A chambered cairn is a burial monument constructed during the Neolithic, consisting of a sizeable chamber around and over which a cairn of stones was constructed. Some chambered cairns are passage-graves, they are found with the largest number in Scotland. The chamber is larger than a cist, will contain a larger number of interments, which are either excarnated bones or inhumations. Most were situated near a settlement, served as that community's "graveyard". During the early Neolithic architectural forms are regionalised with timber and earth monuments predominating in the east and stone-chambered cairns in the west. During the Neolithic massive circular enclosures and the use of grooved ware and Unstan ware pottery emerge. Scotland has a large number of chambered cairns. Along with the excavations of settlements such as Skara Brae, Links of Noltland, Barnhouse and Balfarg and the complex site at Ness of Brodgar these cairns provide important clues to the character of civilization in Scotland in the Neolithic.
However the increasing use of cropmarks to identify Neolithic sites in lowland areas has tended to diminish the relative prominence of these cairns. In the early phases bones of numerous bodies are found together and it has been argued that this suggests that in death at least, the status of individuals was played down. During the late Neolithic henge sites were constructed and single burials began to become more commonplace; the Clyde or Clyde-Carlingford type are principally found in northern and western Ireland and southwestern Scotland. They first were identified as a separate group in the Firth of Clyde region, hence the name. Over 100 have been identified in Scotland alone. Lacking a significant passage, they are a form of gallery grave; the burial chamber is located at one end of a rectangular or trapezoidal cairn, while a roofless, semi-circular forecourt at the entrance provided access from the outside, gives this type of chambered cairn its alternate name of court tomb or court cairn.
These forecourts are fronted by large stones and it is thought the area in front of the cairn was used for public rituals of some kind. The chambers were created from large stones set on end, roofed with large flat stones and sub-divided by slabs into small compartments, they are considered to be the earliest in Scotland. Examples include Cairn Holy I and Cairn Holy II near Newton Stewart, a cairn at Port Charlotte, which dates to 3900–4000 BC, Monamore, or Meallach's Grave, which may date from the early fifth millennium BC; the Orkney-Cromarty group is by far most diverse. It has been subdivided into Yarrows and Cromarty subtypes but the differences are subtle; the design is of dividing slabs at either side of a rectangular chamber, separating it into compartments or stalls. The number of these compartments ranges from 4 in the earliest examples to over 24 in an extreme example on Orkney; the actual shape of the cairn varies from simple circular designs to elaborate'forecourts' protruding from each end, creating what look like small amphitheatres.
It is that these are the result of cultural influences from mainland Europe, as they are similar to designs found in France and Spain. Examples include Midhowe on Rousay and Unstan Chambered Cairn from the Orkney Mainland, both of which date from the mid 4th millennium BC and were in use over long periods of time; when the latter was excavated in 1884, grave goods were found that gave their name to Unstan ware pottery. Blackhammer cairn on Rousay is another example dating from the 3rd millennium BC; the Grey Cairns of Camster in Caithness are examples of this type from mainland Scotland. The Tomb of the Eagles on South Ronaldsay is a stalled cairn that shows some similarities with the Maeshowe type, it was in use for 800 years or more and numerous bird bones were found here, predominantly white-tailed sea eagle. The Maeshowe group, named after the famous Orkney monument, is among the most elaborate, they appear late and only in Orkney and it is not clear why the use of cairns continued in the north when their construction had ceased elsewhere in Scotland.
They consist of a central chamber from which lead small compartments, into which burials would be placed. The central chambers are tall and steep-sided and have corbelled roofing faced with high quality stone. In addition to Maeshowe itself, constructed c. 2700 BC, there are various other examples from the Orkney Mainland. These include Quanterness chambered cairn in which the remains of 157 individuals were found when excavated in the 1970s, Cuween Hill near Finstown, found to contain the bones of men and oxen and Wideford Hill cairn, which dates from 2000 BC. Examples from elsewhere in Orkney are the Vinquoy cairn, found at an elevated location on the north end of the island of Eday and Quoyness on Sanday constructed about 2900 BC and, surrounded by an arc of Bronze Age mounds; the central chamber of Holm of Papa Westray South cairn is over 20 metres long. The Bookan type is named after a cairn found to the north-west of the Ring of Brodgar in Orkney, now a dilapidated oval mound, about 16 metres in diameter.
