Chloris is a genus of small passerine birds, the greenfinches, in the subfamily Carduelinae within the Fringillidae. The species have a Eurasian distribution except for the European greenfinch that occurs in North Africa; these finches all have yellow patches on the wing feathers. The greenfiches were placed in the genus Carduelis. Molecular phylogenetic studies showed that the greenfinches form a monophyletic group, not related to the species in Carduelis and instead is sister to a clade containing the desert finch and the Socotra golden-winged grosbeak; the greenfinches were therefore moved to the resurrected genus Chloris, introduced by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1800 with the European greenfinch as the type species. The name is from Ancient Greek khloris, the European greenfinch, from khloros, "green"; the genus contains five species: Trias greenfinch, Chloris triasi - Holocene of La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain Slender-billed greenfinch, Chloris aurelioi - Holocene of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. China, Japan and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea; the region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China influenced East Asia as it was principally the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, East Asian vocabulary and scripts are derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script; the Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from.
Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism, Ancestral worship, Chinese folk religion in Greater China and Shintoism in Japan, Christianity and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus. East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state; the overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre, about three times the world average of 45/km2. In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on Europe and the Western World, China would possess an advanced civilization nearly half a millennia before Japan and Korea.
As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic and political muscle onto its neighbors. Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically and militarily for over two millennia. Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it supplied Japan and Korea with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems. In addition, the Chinese Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region. Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang.
Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, Confucian political institutions. Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. Vietnamese society was impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, animal husbandry. Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years until the loss of independence under French Indochina; this cultural affiliation to China remained true when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan.
The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese, but after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature. Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and political independence; as full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea by the fourth century AD and Japan by the seventh century AD, Korea and Vietnam began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of written Han characters, Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies, urban planning, various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties. For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.
The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The trans
The Kamchatka Peninsula is a 1,250-kilometre-long peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2. The Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk make up the peninsula's eastern and western coastlines, respectively. Offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500-metre deep Kuril–Kamchatka Trench; the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Commander Islands, Karaginsky Island constitute the Kamchatka Krai of the Russian Federation. The vast majority of the 322,079 inhabitants are ethnic Russians, but about 13,000 Koryaks live there as well. More than half of the population lives in nearby Yelizovo; the Kamchatka peninsula contains the volcanoes of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Politically, the peninsula forms part of Kamchatka Krai; the southern tip is called Cape Lopatka. The circular bay to the north of this on the Pacific side is Avacha Bay with the capital, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Northward up the Pacific side, the four peninsulas are called Shipunsky Point, Kronotsky Point, Kamchatsky Point, Ozernoy Point.
North of Ozernoy Point is the large Karaginsky Bay. Northeast of this lies Korfa Bay with the town of Tilichiki. On the opposite side is the Shelikhov Gulf; the Kamchatka or Central Range forms the spine of the peninsula. Along the southeast coast runs the Vostochny Eastern Range. Between these lies the central valley; the Kamchatka River rises northwest of Avacha and flows north down the central valley, turning east near Klyuchi to enter the Pacific south of Kamchatsky Point at Ust-Kamchatsk. In the nineteenth century, a trail led west from near Klychi over the mountains to the Tegil river and town, the main trading post on the west coast. North of Tegil is Koryak Okrug. South of the Tegil is the Icha River. Just south of the headwaters of the Kamchatka, the Bistraya River curves southwest to enter the Sea of Okhotsk at Bolsheretsk, which once served as a port connecting the peninsula to Okhotsk. South of the Bistraya flows the Golygina River. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and the settlements in the central part of the peninsula are connected by highway leading to Ust-Kamchatsk.
The road is asphalt in its southern part and near habitations, but changes to gravel about halfway north. Another highway connects the local capital with Bolsheretsk. Bus service is available on both roads. Most other roads are gravel-covered or over coverless ground. There is semi-regular passenger transportation with aircraft; the obvious circular area in the central valley is the Klyuchevskaya Sopka, an isolated volcanic group southeast of the curve of the Kamchatka River. West of Kronotsky Point is the Kronotsky Biosphere Reserve with the Valley of Geysers. At the southern tip is the Southern Kamchatka Wildlife Refuge with Kurile Lake. There are several other protected areas on the peninsula. Kamchatka receives up to 2,700 mm of precipitation per year; this is much higher than the rest of Eastern Russia, is due to prevailing westerly winds blowing over the Sea of Japan and picking up moisture. This rises as it hits the higher topography of the peninsula, condenses into rain; the summers are moderately cool, the winters are rather stormy, but the storms produce lightning.
Although Kamchatka lies at similar latitudes to Scotland, cold arctic winds from Siberia combined with the cold Oyashio sea current keep the peninsula covered in snow from October to late May. Under the Köppen climate classification, Kamchatka has a subarctic climate, but higher and more northerly areas have a polar climate. Kamchatka is much milder than eastern Siberia, it is transitional from the hypercontinental climate of Siberia and northeast China to the rain-drenched subpolar oceanic climate of the Aleutian Islands. There is considerable variation, between the rain-drenched and glaciated east coast and the drier and more continental interior valley. In the glaciated Kronotsky Peninsula, where maritime influences are most pronounced, annual precipitation can reach as high as 2,500 millimetres, whilst the southeast coast south of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky receives around 1,166 millimetres of rainfall equivalent per year. Considerable local variations exist: southern parts of the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky metropolitan area can receive as much as 430 millimetres more than the northern part of the city.
