The Mascarene martin or Mascarene swallow is a passerine bird in the swallow family that breeds in Madagascar and in the Mascarene Islands. The nominate subspecies occurs on Mauritius and Réunion and has never been found away from the Mascarene Islands, but the smaller Madagascan subspecies, P. b. madagascariensis, is migratory and has been recorded wintering in East Africa or wandering to other Indian Ocean islands. The Mascarene martin is a small swallow that has grey-brown underparts becoming white on the throat and lower abdomen, dark grey-brown upperparts and a forked tail; the underparts are streaked with black. It nests in small colonies anywhere with suitably sheltered sites for constructing a nest, such as ledges, tunnels, caves or amongst rocks; the nest is a shallow cup of twigs and other plant material, the normal clutch is two or three brown-spotted white eggs. The incubation and fledging times are unknown; the Mascarene martin has a heavy flight with slow wingbeats interspersed with glides, perches on wires.
It feeds on insects in flight hunting low over the ground or vegetation. In eastern Africa, open habitats such as deforested areas are used for hunting. A number of internal and external parasites have been detected in this species. Tropical cyclones can adversely affect populations on the smaller islands, but the Mascarene martin is a locally common bird with an stable population and is classed as a species of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its legal protection ranges from none on the French overseas department of Réunion to a status on Mauritius as a "species of wildlife in respect of which more severe penalties are provided". The Mascarene martin was first formally described in 1789 as Hirundo borbonica by German zoologist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in his 13th edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae, it is that the species had been described by French naturalist Philibert Commerson who died in Mauritius in 1773. His huge collection of specimens and notes was sent back to the Paris Museum in 1774, but destroyed by sulphur fumigation in about 1810.
French biologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte moved the martin to his newly created genus Phedina in 1855. The genus name is derived from the Greek phaios "brown" and the Italian rondine "swallow", the species name refers to the Île de Bourbon. There are two subspecies, nominate P. borbonica borbonica on Mauritius and Réunion, P. b. madagascariensis in Madagascar. The Phedina swallows are placed within the Hirundininae subfamily, which comprises all swallows and martins except the distinctive river martins. DNA sequence studies suggest that there are three major groupings within the Hirundininae, broadly correlating with the type of nest built; these groups are the "core martins", including burrowing species like the sand martin. The Phedina species nest in burrows and therefore belong to the "core martins"; the genus Phedina is thought to be an early offshoot from the main swallow lineage, although the striped plumage of its two species suggests a distant relationship with streaked African Hirundo species.
The other member of the genus is the Brazza's martin P. brazzae, although in the past it has sometimes been suggested that Brazza's martin should be moved to its own genus, due to the significant differences in vocalisations and nest type from its relative. The nearest relation of the two Phedina martins is the banded martin, Riparia cincta, which appears not to be related to the other members of its current genus and resembles Brazza's martin in its nesting habits and calls; the current Association of European Rarities Committees -recommended practice is to move the banded martin to its own genus as Neophedina cincta, rather than to merge it into Phedina, since the banded martin's larger size, different bill and nostril shape and non-colonial nesting are differences from the current Phedina species. German ornithologist Gustav Hartlaub separated the Madagascan population of the Mascarene martin as a full species, P. madagascariensis, but more recent authorities have considered it to be only a subspecies, P. b. madagascariensis.
Adult Mascarene martins of the nominate subspecies are 15 cm long with wings averaging 117 mm and weigh 23.9 g. This small hirundine has dark brown-grey upperparts with faint streaking, it has grey-brown underparts becoming white on the throat and lower abdomen, all being streaked with black. The forked tail averages 54.6 mm long and has white edges to the brown undertail coverts. The wings are blackish-brown and the bill and legs are black; the eyes are dark brown and the black bill averages 11.3 mm long. The sexes are similar, but juvenile birds have more diffuse breast streaking, white tips to the feathers covering the closed wing; the Madagascan subspecies is overall larger-billed than the nominate form. It has denser streaking on the breast, but only fine lines on the lower abdomen and on the white undertail, it is distinctly smaller than the nominate subspecies, 12–14 cm in length with an average weight of 20.6 g. This martin moults in December and January on Mauritius, Madagascan breeders wintering on the African mainland moult in June and July.
The Mascarene martin is a quiet bird, but it has a warbled siri-liri siri-liri song given in flight or when perched. Other vocalisations may be used during mating or displays of aggre
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
The brown-throated martin or brown-throated sand martin is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It was first formally described as Hirundo paludicola by French ornithologist Louis Vieillot in 1817 in his Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle, it was regarded as conspecific with the grey-throated martin under the name "plain martin". It has a wide range in Africa, it is a migratory species, with some populations making seasonal movements. It is associated with water as its specific epithet paludicola suggest; the brown-throated martin is colonial in its nesting habits, with many pairs breeding close together, according to available space. The nests are at the end of tunnels of 30 to 60 cm in length, bored in sandbanks; the actual nest is a litter of straw and feathers in a chamber at the end of the burrow. Two to four white eggs are the normal clutch, are incubated by both parents, its brown back, small size and quicker, jerkier flight separate brown-throated martin at once from most other members of the swallow family.
