Buses in Melbourne
Buses in Melbourne, are a major form of public transport in Melbourne, with an extensive bus network. There are 346 routes in operation with a varying range of service frequencies, operated by 32 owned bus companies under franchise from the State Government; the Night Network bus system consists of 10 routes and operates on Friday and Saturday nights, a SmartBus orbital bus network is being set up consisting of nine routes, intended to facilitate cross city travel, while the current network is predominantly a radial network. Most of the bus network is a covered by the myki ticketing system; the Skybus Super Shuttle is a non-myki ticketing airport bus service. There are nine other bus companies serving Melbourne Airport, with services to Ballarat, Dandenong, Mornington Peninsula, Melbourne suburbs and the Riverina. A daily return service from the states north—starting in Shepparton, passing through Nagambie and Broadford—is operated by Airport Direct. In addition, several local government councils operate free local community bus services within their local areas.
In addition, there are tourist bus services in the CBD and nearby tourist attractions. While the city relies predominantly on an inner-city tram network and radial train network, the outer suburbs of Melbourne are serviced by bus. Melbourne's buses provide a local feeder to Melbourne's train and tram network. Unlike Melbourne's train and tram networks, up until the 1950s, buses in Melbourne were operated in a deregulated free market by private companies. Post World War II, bus use in Melbourne peaked in 1952-1953 at 157 million passenger trips, but fell in subsequent years to a low of 71.5 million passenger trips in 1980-1981. In the 2013-2014 financial year, a total of 127.6 million passenger trips were recorded on Melbourne's buses, an increase of 10.2 percent on the previous year continuing the trend of recent years, where patronage has now recovered to 1960s levels. The Melbourne Motor Omnibus Co Ltd was formed in 1912 to be the first motor bus operator in Melbourne; the company imported a Daimler CC bus from England, put to exhaustive tests under local conditions.
The bus 14 to 16 on the upper deck. The bus was imported as a complete vehicle, but for future buses cab chassis were to be imported with local Australian coach builders able to make the bus body following the example from the test vehicle; the Daimler CC bus arrived in November 1912, featured a Knight sleeve valve engine rated at 40 h.p. A silent chain type gearing system and a worm type gear box; this was the same vehicle that the London County Council had just ordered 400 units of to extend their services around London. On Christmas Eve 1912 it was reported that the Daimler CC Double Decker bus "glided swiftly and silently along the city streets"; the bus at this stage was soon to be plying for hire between Swanston Street. In January 1913 it was reported that the Daimler bus had been remarkably well patronised with the bus complimented for its "smooth running of the engine, noiseless gears, the quiet and easy manner in which the load is taken up when starting". On Saturday 25 January it was reported that the Lord Mayor of Melbourne and members of the Melbourne City Council were treated to a bus ride to St Kilda and back on one of the Daimler buses that the Melbourne Omnibus Motor Co was about to put into service.
By the end of February another shipment of Daimler buses was to be imported. At this time the company had drawn up contracts for the construction of the bodies locally; the design was to be based on the same as used on the Daimler bus bodies used in London. In May 1913 it was reported that a number of routes had been established and at this time a new line between St Kilda and Brunswick East had been opened. In November 1913 it was documented. In regard to the imported Daimler bus fleet, Australian contractors had at this time completed 18 bus bodies. One of the main local contractors used for the coach building was Messrs. Jas. Flood and Co. January 1914 the newspapers advised that the Melbourne Motor Omnibus Co was considering implementing an all night bus service between the city and the principal suburbs. March 1914 saw the inauguration of half hourly bus services on a Sunday between Melbourne and Prahan. At this time routes existed through the city to St Kilda, North Melbourne, Flemington Bridge, Brunswick and Heidelberg.
In June 1914 the business commenced a trial run of daily services to Kew. In October 1914 Sunday morning routes were established from Northcote to Melbourne. In July 1914 the Melbourne Motor Omnibus Co moved the garaging of all its buses to Tinning Street, Melbourne. At this time the business had 20 Daimler buses in service, two due to be put into service within a week, three more by the end of the month, making 25 the total Daimler fleet. On 5 November 1914 it was documented that the Sunshine Motor Co who were the national distributors of Daimler commercial vehicles had 22 Daimler bus and truck chassis sold but before they could set sail for Australia from England war was declared. Vehicles from the Daimler factory had been commandeered by the British Government and this would be so while the war was on. With the outbreak of war and the British Governments ban on the export of motor buses the Melbourne Motor Omnibus company could not increase its fleet to adequately meet the increased demand for services.