Excavations in 1861 indicated a rectangular central chamber surrounded by five smaller chambers. Because of the structure's unusual design, it was originall
Lybster is a village on the east coast of Caithness in northern Scotland. It was once a big herring fishing port, but has declined in recent years, due to problems in the industry, it hosts the "World Championships of Knotty". The film, The Silver Darlings, from Neil Gunn's book, was shot here; the Sinclairs of Lybster have long roots running back to the Sinclair earls who ruled Caithness, once a much larger area taking in much of Sutherland. Tracing further back the family has connections to the Norwegian earls who controlled the north of Scotland for centuries. Lybster railway station was part of the Lybster Railway, it opened on 1 July 1903 and closed on 3 April 1944. Lybster's sister city is Mackinac Island, U. S. A. One of the more famous of the clan was Patrick Sinclair, who joined the Imperial Army and headed to the New World, he served in North America from 1759-1784 with the Black Watch and the 15th Regiment of Foot against the French and Indians and with the Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment during the American Revolution when he had the honourable post of Lieutenant-Governor of the post of Michilimackinac.
However, during the American Revolution, following some victories in the Ohio and Illinois territories, Patrick Sinclair felt it was necessary to move Fort Michilimackinac from its exposed location on the northernmost point of the lower peninsula of Michigan to Mackinac Island. As to not confuse the shipping lines the new fort and town would be renamed Fort Mackinac; the construction began in 1779 and was completed in 1781. Patrick Sinclair ordered Michilimackinac razed to the ground to keep it out of the rebel American's hands and the move to Mackinac island was complete; the Officers Stone Quarters was not completed when Sinclair was called back to England to face a court martial for taking'too many extravagancies' while building Fort Mackinac. The disgrace was reversed and Sinclair was successively promoted in retirement from the rank of major to the rank of lieutenant-general. Sinclair was no longer on active duty and these promotions were bestowed for pension purposes. Sinclair was buried in Lybster.
His grave is still there today as well as a plaque commemorating his command of Michilimackinac and the founding of Fort Mackinac. Today there is a pub on Mackinac Island, it is an Irish pub. "Persistence Wears Down Resistance." "I can say in truth that I have not made a nickel here." "It is managed by two men, one a scoundrel, the other an avaricious trader." Media related to Lybster at Wikimedia Commons Armour, David A.. "Sinclair, Patrick". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. V. University of Toronto Press. Lybster
Caithness is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland. Caithness has a land boundary with the historic county of Sutherland and is otherwise bounded by sea; the land boundary follows a watershed and is crossed by two roads, the A9 and the A836, one railway, the Far North Line. Across the Pentland Firth ferries link Caithness with Orkney, Caithness has an airport at Wick; the Pentland Firth island of Stroma is within Caithness. The name was used for the earldom of Caithness and the Caithness constituency of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Boundaries are not identical in all contexts, but the Caithness area is now within the Highland council area. Caithness is one of the Watsonian vice-counties, subdivisions of Britain and Ireland which are used for the purposes of biological recording and other scientific data-gathering; the vice-counties were introduced by Hewett Cottrell Watson who first used them in the third volume of his Cybele Britannica published in 1852.
He refined the system somewhat in volumes, but the vice-counties remain unchanged by subsequent local government reorganisations, allowing historical and modern data to be more compared. They provide a stable basis for recording using similarly-sized units, although grid-based reporting has grown in popularity, they remain a standard in the vast majority of ecological surveys, allowing data collected over long periods of time to be compared easily; the Caith element of Caithness comes from the name of a Pictish tribe known as the Cat or Catt people, or Catti. The -ness element comes from Old Norse and means "headland"; the Norse called the area Katanes, over time this became Caithness. The Gaelic name for Caithness, means "among the strangers"; the Catti are represented in the Gaelic name for eastern Sutherland and the old Gaelic name for Shetland, Innse Chat. Caithness extends about 30 miles north-south and about 30 miles east-west, with an area of about 712 square miles; the topography is flat, in contrast to the majority of the remainder of the North of Scotland.
Until the latter part of the 20th century when large areas were planted in conifers, this level profile was rendered still more striking by the total absence of forest. The underlying geology of most of Caithness is old red sandstone to an estimated depth of over 4,000 metres; this consists of the cemented sediments of Lake Orcadie, believed to have stretched from Shetland to Grampian during the Devonian period, about 370 million years ago. Fossilised fish and plant remains are found between the layers of sediment. Older metamorphic rock is apparent in the Scaraben and Ord area, in the high southwest area of the county. Caithness' highest point is in this area; because of the ease with which the sandstone splits to form large flat slabs it is an useful building material, has been used as such since Neolithic times. Caithness is a land of open, rolling farmland and scattered settlements; the area is fringed to the north and east by dramatic coastal scenery and is home to large, internationally important colonies of seabirds.
