In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
Vandellòs i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant
Vandellòs i l'Hospitalet de l'Infant is a municipality in the comarca of the Baix Camp in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the south-west between the Serra de Llaberia range and the coast; the town of Vandellòs is some 15 km inland, connected with the AP-7 autopista and the N-340 road by the C-44 road. The town of L'Hospitalet de l'Infant is on the coast, is an important tourist centre: it is served by a station on the RENFE railway line between Tarragona and Valencia. In medieval times the town was part of the Barony of Entença; the nuclear power stations Vandellòs I and II are situated on the coast near l'Hospitalet de l'Infant. Fatges Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona:Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Official website Government data pages
Paul Bird Motorsport
Paul Bird Motorsport are a British motorcycle road racing and rallying organisation. The owner Paul Bird competed as a rally driver and was a competitor in motocross; the team competes in the British Superbike Championship, using Ducati machinery for 2016, based on the 1199 Panigale R, a change of manufacturer from Kawasaki. They managed the Kawasaki World Superbike team until 2011, competed in MotoGP from the 2012 season. PBM competed in the 2014 British Superbike Championship as a two-rider team with Shane Byrne and Stuart Easton on board Kawasakis. In 2014 Ian Hutchinson joined Paul Bird Motorsport for a few rounds of Pirelli National Superstock 1000 competition on the Rapid Solicitors Kawasaki team, after which he again competed in the Macau road GP on Shane Byrne's superbike, but without his previous year's success, overshooting a corner and retiring after a low-speed fall; the race was won by PBM rider Stuart Easton. For 2015 Hutchinson competed in selected BSB rounds and Paul Bird's first foray into racing on closed public roads in UK, involving the North West 200 and the Ulster Grand Prix in Northern Ireland and in the Isle of Man TT races, where he won three TT races and a TT Championship.
On 16 October 2015 Paul Bird Motorsport announced their partnership with Be Wiser Insurance and that the BSB team for 2016 would consist of four-time BSB champion Shane Byrne and Glenn Irwin, riding Ducati Panigale Rs. In December 2015, Paul Bird received a ban from organised sport competitions until July 2017 administered by UKAD, after failing a standard test for banned substances, undertaken after driving in a car rally event in July 2015. Bird's son Frank will drive in Ford MSA Formula for Fortec Motorsport in 2016, after the 2015 season in Ginetta Junior Championship. PBM competed in the 2012 MotoGP season with an ART-Aprilia bike entered to CRT regulations ridden by James Ellison, with riders Michael Laverty and Broc Parkes in the 2014 MotoGP season before disbanding to concentrate on British Superbikes. Official website Profile on MotoGP.com
Tarragona is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea. Founded before the 5th century BC, it is the capital of the Province of Tarragona, part of Tarragonès and Catalonia. Geographically, it is bordered on the north by the Province of Lleida; the city has a population of 201,199. One Catalan legend holds that it was named for Tarraho, eldest son of Tubal in c. 2407 BC. The real founding date of Tarragona is unknown; the city may have begun as an Iberic town called Kesse or Kosse, named for the Iberic tribe of the region, the Cossetans, though the identification of Tarragona with Kesse is not certain. William Smith suggests that the city was founded by the Phoenicians, who called it Tarchon, according to Samuel Bochart, means a citadel; this name was derived from its situation on a high rock, between 75–90 m above the sea. It was seated on the river Sulcis or Tulcis, on a bay of the Mare Internum, between the Pyrenees and the river Iberus. Livy mentions a portus Tarraconis.
This better reflects its present condition. During the Roman Republic, the city was fortified and much enlarged as a Roman colony by the brothers Publius Cornelius Scipio and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, who converted it into a fortress and arsenal against the Carthaginians; the city was first named Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraco and was capital of the province of Hispania Citerior. Subsequently, it became the capital of the province named after it, Hispania Tarraconensis, in the Roman Empire and conventus iuridicus. Augustus wintered at Tarraco after his Cantabrian campaign, bestowed many marks of honour on the city, among which were its honorary titles of Colonia Victrix Togata and Colonia Julia Victrix Tarraconensis. Tarraco lies on the main road along the southeastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. According to Mela it was the richest town on that coast, Strabo represents its population as equal to that of Carthago Nova, its fertile plain and sunny shores are celebrated by other poets.
