, daughter of Felipe Santiago de Posadas and María Antonia Dávila, belonging to a distinguished family of the city. His paternal lineage came from Galway, descendant of Oliver French and William Joyes, who had served as Mayors of Galway. By his maternal line, he was a descendant of Amador Vaz de Alpoim and Margarida Cabral de Melo, whose ancestors were related to the Portuguese Royal House.
His wife was a great-great-granddaughter of Ignacio Fernández de Agüero, who served as Mayor of the city of Buenos Aires in 1666. Elhistoriador.com.ar todo-argentina.net
Córdoba Province, Argentina
Córdoba is a province of Argentina, located in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are: Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, La Rioja and Catamarca. Together with Santa Fe and Entre Ríos, the province is part of the economic and political association known as the Center Region. Córdoba is the second most populous Argentine province, with 3,308,876 inhabitants, the fifth by size, at about 165,321 km2. 41% of its inhabitants reside in the capital city, Córdoba, its surroundings, making it the second most populous metro area in Argentina. Before the Spanish conquista the region now called Córdoba Province was inhabited by indigenous groups, most notably the Comechingones and Sanavirones. Once settled in Alto Perú, the Spaniards searched for a route to the Río de la Plata port in the Atlantic Ocean to transport the Peruvian gold and silver to Europe. Córdoba de la Nueva Andalucía was founded as a middle point on that route on July 6, 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera.
The Colegio Convictorio de Nuestra Señora de Monserrat was founded by the Jesuits in 1599, followed by the National University of Córdoba, Argentina's first university, in 1613. The city continued to grow as an important cultural center, supported by the trade of precious metals from Peru. In 1761 a printing press was installed in the University. In 1783, seven years after the consolidation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the Intendency of Córdoba became the capital of what now includes the La Rioja, San Juan and San Luis Province, dividing the former Tucumán Intendency in two. Rafael de Sobremonte was its first governor. After the May Revolution in 1810, Governor Juan Gutiérrez de la Concha joined a meeting that decided to ignore the authority of the Buenos Aires Junta. Francisco Ortiz de Ocampo attacked the city and executed the leaders of the opposition, among whom was Santiago de Liniers, leader of the resistance during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Led by Juan Bautista Bustos after 1820, Córdoba struggled for control of the Nation with Buenos Aires.
Córdoba sought a federal organization of the provinces while Rivadavia pushed for a centralised government in Buenos Aires. For 15 years the province was submerged in internal revolts that started to stabilize in 1868 under the provisional government of Félix de la Peña. During the presidency of Sarmiento an astronomic observatory and the Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics were inaugurated; the creation of the railways and the consequent immigration brought a second wave of population growth to Córdoba. From 1887 on, several agricultural colonies emerged, while former rest-point Fraile Muerto and Los Luceros, on the route to Buenos Aires, became agricultural and industrial centers, respectively; the University Reform movement, which originated in Córdoba in 1918, was influential not only in Argentina but throughout South America. Modernization of the curricular contents and the improvement of the students' rights were the main achievements of the movement and in Córdoba, were enacted by Governor Amadeo Sabattini, who became Argentina's most progressive governor at the time and enacted civil and land reforms that would set the national standard.
After World War II, many foreign workers and workers from other provinces in Argentina were seduced by Córdoba's industrial development, led by the expansion of the car industry. It was during Arturo Frondizi's presidency that most new auto industries settled in the city of Córdoba and its surroundings; as in the rest of the country, Peronist groups emerged in 1955 following the coup that removed Juan Perón from office. These Peronist groups, together with other socialist and anarchist groups, began opposing Argentina's third military dictatorship that began in 1966. Worker and student participation in politics grew due to the widespread discontent with the appointed governor's hard-line stance, culminating in the violent May, 1969, popular revolt known as the Cordobazo; this revolt, mirrored by the Rosariazo and others in several parts of the country, undermined the power of dictator Juan Carlos Onganía and led to his ouster by more moderate military factions. Córdoba has continued to prosper, despite left-wing violence in 1973, right-wing political interference in 1974, government atrocities in 1976–77, 1978–81 free trade policies that battered Córdoba's sizable industrial sector, the 1980s debt crisis and, the recent acute financial crisis that ended in 2002.