Temperatures here are mild, with summer maxima around 16 °C and winter lows around −8 °C, whilst diurnal temperature ranges exceed 5 °C due to persistent fog on exposed parts of the coast. South of 57˚N there is no permafrost due to the mild winters and heavy snow cover, whilst northward discontinuous permafrost prevails; the west coastal plain has colder and drier climate with precipitation ranging from 880 millimetres in the south to as little as 430 millimetres in the north, where winter temperatures become colder at around −20 °C. The interior valley of the Kamchatka River, represented by Klyuchi, has much lower precipitation and more continental temperatures, reaching 19 °C on a typical summer day and during extreme cold winter spells falling as low as −41 °C. Sporadic permafrost prevails over the lower part of this valley, but it becomes more widespread at higher altitudes and glaciers, continuous permafrost prevails north of 55˚N; the summer mon
The cardueline finches are a subfamily, one of three subfamilies of the finch family Fringillidae, the others being the Fringillinae and the Euphoniinae. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are now included in this subfamily. Cardueline finches are specialised seed eaters, unlike most passerine birds, they feed their young on seeds, which are regurgitated. Besides this, they differ from the other finches in some minor details of their skull, they are adept at opening seeds and clinging to stems, unlike other granivorous birds, such as sparrows and buntings, which feed on fallen seeds. Some members of this subfamily are further specialised to feed on a particular type of seed, such as cones, in the case of crossbills. Carduelines forage in flocks throughout the year, rather than keeping territories, males defend their females rather than a territory or nest; the name Carduelina for the subfamily was introduced by the Irish zoologist Nicholas Aylward Vigors in 1825. Carduelinae is derived from the Latin name carduelis and the binomial name Carduelis carduelis for a goldfinch, one of the species in the subfamily.
The Carduelinae subfamily contains 184 species divided into 49 genera. Of the 184 species, 15 are now extinct. Mycerobas – contains four Asian grosbeaks Hesperiphona – contains the two American grosbeaks, the evening grosbeak and the hooded grosbeak Coccothraustes – contains a single species, the hawfinch Eophona – contains the two oriental grosbeaks, the Chinese and the Japanese grosbeak Pinicola – contains a single species, the pine grosbeak Pyrrhula – contains the seven bullfinch species Rhodopechys – contains two species, the Asian crimson-winged finch and the African crimson-winged finch Bucanetes – contains the trumpeter and the Mongolian finch Agraphospiza – contains a single species, Blanford's rosefinch Callacanthis – contains a single species, the spectacled finch Pyrrhoplectes – contains a single species, the golden-naped finch Procarduelis – contains a single species, the dark-breasted rosefinch Leucosticte – contains six species of mountain and rosy finches Carpodacus – contains the 26 Palearctic rosefinch species Hawaiian honeycreeper group Melamprosops – contains a single critically endangered species, the poo-uli Paroreomyza – contains three species, the Oahu alauahio, the Maui alauahio and the extinct kakawahie Oreomystis – contains a single species, the akikiki Telespiza – contains two species, the Laysan finch and the Nihoa finch Loxioides – contains a single species, the palila Rhodacanthis – contains two extinct species, the lesser and the greater koa finch Chloridops – contains a single extinct species, the Kona grosbeak Psittirostra – contains a single extinct species, the ou Dysmorodrepanis – contains a single extinct species, the Lanai hookbill Drepanis – contains two extinct species, the Hawaii mamo and the black mamo, the extant iiwi Ciridops – contains a single extinct species, the Ula-ai-hawane Palmeria – contains a single species, the akohekohe Himatione – contains two species, the apapane and the extinct Laysan honeycreeper Viridonia – contains a single extinct species, the greater amakihi Akialoa – contains six extinct species Hemignathus – contains five species, only one of, extant Pseudonestor – contains a single species, the Maui parrotbill Magumma – contains a single species, the anianiau Loxops – contains five species, of which one is extinct Chlorodrepanis – contains three species, the Hawaii and Kauai amakihi Haemorhous – contains the three North America rosefinches Chloris – contains the five greenfinches Rhodospiza – contains a single species, the desert finch Rhynchostruthus – contains the three golden-winged grosbeaks Linurgus – contains a single species, the oriole finch Crithagra – contains 37 species of canaries and siskins from Africa and the Arabian Peninsula Linaria – contains four species including the twite and three linnets Acanthis – contains two redpolls Loxia – contains six crossbills Chrysocorythus – contains a single species, the mountain serin Carduelis – contains three species including the European goldfinch Serinus – contains eight species including the European serin Spinus – contains 20 species including the North American goldfinches and the Eurasian siskin Groth, Jeffrey G..
"Finches and Allies". In Elphick, Chris; the Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Pp. 552–560. ISBN 978-1-4000-4386-6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Newton, Ian. Finches; the New Naturalist Library 55. New York: Taplinger. ISBN 0-8008-2720-1
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th