The city minted coins. An inscribed stone base for a now lost statue of Tiberius Claudius Candidus was found in Tarragona during the nineteenth century; the 24-line Latin inscription describes the Governor and Senator's career as an ally of the future Roman emperor Septimius Severus, who fought in the civil war following the assassination of Commodus in 192 AD. This important marble block was purchased by the British Museum in 1994. After the demise of the Western Roman Empire, it was captured first by the Vandals and by the Visigoths; the Visigothic Kingdom's rule of Tarracona was ended by the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 714. It was an important border city of the Caliphate of Córdoba between 750 and 1013. After the demise of the Caliphate, it was part of the Taifa of Zaragoza between 1013 and 1110 and under the control of the Almoravid dynasty between 1110 and 1117, it was taken by the County of Barcelona in 1117. After the dynastic union of Aragon and Barcelona, it was part of the Kingdom of Aragon from 1164-1412.
After dynastic union of Aragon and the Crown of Castile, it remained a part of Aragon until the foundation of the Spanish Empire in 1516. During the Catalan revolt, Tarragon was captured by Catalan insurgents with French support in 1641, but it was retaken by Spanish troops in 1644, it was captured by allied Portuguese and British troops in 1705 during the War of the Spanish Succession and remained in their hands until Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During the war, the Catalans supported the unsuccessful claim of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen against the victorious Bourbon Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain, he signed the Nueva Planta decrees, which abolished the Crown of Aragon and all remaining Catalan institutions and prohibited the administrative use of Catalan language on 16 January 1716. During the Peninsular War, in the first siege of Tarragona from 5 May to 29 June 1811, Louis-Gabriel Suchet's Army of Aragon of the First French Empire laid siege to a Spanish garrison led by Lieutenant general Juan Senen de Contreras.
A British naval squadron commanded by Admiral Edward Codrington harassed the French besiegers with cannon fire and transported large numbers of reinforcements into the city by sea. Suchet's troops stormed into the defenses and killed or captured all the defenders, it became a subprefecture center in Bouches-de-l'Èbre department of French empire. In the second siege of Tarragona, an overwhelming Anglo-Spanish force under the command of Lieutenant General John Murray, 8th Baronet failed to wrest Tarragona from a small Franco-Italian garrison led by Brigadier general Antoine Marc Augustin Bertoletti. Murray was subsequently removed from command for his contradictory leadership; the Anglo-Spanish forces captured Tarragona on 19 August. During the Spanish Civil War, Tarragona was in the hands of the Second Spanish Republi
Superbike World Championship
Superbike World Championship is a motorsport road racing series for modified production motorcycles known as superbike racing. The championship was founded in 1988; the Superbike World Championship consists of a series of rounds held on permanent racing facilities. Each round has two full length races and one ten lap sprint race known as the Superpole race; the results of all three races are combined to determine two annual World Championships, one for riders and one for manufacturers. The motorcycles that race in the championship are tuned versions of motorcycles available for sale to the public, by contrast with MotoGP where purpose built machines are used. MotoGP is the motorcycle world's equivalent of Formula One, whereas Superbike racing is similar to touring car racing. Europe is leading market. However, rounds have been held in the United States, New Zealand, Japan, Russia, Qatar and South Africa and the series plans on keeping extra-European circuits in rotation. An Indonesian race was proposed for the 2008 season, but this was canceled by the FIM.