Córdoba, located just north of the geographical center of the nation, is Argentina's fifth largest province. The main feature of the province is the presence of an extensive plain covering the eastern two thirds of the province, the existence of three major mountain ranges which, are known as Sierras de Córdoba: the easternmost range starts just west of the city of Córdoba and reaches altitudes of around 1,000 meters in the southern portion, over 1,500 meters further north, with a maximum altitude of 1,950 meters at Cerro Uritorco. West of this chain, two valleys contain most of the tourist spots in the province: the Calamuchita valley in the south, the Punilla Valley in the north, home of scenic towns such as Villa Carlos Paz, Cosquín, La Cumbre and La Falda. West of these valleys, the Sierras Grandes form the highest chain in the province: their altitude increases to form a plateau of 2,000 to 2,300 meters
The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. It borders to the north with San Juan, the south with La Pampa and Neuquén, the east with San Luis, to the west with the republic of Chile, its capital city is the homonymous city of Mendoza. Covering an area of 148.827 km², it is the seventh biggest province of Argentina with 5.35% of the country's total area. The population for 2010 is 1,741,610 inhabitants, which makes it the fourth most populated province of the country, or 4.35% of the total national population. Archeological studies have determined that the first inhabitants in the area date from the Holocene, but there are few remains of those people to know their habits; the earliest sites of human occupation in Mendoza Province, Agua de la Cueva and Gruta del Indio, are 12-13,000 years old. In the basins of the Atuel River, in 300 BC lived a group of people that lived via hunting and the cultivation of maize and beans.
Those valleys saw the rise of ancestor of the Huarpes. They were influenced by the Inca empire during the 15th century. Oral tradition sets the arrival of the Inca Túpac Yupanqui to Coquimbo in 1470. Puelches and other groups received a strong influence of the Mapuches; the first Spanish conquerors came around 1550 from the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1561 Mendoza was founded by the conquistador Pedro del Castillo; until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, the area of what is now Mendoza Province belonged to the Captaincy General of Chile. With the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, its 30,000 inhabitants became part of the intendency of Cuyo de Córdoba del Tucumán, but in 1813 the intendency was separated and the Province of Cuyo created, with José de San Martín as its first Governor, he received important support from Mendoza when he led his Army of the Andes from Plumerillo to the 1817 crossing of the Andes, in his campaign to end Spanish rule in Chile.
The Province of Cuyo was divided in 1820, Mendoza parted ways with San Luis and San Juan Provinces. The 1861 earthquake nearly destroyed the city of Mendoza, which had to be entirely reconstructed. In 1885 railways were built to the province, allowing for easy transport of the region's wines to the country's trade hub of Buenos Aires. Following the development of the wine industry in the province around 1900, Mendoza began to grow attracting tens of thousands of European immigrants Spaniards. In 1939 the National University of Cuyo, one of the more important universities of the country, was founded in the province. In reaction to President Juan Perón's populist policies, some of which taxed agriculture to finance urban development and public works, Mendoza landowners formed the conservative Democratic Party, which secured the Vice Governor's post in 1958. Increasing their presence in the Mendoza Legislature, the Democrats became an obstacle to progressive Governor Ernesto Ueltschi, an ally of president Arturo Frondizi's.