The total number of passengers carried for the year ended 30 June 1914 was 3,141,000 and covered some 459,345 miles. This meant the average Daimler bus in service travelled 34,02
Lilydale is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 35 km north-east from Melbourne's central business district situated in the Yarra Valley. At the 2016 census, Lilydale had a population of 15,530, it began as a town within the Shire of Lillydale and is notable as the burial site of Dame Nellie Melba. It is both a residential area of metropolitan Melbourne and an industrial area on the city's rural-urban fringe; some prefer to believe the town was named after an 1852 song "Lilly Dale" by H. S. Thompson but evidence shows it was named after an early settler, Lilly de Castella. Most of Victoria has been named with traditional Aboriginal names. Lilly de Castella was one of four daughters of Colonel Joseph wife Mary. Joseph Anderson was one of eight nominated members of Victoria's first parliament. Lilly was born Elizabeth Anne on Norfolk Island, where her father was commandant from 1835 to 1839. Lilly was a typical Victorian pet-name for girls named Elizabeth; the family settled in South Yarra in 1848 and were friends of Lieutenant-Governor Charles La Trobe and his wife Sophie.
Mary Anderson was a pioneer member of the Melbourne Mechanics Institute. Colonel Anderson was a close friend of Crown Surveyor Clement Hodgkinson and was a pallbearer at the funeral of Governor Hotham, who died on 31 December 1855. Lilly married Paul de Castella in 1856. Anderson Street in Lilydale was named after the Colonel, the parallel Castella Street was named after his son-in-law, Lilly's husband Paul. Lillydale township was surveyed in 1860 by Clement Hodgkinson; the Post Office opened on 1 September 1860 as Brushy Creek, was renamed Lillydale in 1861 and Lilydale around 1872. The Lilydale Hotel opened in 1862; the railway came to town with the opening of the station in 1882. The first town hall was built in 1888 along with the Mechanics Institute Free Library building. Lilydale has an active CFA volunteer fire brigade, first established in 1905. There was an unregistered brigade dating back to the 1880s prior to this; the brigade has a satellite station in Chirnside Park. Lilydale has franchises of McDonald's and KFC.
Lilydale has shopping centres named'Lilydale Marketplace' and'The Lilydale Village' as well as shops on both sides of Main Street. There is a'Baby Bunnings', many other commercial shops. Lilydale station is the terminus for the Lilydale railway line offering half hourly metropolitan rail services. A bus station and taxi rank operates from the railway station servicing many of Melbourne's far eastern suburbs. Lilydale has segregated bicycle facilities including the start of the Lilydale to Warburton Rail Trail which follows the course of the Lilydale-Warburton railway line, built in 1901 but closed in 1964. Coldstream Airport is located 5 km north east in Coldstream which has a sealed, all-weather strip to service the area with recreation and fire bombing flying facilities for the local community. Coldstream Airport is home to Yarra Valley Flight Training, Coldstream Flyers Club and ACMA - Australian Centre for Mission Aviation. Lilydale Airport is located in Yering 5 km north of Lilydale, it is for use by local pilots.
There was a campus of Swinburne University of Technology, which offered TAFE and university courses, since announcing closure other institutes have come forward wanting to run the facilities. Box Hill Institute and the Centre for Adult Education opened their John St Lilydale Community Campus in 2015 offering the people of Lilydale and surrounding districts access to more than 20 quality accredited, short courses and pre-accredited pathway programs. On 15 February 2016 Box Hill Institute reopened the much larger former Swinburne campus as the Lilydale Lakeside Campus offering vocational training, TAFE and higher education. Lilydale has four main secondary schools: Lilydale High School, Mount Lilydale Mercy College, Lilydale Heights College, Lilydale Adventist Academy. Many primary schools are located in the suburb as well. Other institutions based in Lilydale include the Yarra Ranges Regional Museum, Australia offices for Institute in Basic Life Principles and Advanced Training Institute. Olinda Creek runs through Lilydale having its source in the nearby Dandenong Ranges and is a tributary of the Yarra River.