The championship is regulated by the international governing body of motorcycle racing. As of 2013 the championship is organised by Dorna; the Superbike World Championship began in 1988, being open to modified versions of road bike models available to the public. For many years, the formula allowed for machines with 1,000 cc V-twin engines to go up against the 750 cc four-cylinder engines. For the first few seasons Honda won with the RC30, but the twins got the upper hand. Using 1,000 cc V-twin engines benefited Ducati and it was able to dominate the championship for many years, but the 750 cc was second or third each year between 1994 and 1999. Held under the FIM, the Formula TT from 1977 to 1989 once constituted the official motorcycle World Cup. Having proven itself both popular and commercially viable, it was decided by the end of the 1990 season to end the Formula TT and the Superbike World Championship would succeed it. From 1993 to 1999 Carl Fogarty and Ducati dominated, Fogarty won the title a record four times and finished as runner-up twice on factory Ducatis.
Troy Corser won the 1996 title and finished as runner-up in 1995, both times on a Ducati. Realizing that 1,000 cc V-twin engines suited the superbike racing formula more, Honda introduced its own V-Twin powered motorcycle the VTR1000 SPW in 2000; the result was clear right away as Colin Edwards won the championship in the bike's first year of competition. Ducati regained the title in 2001 with Troy Bayliss. Colin Edwards again reclaimed the title in 2002 on the same VTR1000 SPW bike. Colin Edwards won his second championship in what was arguably the most impressive comeback in the history of motorcycle racing; the season started with Troy Bayliss winning the first 6 races and by the end of race 1 at WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca he had 14 wins and was leading the championship by 58 points. Race 2 at WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca was the start of Colin Edwards' comeback, he went on to win all 9 remaining races and Edwards won the championship at the final race of the season at Imola; the final race of the season saw both riders fighting wheel to wheel for the entire race.
The race is known by fans as the "Showdown at Imola". The manufacturer's championship was won by Ducati. During these years the Superbike World Championship reached the zenith of its popularity, with global fan and full factory support. In 2003 the FIM changed the rules to allow 1,000 cc machines to race. Rule changes in MotoGP to allow four-stroke engines meant that the Japanese manufacturers focused their resources there, leaving the Superbike World Championship with limited factory involvement. 2003 saw the entry of Carl Fogarty’s Foggy Petronas FP1. The bike was developed under the previous regulations and was powered by a three cylinder 900 cc engine. With most of the field running Ducati motorcycles, the championship received the derogatory title "the Ducati Cup"; the factory Ducati Team entered the only two Ducati 999s in the field, taking 20 wins from 24 races in a season where all races were won by Ducati. Neil Hodgson won the title on a factory Ducati. In an effort to create a more competitive field in 2004 organizers announced a series of changes to the championship.
The most significant was that from 2004 the teams have had to run on ` spec' tyres. The decision to award the control tyre to Pirelli was controversial; the Pirelli tyres were considered to be below the standard of Dunlop and Michelin that most of the teams had been using. Dunlop looked to take legal action against the decision while Pirelli claimed that Michelin and Dunlop were asked if they would be interested in the one-make tyre rule contract; as a result of the control tyres, Motorcycle Sports Manufacturer Association announced that no MSMA teams would participate in the Superbike World Championship modifying their statement allowing Ducati to participate. A few privateers chose to run Japanese bikes in 2004. Ten Kate Honda with Chris Vermuelen as its rider, won races and contended for the title, won by James Toseland and Ducati. Following Ten Kate Honda's success Japanese motorcycles made a return in 2005 with major teams from all four Japanese manufacturers run through teams ran by European importers.
Troy Corser won the 2005 championship. 2006 saw the return of Austral
James Richard Barnaby Haydon, is a British former motorcycle racer. He raced in 250cc and 500cc Grand Prix, MotoGP, British Superbike and the World Superbike Championship, he retired in 2008. He now works in media, presenting shows and race commentating on ITV and British Eurosport for World Superbike Championship and British Superbike Championship coverage, he covers some Moto GP races when the regular commentators are unavailable, he has worked for the BBC, Sky Sports, Motors TV, Al Jazeera and Radio 5 live and is seen as a rising talent within the media side of the sport. He is the guest test rider for Britain's biggest motorcycle monthly - Bike Magazine. James got his passion for speed through his father David, a Doctor who loved fast cars and motorcycles, he bought James his first motorcycle aged eight. He moved into Motorcross and worked his way up into the top 40 in Britain in Schoolboy Motorcross, but instead of pursuing a career in that sport he swapped to road racing at 16 in 1990. He finished 2nd in the British 125 Ministock Championship in his first year.