With majorities in both houses by 1961, they had Gov. Ueltschi removed and Democrat Vice-governor Francisco Gabrielli appointed in his stead. Elected governor in his own right in 1963, Gov. Gabrielli was deposed following the June 1966 coup against President Arturo Illia. In contrast to the pragmatism that had distinguished his 1963–66 term, Gabrielli governed with a hard line, freezing state salaries and ordering large utility rate increases, used the Mendoza police to repress dissent and took foreign policy prerogatives like collaborating with Chilean saboteurs opposed to their country's new Marxist president, Salvador Allende; these events came to a head in April, 1972, when violent protests forced the newly unpopular Gabrielli to resign. Upon the return to democracy in March 1973, Mendoza voters turned to a left-leaning Peronist, Alberto Martínez Baca. Enacting needed labor and land reforms, Martínez Baca, made the mistake of appointing affiliates of the extreme-left Montoneros movement, an organization whose armed wing had perpetrated a string of violent crimes since 1970.
Alarmed by this move from the otherwise pragmatic Martínez Baca, President Perón had him removed in June 1974. Becoming more politically independent-minded following these two disappointments, Mendoza voters elected centrist Radical Civic Union as well as populist Justicialist Party lawmakers since Argentina's return to democracy in 1983. Though Mendoza has prospered since its critical wine industry was left reeling from the 1983 collapse of state-owned vintner Bodegas GIOL, whose dictatorship-era receivers had run the wine conglomerate, accumulated over US$6 billion of debt. Elected in 2003, Radical Civic Union Governor Julio Cobos highlighted this independent sentiment by parting ways with many in his party and endorsing newly elected Peronist President Néstor Kirchner's policies in 2004. Over the opposition of his party, Julio Cobos accepted the post of running mate to first lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of the ruling Front for Victory, in the presidential elections of October 2007.
Fernández and Cobos won in the first round, Cobos became Vice President of Argentina. The province is represented by three senators in the Argentine Senate María Perceval, Ernesto Sanz and Mónica Troadello. Mendoza is represented by 10 deputies in the Argentine
Army of the North
The Army of the North, contemporaneously called Army of Peru, was one of the armies deployed by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in the Spanish American wars of independence. Its objective was freeing the Argentine Northwest and the Upper Peru from the royalist troops of the Spanish Empire, it was headed by Hipólito Vieytes, Juan José Castelli, Juan Martín de Pueyrredón, Manuel Belgrano, José de San Martín, José Rondeau, Manuel Belgrano and Francisco Fernández de la Cruz. The offensive operations started in 1810 and ended in 1817, with the defeat of the forces commanded by Gregorio Aráoz de La Madrid at the battle of Sopachuy, the last attempt to advance into Upper Peru. Since only defensive operations on the Northern frontier were carried on, as the offensive had been transferred to the Army of the Andes, commanded by José de San Martín, who devised the strategy of reaching the main royalist stronghold, through Chile and the Pacific Ocean. In 1820 the Army of the North was summoned to intervene in the internal strife between the central government in Buenos Aires and the Federal League provincial caudillo leaders.
Shortly after, the Arequito Revolt led by the independentist veterans who refused to fight a civil war instead of an independence war ended the existence of the Army of the North. During the War of the Confederation, between Chile and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, a new military corps received the name of Army of the North under the command of Alejandro Heredia; the Army would disband itself without conducting any major operations after the uprising known as North Coalition and the 1838 assassination of Heredia. The war ended in 1839 with a decisive Chilean victory at the Yungay, so the Peruvian-Bolivian army retreated from Argentine territory; the lack of trained military was one of the most pressing difficulties of the revolutionary government in Buenos Aires. Besides the Patricios Regiment and other corps formed during the British invasions, the only troops with some experience were the Blandengues, lancers militia recruited to patrol the borders of the territories still controlled by indigenous people.
Until 1812, with the arrival of veterans from the Napoleonic Wars, that would join as officers, the army was a militia. Most of the commanders were civilians or junior officers, put in charge more for their political leanings, status in society or charisma than for their military capacity. What would become the Army of the North started with troops drafted by Juan José Castelli by order of the Primera Junta on 14 June 1810, to fight viceroy Santiago de Liniers, who headed a counter-revolutionary movement at Córdoba Province; the Junta's order followed its creation documents from 25 May of the same year, which required them to send an expeditionary force to the provinces. It was in response to the Junta decree that created the Argentine Army on 29 May, five days after its formation; the Junta started a collection in Buenos Aires to equip the expeditionary force and created a small army of 1,150 men, which left from Monte de Castro on 6 July 1810 under the command of colonel Francisco Ortiz de Ocampo, lieutenant colonel Antonio González Balcarce.