It is most similar to the sand martin, Riparia riparia, its northern counterpart. The 12 cm long brown-throated martin is brown white or pale brown below, it lacks the narrow brown band on the breast shown by the sand martin. Sexes are similar; the races differ in plumage tones of the upperparts or underparts. R. p. paludicola, southern Africa. White underparts. R. p. paludibula, western Africa. Smaller and darker above than the nominate form. R. p. ducis, eastern Africa. Smaller and darker above and below than the nominate subspecies. R. p. mauretanica, Morocco. Small and pale. R. p. newtoni, mountains of Cameroon only. Darker above than the nominate form, brownish underparts. R. p. cowani, Madagascar. Small, greyish underparts; the food of this species consists of small insects gnats and other flies whose early stages are aquatic. The twittering song of brown-throated martin is continuous when the birds are on the wing, becomes a conversational undertone after they have settled in the roost. There is a harsh alarm call.
Brown-throated martin - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin was a German naturalist, entomologist and malacologist. Johann Friedrich Gmelin was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen, he studied medicine under his father at University of Tübingen and graduated with an MD in 1768, with a thesis entitled: Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam. Defended under the presidency of Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger, whom he thanks with the words Patrono et praeceptore in aeternum pie devenerando, pro summis in medicina obtinendis honoribus. In 1769, Gmelin became an adjunct professor of medicine at University of Tübingen. In 1773, he became professor of philosophy and adjunct professor of medicine at University of Göttingen, he was promoted to full professor of medicine and professor of chemistry and mineralogy in 1778. He died in 1804 in Göttingen. Johann Friedrich Gmelin published several textbooks in the fields of chemistry, pharmaceutical science and botany.
He published the 13th edition of Systema Naturae by Carl Linnaeus in 1788 and 1789. This contained descriptions and scientific names of many new species, including birds that had earlier been catalogued without a scientific name by John Latham in his A General Synopsis of Birds. Gmelin's publication is cited as the authority for over 290 bird species and a number of butterfly species. Among his students were Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt, Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer, Friedrich Stromeyer, Wilhelm August Lampadius, he was the father of Leopold Gmelin. He described the redfin pickerel in 1789. In the scientific field of herpetology, he described many new species of reptiles. In the field of malacology, he named many species of gastropods; the abbreviation "Gmel." is found. Gmelin, Johann Friedrich. Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam. Thesis Tübingen. OCLC 10717434. Allgemeine Geschichte der Gifte, 2 Vol. 1776/77 Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf.
Allgemeine Geschichte der Pflanzengifte, 1777 Allgemeine Geschichte der mineralischen Gifte. Nürnberg: Raspe, 1777. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf. Johann Friedrich Gmelins... Einleitung in die Chemie zum Gebrauch auf Universitäten. Nürnberg: Raspe, 1780. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf. Einleitung in die Pharmacie. Nürnberg: Raspe, 1781. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf. Beyträge zur Geschichte des teutschen Bergbaus, 1783 Ueber die neuere Entdeckungen in der Lehre von der Luft, und deren Anwendung auf Arzneikunst, in Briefen an einen Arzt, von J. F. Gmelin. 1784 Grundsätze der technischen Chemie, 1786 Caroli a Linné, equitis aurati de stella polari, … Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, genera, cum characteribus, synonymis, locis. Editio decima tertia, reformata. Lipsiae, Georg Emanuel Beer, 1789-1790 Grundriß der Pharmazie, 1792 Apparatus Medicaminum tam simplicium quam praeparatorum et compositorum in Praxeos Adiumentum consideratus, Ps.
2, T. 1 - Ps. 2, T. 2. 1795–1796. Digital edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf. Geschichte der Chemie, 1799 Allgemeine Geschichte der thierischen und mineralischen Gifte, 1806 Vane-Wright, R. I. 1975. The butterflies named by J. F. Gmelin. Bulletin of the British Museum,Entomology, 32: 17-64.pdf Gmelin's chemical genealogy Johann Friedrich Gmelin at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Johann Friedrich Gmelin in the German National Library catalogue "Author Details for Johann Friedrich Gmelin". International Plant Names Index. International Organization for Plant Information. Books by Johann Friedrich Gmelin at Internet Archive Zoologica Göttingen State and University Library
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Progne is a genus of birds. The genus name refers to Procne, a mythological girl, turned into a swallow to save her from her husband, she had killed their son to avenge the rape of her sister. Created by Friedrich Boie in 1826, the genus contains nine American swallows