Starting in Ministocks that season was Neil Hodgson who became a great friend of James'). James moved straight into The British 125cc Championship in 1991, he was spotted by the famous Ron Haslam and picked up to ride for Team Great Britain in 1992. He won his first British Championship race at Silverstone that same year; the next season in 1993 he just missed out on winning the British 250cc Championship after the camera he was carrying for TV came loose and jammed his back wheel in the final race causing him to crash. The same season at 19 he competed in the 1993 British 500cc Grand Prix, finishing 11th to become the youngest British points-scorer in a top-division World Championship race, he managed to finish well ahead of his mentor, the legendary Ron Haslam adding more prestige to his great performance. In 1994 he won his first British Superbike Championship race along with two more national 250cc victories that year. For 1995 he jumped straight into the top level 500cc world championship as a privateer.
He took some stunning top 10 results and impressed many with his speed on an privateer bike. He had offers to stay in G. P.'s but he decided to move to the WSBK in 1997. But this was with a poorly run Team who struggled with finance and an old motorcycle. James quit, his best result was a 9th-placed finish. After three years in the World Championship for 1998 he returned home to the ultra competitive British Superbike championship, he surprised many with a podium in his first race before going on to have many years of success. He became a crowd and sponsor favourite with his exciting all action style, never give up attitude and screen presence, he raced for Team Red Bull Ducati, Team Yamaha and Team Kawasaki. Never the luckiest rider many felt one of his best chances for the Championship came in 2000 for Ducati. Whilst leading the Championship a terrible mid season car accident damaged his neck and nerves badly; this caused him serious problems when ruined his season. He twice finished 4th in the standings and was always one of the fastest riders, with multiple lap records and fastest laps throughout his BSB career.
He had over 30 podiums in the series. In 2002 he joined Carl Fogarty's Foggy Petronas in the WSBK, developing the new bike for the first year, it proved unreliable with multiple blow ups, a lack of parts supply and other problems dogging it throughout the year. James had to leap from the motorcycle twice when it engulfed him in flames and fuel. One of the lowest points came when the gearbox caused a horrific accident, his high point was a best result of 7th in the world in Japan. In 2004 he nearly retired after the mentally and physically draining previous season and started it without a ride, but his pedigree could not be ignored and he was soon called up to stand in at Virgin Mobile Yamaha in the British Superbike series. He turned the Teams season around taking the bikes and Teams only win of the year and putting it on the podium. Despite missing many rounds he beat all the other riders in the team and finished top Yamaha in Britain, it was the only season in his career that he never crashed, not in practice.
At the end of the season he raced in the last few MotoGP's for Kenny Roberts Proton team. His best result an impressive 12th place in Qatar. 2004 had been such a good season. He should have spent 2005 and 2006 on an Airwaves Ducati but an unlucky pre-season testing injury at Albacete saw Gregorio Lavilla take over his ride and keeping it after a promising start. With no ride he became'Super Sub' once again, filling in for various teams throughout 2005. Ending up at Team Suzuki, he beat his new teammate and when the injured John Reynolds returned, the Team kept Haydon not Smart and he rewarded them with some strong results including a podium. This was good enough for an offer to stay with the Team for 2006 alongside 2003 champion Shane Byrne. After a strong start at Oulton Park
Leon Haslam is a motorcycle road racer based in Derbyshire, England. For the 2017 and 2018 seasons, he was contracted to race in the British Superbike Championship aboard a Kawasaki ZX-10R, he won the 2018 British championship at the final event held at Brands Hatch in late October, having signed to join the Kawasaki Superbike factory team in World Championship from 2019 as team-mate to Jonny Rea. He began racing at an early age and by the time he was in his late teens, he had raced in most of the significant British and international championships. After the 2004 season on a Ducati in World Superbikes with teammate Nori Haga, between 2005 and 2008 he was a regular front-runner in the British Superbike Championship. For 2009 he returned to the Superbike World Championship, riding for Suzuki, BMW, Honda and Aprilia for 2015. Haslam is the son of former road-racer ` Rocket Ron' Haslam. Haslam was first exposed to motorcycle racing as a baby travelling with his parents to his dad's races, he was 1995 and 1996's National Youth Motocross champion, 1998's MCN Young Rider of the Year after finishing 7th in the British 125cc Championship.