After receiving their orders they took the road to Córdoba to confront Liniers. Similar to the armies in the French Revolution, they were accompanied by the Junta's representative, Hipólito Vieytes as commissioner and for the army's comptroller Feliciano Chiclana, who reached the army on 28 July at Fraile Muerto and continued to Salta with a small guard, where he was named governor of Salta and Tucumán; the military command was subject to the political representative and he to the Junta through the Secretary of War Mariano Moreno. Vieytes carried instructions to arrange in each province for elections so the people could designate their representative to the new Junta; the force was composed of about 1,000 men in two companies with the 1st and 2nd Patricios Regiments, 3rd Arribeños, 4th Montañeses, 5th Andaluces, plus the Pardos and Morenos regiments and 50 soldiers of the Buenos Aires regiment, all infantry. The artillery was formed by a group of 60 men with 40 veteran artillery men, they were accompanied by two chaplains.
The cavalry was divided into 50 hussars and 100 blandengues. On 14 July the force arrived in Luján, continuing through Salto, Pergamino. On 8 August they arrived in Córdoba. On 31 July the royalist commanders in Córdoba had fled to Upper Peru after the dissolution of their regiments, to join the royalist army there. Liniers was captured on 6 August in the Córdoba highlands along with others officers from his command, who were sent to Buenos Aires against the execution orders, but on 26 August they were met in Cabeza de Tigre by the new political command of the Army of the North sent by Moreno. Castelli ordered and immediate execution by firing squad for Liniers and the Córdoba governor, Juan Gutiérrez de la Concha, lieutenant-governor Victorio Rodríguez, Santiago Alejo de Allende and Joaquín Moreno, but pardoned bishop Rodrigo de Orellana, sent as a prisoner to Luján. Domingo French, gave the coup de grâce to the French officer. By order of the Junta, González Balcarce replaced Ortiz de Ocampo as troop commander, with Juan José Viamonte as his second in command replacing Vieytes.
Juan José Castelli occupied the post of political representative and Bernardo de Monteagudo the comptroller. French and Rodríguez Peña became part of the new political committee. With Córdoba occupied on 8 August, they replaced their cabildo and Juan Martín de Pueyrredón was named governor, assuming the post that s
Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer and military leader. He created the Flag of Argentina, he is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country. Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires, the fourth child of Italian businessman Domingo Belgrano y Peri and Josefa Casero, he came into contact with the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment while at university in Spain around the time of the French Revolution. Upon his return to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, where he became a notable member of the criollo population of Buenos Aires, he tried to promote some of the new political and economic ideals, but found severe resistance from local peninsulars; this rejection led him to work towards a greater autonomy for his country from the Spanish colonial regime. At first, he unsuccessfully promoted the aspirations of Carlota Joaquina to become a regent ruler for the Viceroyalty during the period the Spanish King Ferdinand VII was imprisoned during the Peninsular War.
He favoured the May Revolution, which removed the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power on 25 May 1810. He was elected as a voting member of the Primera Junta; as a delegate for the Junta, he led the ill-fated Paraguay campaign. His troops were defeated by Bernardo de Velasco at the battles of Campichuelo and Paraguarí. Though he was defeated, the campaign initiated the chain of events that led to the Independence of Paraguay in May 1811, he retreated to the vicinity of Rosario, to fortify it against a possible royalist attack from the Eastern Band of the Uruguay River. While there, he created the flag of Argentina; the First Triumvirate did not approve the flag, but because of slow communications, Belgrano would only learn of that many weeks while reinforcing the Army of the North at Jujuy. There, knowing he was at a strategic disadvantage against the royalist armies coming from Upper Peru, Belgrano ordered the Jujuy Exodus, which evacuated the entire population of Jujuy Province to San Miguel de Tucumán.