Lilydale is well known for Lillydale Lake, a recreational area where children play and learn about the wetlands environment. Surrounding the lake are modern housing estates, such as Lakeview Estate. A popular ground covering product from the long established quarry on the edge of the town, used in pathways, driveways and composed of crushed limestone of varying grades, is commercially and popularly known as "Lilydale Toppings"; the town is mentioned in the Augie March song The Cold Acre. In Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries Series 3 episode Death at the Grand, Phryne arranges to have her troublesome father, housed there until leaving the country, saying "Even you can't get yourself into trouble in Lilydale." The suburb has an Australian Rules football team, The Lilydale Falcons, competing in the Eastern Football League. It has a cricket team, competing in the Ringwood District Cricket Association. Notable people from or having lived in Lilydale include: Elizabeth Catherine Usher AO, pioneering speech therapist Lilydale Airport
Marcopolo S. A. is a Brazilian bus and coach manufacturer founded on 6 August 1949 in the southern Brazilian city of Caxias do Sul, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The company manufactures the bodies for a whole range of coaches, e.g. microbus and touring coach. Marcopolo produces over half of the bus bodies made in Brazil and exports its coaches to more than 60 countries. Marcopolo has four plants in Brazil and plants in Argentina, Colombia, India and South Africa, in addition to the technology that will be transferred to China. In 2008, it announced a joint-venture with Tata Motors to enter the Indian market. Marcopolo closed its plant in Portugal in September 2009 because of the economic recession; the fleet of buses which were shipped to Barbados to add the Barbados Transport Board's bus fleet were the 40 Mercedes-Benz Marcopolo Torino GV buses in November, 1996, along with 4 of the 40 Mercedes-Benz Marcopolo Torino GV learner buses in November, 1996. Marcopolo was founded as Nicola & Cia Ltd, a company having 8 partners and 15 employees.
The production was handmade. In 1953, Marcopolo starts the production of the first steel structures. Marcopolo Ciferal - was focused on defunct brand. Volare - dedicated to the development and commercialization of the V5, V6, V8, W8, W9 models of the School bus, Tourism/Freight, Easy Access and Mobile Unit sectors. Neobus Tata Marcopolo Bus SUPERPOLO S. A. MVC - which started its activities operating in the automotive industry and broadened its operations, introducing its plastic products to the light industry and infra-structure markets, etc. Moneo - the financial service unit of Marcopolo. Volgren - is an Australian bodywork company owned by Marcopolo. Coach Ideale 770 Allegro Andare Class Viaggio series Paradiso series MultegoCity bus Viale series Torino BoxerMidibus Ideale 600 Senior Temple only in Colombia from SUPERPOLO S. A. Minibus Fratello Listo only in Colombia from SUPERPOLO S. A. Vicino Ayats Busscar Daewoo Bus Irizar Tata Hispano LP Jaya Noge Plaxton Setra Neoplan Van Hool VDL Bova VDL Berkhof VDL Jonckheere Marcopolo S.
A. website Marcopolo website Buses Volare en Chile Representante Comercial Marcopolo S. A. website
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert
Pakenham is a satellite suburb of Melbourne on the edge of the West Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia, 56 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the Shire of Cardinia local government area. Pakenham recorded a population of 46,421 at the 2016 Census. Pakenham has become a major growth area in south-eastern Melbourne as new housing developments have boosted its population and infrastructure, as exemplified in the development of the Lakeside, Heritage Springs & Cardinia Lakes estates. Pakenham was named after a British general who fought in the Peninsular War, he died in the Battle of New Orleans. The Neville and Bourke families arrived in Sydney on the Alquis in 1837, sponsored by the Governor George Gipps to migrate and settle in Melbourne, they arrived in Melbourne on the John Barry in 1839 and selected 5 miles by 5 miles of land now known as the area of Upper Pakenham. The original Pakenham Post Office opened on 1 February 1859, was renamed Pakenham West on 1 October 1971, was closed on 15 January 1974.