He did an assortment of 125cc races in 1999, but advanced into international racing after that. Leon spent the 2000 season with the underprepared Italjet team on their return to the 125cc world championship racing a privateer Honda NSR500V in 2001, a 250cc Honda in 2002. At this stage, having never ridden on competitive machinery, he had valuable experience but little in the way of results, leading him to return home. For 2003 Renegade Ducati signed him to ride in the British Supersport championship, but he was promoted to the full blown Superbike after the departure of Sean Emmett riding in six World Superbikes races with a best finish of sixth at Assen and Magny Cours. For 2004 he did the full WSBK season for Renegade alongside Noriyuki Haga, he was 8th overall with a best of 3rd. Haslam had an impressive victory in a British Superbike race at Brands Hatch on one of the team's 3 ventures into the series. In torrential rain, this was the only Ducati win in the series all year though this was the title-winning bike in both 2003 and 2005.
With Renegade switching to Honda machinery and cutting to one rider Haslam moved to BSB with the reformed GSE Racing Squad, now known as Airwaves Ducati. Haslam finished 4th overall behind only teammate Lavilla and the two HM Plant Hondas of Ryuichi Kiyonari and Michael Rutter. 2006 saw. In the first 12 races of the 2006 season he finished 2nd no less than 8 times, without winning a race but taking 3 poles and lying 2nd overall; the wins came later. He managed to push for the title all the way to the last race of the season at a rain soaked Brands Hatch where Leon and Kiyonari all had a chance to win. Leon was running second to Kiyo in the first race when it was stopped after Byrne crashed and despite storming to victory in the second race, he ended the season in second place and Lavilla was third. Leon did however drive off in the £50,000 Audi convertible, his prize for scoring the most points in the Audi pole position competition. While Lavilla won the first four races and lead the championship after eight, Haslam struggled to match these results.
However, two-second places at Oulton Park in round four moved him up to fourth overall. He finished 3rd, behind Kiyonari and Jonathan Rea's Hondas but ahead of a fading Lavilla. Haslam was released by Airwaves Ducati for 2008, when they withdrew from the series over questions about the legality of the Ducati 1098 under the new BSB tuning rules, he joined Airwaves' rivals HM Plant Honda, but the Ducati proved to be the faster bike, with Shakey Byrne dominating the championship. Haslam struggled early in the season and was outpaced by younger teammate Cal Crutchlow, was excluded from race 2 at Oulton Park after a racing incident with Tom Sykes. Despite several podium finishes his first win did not come until round 8 at Knockhill, when race leader Byrne crashed heavily, he took a double win at Cadwell Park, despite not starting on the front rowHaslam made two wild card appearance in the World Superbike Championship at Donington Park and Portimão. A competitive showing at Donington ended with disappointing results.
In race one he ran with the leaders after a red flag, but eased off after seeing a white flag with a red cross, which means the surface is slippery in WSBK, while in British Superbike, that indicates a safety vehicle is on course. The time he lost here proved costly. In race two he crashed out of fourth place with just three laps to go. At Portimão he finished third in race two, with a German flag above him on the podium, implying that the officials expected Max Neukirchner to overhaul him. WSBK remained his target for 2009, he joined the Stiggy Honda team for their first World Superbike campaign, starting the year with a third-place finish at the first round at Phillip Island in race two; the Dutch Grand Prix at Assen was a successful weekend as Haslam finished on the podium in both races with a third place in race one and a second place in race two. He finished the season 6th overall. Haslam's impressiv