His counter-offensive at the Battle of Tucumán resulted in a key strategic victory, it was soon followed by a complete victory over the royalist army of Pío Tristán at the Battle of Salta. However, his deeper incursions into Upper Perú led to defeats at Vilcapugio and Ayohuma, leading the Second Triumvirate to order his replacement as Commander of the Army of the North by the newly arrived José de San Martín. By the Asamblea del Año XIII had approved the use of Belgrano's flag as the national war flag. Belgrano went on a diplomatic mission to Europe along with Bernardino Rivadavia to seek support for the revolutionary government, he returned in time to take part in the Congress of Tucumán. He promoted the Inca plan to create a constitutional monarchy with an Inca descendant as Head of State; this proposal had the support of San Martín, Martín Miguel de Güemes, many provincial delegates, but was rejected by the delegates from Buenos Aires. The Congress of Tucumán approved the use of his flag as the national flag.
After this, Belgrano again took command of the Army of the North, but his mission was limited to protecting San Miguel de Tucumán from royalist advances while San Martín prepared the Army of the Andes for an alternative offensive across the Andes. When Buenos Aires was about to be invaded by José Gervasio Artigas and Estanislao López, he moved the Army southwards, but his troops mutinied in January 1820. Belgrano died of dropsy on 20 June 1820, his last words were: "¡Ay, Patria mía!". Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires on 3 June 1770, at his father's house, it was located near the Santo Domingo convent, at Santo Domingo street, between the streets Martín de Tours and Santísima Trinidad. Though the city was still rather small, the Belgranos lived at one of the wealthiest neighbourhoods. Manuel Belgrano was baptised at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral the following day; as he was born in the Americas he was considered a social class below the Peninsulars.
His father Domenico was Ligurian, from the town of Italy. His maternal last name was Peri, he changed his name "Domenico" to the Spanish "Domingo" as well. He was an Italian merchant authorised by the King of Spain to move to the Americas, had contacts in Spain, Rio de Janeiro, Britain, he promoted the establishment of the Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires, which his son Manuel would lead years later. Belgrano's mother was María Josefa González Islas y Casero, born in the city of Santiago del Estero, Argentina; the family was the second richest in Buenos Aires, after the Escaladas. They had 16 sons. Domingo Belgrano Pérez managed a family business, arranged for his four daughters to marry merchants who would become his trusted agents in the Banda Oriental, Misiones Province, Spain; the eight living male sons followed different paths: Domingo José Estanislao became canon at the local cathedral, while Carlos José and José Gregorio joined the army. Manuel Belgrano was meant to follow his father's work, but when he developed other interests, it was his brother Francisco José María de Indias who continued the family business.
Belgrano completed his first studies at the San Carlos school, where he learned Latin, logic, physics
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento was an Argentine activist, writer and the seventh President of Argentina. His writing spanned a wide range of genres and topics, from journalism to autobiography, to political philosophy and history, he was a member of a group of intellectuals, known as the Generation of 1837, who had a great influence on nineteenth-century Argentina. He was concerned with educational issues and was an important influence on the region's literature. Sarmiento grew up in a poor but politically active family that paved the way for much of his future accomplishments. Between 1843 and 1850 he was in exile, wrote in both Chile and in Argentina, his greatest literary achievement was Facundo, a critique of Juan Manuel de Rosas, that Sarmiento wrote while working for the newspaper El Progreso during his exile in Chile. The book brought him far more than just literary recognition. While president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought—including education for children and women—and democracy for Latin America.