The existing Pakenham Post Office was opened on 11 June 1888 as Pakenham Railway Station Post Office, was renamed Pakenham East in 1908, further renamed Pakenham on 1 October 1971. The railway station was opened on 8 October 1877 and was a part of the east link connecting Melbourne to Pakenham and other eastern towns. In Pakenham 71.2% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth outside of Australia were England 4.0%, India 2.8%, New Zealand 2.3%, Sri Lanka 1.3% and Philippines 1.0%. 0.9% of people in Pakenham are Aboriginal. Pakenham is on the main railway line between Melbourne and Gippsland, its railway station marks the end of the suburban electrified service. Pakenham Station is the termination point of all services operated by Metro Trains Melbourne heading out of the city, but V/Line trains to and from Gippsland serve Pakenham. Cardinia Road railway station is located west between Pakenham and Officer, it carried its first train services on Sunday 22 April 2012.
Pakenham is on the Princes Highway. The Pakenham bypass allows road traffic between Melbourne and Gippsland to bypass Pakenham, both shortening travel times and alleviating traffic congestion within Pakenham; the main north-south roads through Pakenham head south to Koo Wee Rup. Pakenham is serviced by one local newspaper: Star News Group's The Pakenham-Berwick Gazette, available every Wednesday for $1. Star's distributed Pakenham News, is dropped into mailboxes free every Thursday around the town. Well over 100 years old, Star News Group houses its main headquarters on the Princes Highway in Pakenham. Pakenham is in the coverage range of all the commercial radio stations in Melbourne, yet are locally serviced by 94.3 Star FM, whose studios are situated in Warragul, about 45 kilometres away from the town. Television services in the town are the same as Melbourne's, yet being in the Gippsland area, regional television can be accessed. Services such as WIN Gippsland and Southern Cross Ten are available to viewers, yet the signal strength tends to become stronger in the east of the town.
Pakenham's public facilities include a sports and aquatic centre, Community Centre and Council Offices. The aquatic centre includes a 25m indoor pool, with a gym, group fitness, eight multipurpose sports courts and food facilities all incorporated in the one building; the centre, named Cardinia LiFE, is managed by YMCA Victoria. Pakenham has an outdoor pool open during the warmer weather; this was opened in 1957, was reopened on 17 November 2007 after undergoing a $1.1 million redevelopment. The outdoor pool centre managed by YMCA Victoria, consists of a 50m pool, toddlers' pool with splash features, updated change rooms and water treatment plant. Located on Webster Way, the centre boasts 18 floodlit courts all with plexicusion surfacing, the same court surface as Melbourne Park, home of the Australia Open; the centre is Council owned and managed by the YMCA. The partnership is committed to providing a tennis centre for the community, to encourage tennis clubs, associations and youth groups participate in tennis programs and tournaments.
Pakenham has one tennis club but proposals for a second are under consideration, with planned expenses for the clubhouse alone around $20 million. Public schools include Pakenham Consolidated Primary School, Pakenham Hills Primary School, Pakenham Springs Primary School, Pakenham Lakeside Primary School, John Henry Primary School and Pakenham Secondary College. A Secondary School near John Henry Primary School will open around 2021. Private schools include Chairo Christian School and Lakeside College. Pakenham has one Catholic school St Patrick's Catholic Primary. Pakenham's Community Centre is a Neighbourhood House & Learn Local Community College located in Henry Street, managed by Living & Learning Pakenham Inc. provides a wide range of courses, programs and services to enhance the community participation and health and wellbeing opportunities for residents throughout the Cardinia Shire. The Pakenham Community Garden, located at 6 Henry Street, uses organic chemical-free gardening principles and is collectively managed by a diverse group of volunteers.
Situated next to Living & Learning Pakenham, the garden boasts a perennial food garden including several fruit trees, a small greenhouse plus over 40 raised garden beds, each featuring annual and perennial types of fruits, vegetables and flowers Pakenham serves as a major retail centre in the Cardinia Shire, with outlets including an Aldi supermarket, two Woolworths supermarkets, four
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Grenda's Bus Services
Grenda's Bus Services was a bus and coach operator in Melbourne, Australia. As a Melbourne bus company, it operated 23 bus routes under contract to the Government of Victoria. Grenda was purchased by Ventura Bus Lines in 2011. Grenda's Bus Services was founded in October 1945 when George Grenda purchased four routes from Shaves Bus Service in Dandenong; as at May 2014 the fleet coaches. Grenda's Bus Services had a livery of cream with red stripes, it has since adopted the standard white with yellow flashes of Grenda Corporation. As at December 2013, seven were painted in SmartBus two in V/Line livery. Buses in Melbourne List of Victorian Bus Companies List of Melbourne bus routes Company website Public Transport Victoria timetables