He took advantage of the opportunity to modernize and develop train systems, a postal system, a comprehensive education system. He spent many years in ministerial roles on the federal and state levels where he travelled abroad and examined other education systems. Sarmiento died in Paraguay, at the age of 77 from a heart attack, he was buried in Buenos Aires. Today, he is respected as writer. Miguel de Unamuno considered him among the greatest writers of Castilian prose. Sarmiento was born in Carrascal, a poor suburb of San Juan, Argentina on February 15, 1811, his father, José Clemente Quiroga Sarmiento y Funes, had served in the military during the wars of independence, returning prisoners of war to San Juan. His mother, Doña Paula Zoila de Albarracín e Irrázabal, was a pious woman, who lost her father at a young age and was left with little to support herself; as a result, she took to selling her weaving. On September 21, 1801, José and Paula were married, they had 15 children. Sarmiento was influenced by his parents, his mother, always working hard, his father who told stories of being a patriot and serving his country, something Sarmiento believed in.
In Sarmiento's own words: I was born in a family that lived long years in mediocrity bordering on destitution, and, to this day poor in every sense of the word. My father is a good man whose life has nothing remarkable except having served in subordinate positions in the War of Independence... My mother is the true figure of Christianity in its purest sense. At the age of four, Sarmiento was taught to read by his father and his uncle, José Eufrasio Quiroga Sarmiento, who became Bishop of Cuyo. Another uncle who influenced him in his youth was Domingo de Oro, a notable figure in the young Argentine Republic, influential in bringing Juan Manuel de Rosas to power. Though Sarmiento did not follow de Oro's political and religious leanings, he learned the value of intellectual integrity and honesty, he developed qualities which de Oro was famous for. In 1816, at the age of five, Sarmiento began attending the primary school La Escuela de la Patria, he was a good student, earned the title of First Citizen of the school.
After completing primary school, his mother wanted him to go to Córdoba to become a priest. He had spent a year reading the Bible and spent time as a child helping his uncle with church services, but Sarmiento soon became bored with religion and school, got involved with a group of aggressive children. Sarmiento's father took him to the Loreto Seminary in 1821, but for reasons unknown, Sarmiento did not enter the seminary, returning instead to San Juan with his father. In 1823, the Minister of State, Bernardino Rivadavia, announced that the six top pupils of each state would be selected to receive higher education in Buenos Aires. Sarmiento was at the top of the list in San Juan, but it was announced that only ten pupils would receive the scholarship; the selection was made by lot, Sarmiento was not one of the scholars whose name was drawn. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. In 1826, an assembly elected Bernardino Rivadavia as president of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
This action roused the ire of the provinces, civil war was the result. Support for a strong, centralized Argentine government was based in Buenos Aires, gave rise to two opposing groups; the wealthy and educated of the Unitarian Party, such as Sarmiento, favored centralized government. In opposition to them were the Federalists, who were based in rural areas and tended to reject European mores. Numbering figures such as Manuel Dorrego and Juan Facundo Quiroga among their ranks, they were in favor of a loose federation with more autonomy for the individual provinces. Opinion of the Rivadavia government was divided between the two ideologies. For Unitarians like Sarmiento, Rivadavia's presidency was a positive experience, he set up a European-staffed university and supported a public education program for rural male children. He
Antonio González de Balcarce
Antonio González de Balcarce was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century. González de Balcarce was born in Buenos Aires, he joined the armed forces as a cadet in 1788. In the battle for Montevideo in 1807, he was taken to England. After his release, he fought in the service of Spain during the Peninsular War against the Emperor Napoleon. Returning to Buenos Aires, he participated in the May Revolution in 1810. Subsequently, he was named second commander for the military campaign of the independentist forces in the Viceroyalty of Perú, where he won the Battle of Suipacha on November 7, 1810, the first victory over the Spanish royal forces, he was called back and became the Governor of Buenos Aires Province in 1813. In 1816, he served as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ad interim, became the Major General of the armed forces the following year under the government of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. According to historian William Denslow, Antonio Balcarce was a member of the well-known masonic lodge Lautaro.
He took part of the crossing of the Andes to Chile and was San Martin's second-in-command during the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipu. He fell ill in Chile and had to return to Buenos Aires, where he died in 1819