The surrounding waters of the Pentland Firth and the North Sea hold a great diversity of marine life. Away from the coast, the landscape is dominated by open moorland and blanket bog known as the Flow Country, the largest expanse of blanket bog in Europe, extending into Sutherland; this is divided up along the straths by more fertile croft land. The Caithness landscape is rich with the remains of pre-historic occupation; these include the Grey Cairns of Camster, the Stone Lud, the Hill O Many Stanes, a complex of sites around Loch Yarrows and over 100 brochs. A prehistoric souterrain structure at Caithness has been likened to discoveries at Midgarth and on Shapinsay. Numerous coastal castles are Norwegian in their foundations; when the Norsemen arrived in the 10th century, the county was inhabited by the Picts, but with its culture subject to some Goidelic influence from the Celtic Church. The name Pentland Firth can be read as meaning Pictland Fjord. Numerous bands of Norse settlers landed in the county, established themselves around the coast.
On the Latheron side, they extended their settlements as far as Berriedale. Many of the names of places are Norse in origin. In addition, some Caithness surnames, such as Gunn, are Norse in origin. For a long time sovereignty over Caithness was disputed between Scotland and the Norwegian Earldom of Orkney. Circa 1196, Earl Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay a monetary tribute for Caithness to William I. Norway has recognised Caithness as Scottish since the Treaty of Perth in 1266; the understanding of Caithness prehistory is well represented in the county, by groups including Yarrows Heritage Trust, Caithness Horizons and Caithness Broch Project. Caithness formed part of the shire or sheriffdom of Inverness, but gained independence: in 1455 the Earl of Caithness gained a grant of the justiciary and sheriffdom of the area from the Sheriff of Inverness. In 1503 an act of the Parliament of Scotland confirmed the separate jurisdiction, with Dornoch and Wick named as burghs in which the sheriff of Caithness was to hold courts.
The area of the sheriffdom was declared to be identical to that of the Diocese of Caithness. The Sheriff of Inverness still retained power over important legal cases, until 1641. In that year, parliament declared Wick the head burgh of the shire of Caithness and the Earl of Caithne
Joseph Anderson (antiquarian)
Joseph Anderson LLD HRSA was a Scottish antiquarian who served as keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland from 1869 to 1913. Anderson was born in Angus, the son of an agricultural labourer, grew up in St Vigeans and attended Arbroath Education Institution, he taught at the English School in Constantinople from 1856-59. In 1860, after moving back to Scotland, he became editor of the John O'Groat journal. At this time he started to excavate in partnership with Robert Shearer. From 1869 to 1913, 44 years, he was the keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, he was editor of the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland from 1869 to his death in 1916. V. Gordon Childe wrote that by 1886 Anderson "had sketched the essential outlines of Scottish prehistory in a comprehensive and scientific survey such as existed in no other country"; as keeper of the National Museum, he oversaw an "enormous growth in the Museum’s collections", emphasised the importance of record-keeping.
DV Clarke states that: "Anderson’s scholarship was, at its best and provocative, rivalling that of the finest European scholars of his day", but that "for many years a vibrant and influential figure in Scottish archaeology, in the end he became a poor reflection of once-innovative attitudes". He retired from the Museum in 1913 following the death of his wife and was succeeded by Alexander Ormiston Curle. Anderson lived most of his life at 8 Great King Street in New Town, Edinburgh, he died in Gullane on 28 September 1916 and is buried beneath a large Celtic cross amongst the trees in the section north of the vaults in Warriston Cemetery in north Edinburgh. He was married to Jessie Dempster. One son, William Anderson, was a geologist who died in Sydney. Another was the advocate and judge David Anderson, Lord St Vigeans who served as Chairman of the Scottish Land Court from 1918 to 1934; the Anderson 150 project: About Joseph Anderson The Anderson 150 project: Resources Anderson's plan drawing of the Camster Round Portrait of Anderson by Henry Wright Kerr Antiquarian work and early syntheses, Scottish Archaeological Research Framework
Watten is a small village in Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland, on the main road between the burgh of Wick and the town of Thurso, about twelve kilometres west of Wick and close to Wick River and to Loch Watten. The village is on The Far North railway line but trains stopped calling at the village in 1960; the railway station is now a private house. The village is within the parish of Watten, which has the parish of Bower to the north, that of Wick to the east, that of Latheron to the south and that of Halkirk to the west. Loch Watten is the largest body of water in Caithness; the name of the village and loch appear to come from the Old Norse Vatn, meaning water or lake, the loch is famous for its brown trout fishing. The local public house is named "The Brown Trout" after the local produce. A military camp was built in Watten during World War II, in early 1943, at the end of the war this became POW Camp 165; this had been described as "Britain's most secretive prisoner of war camp" because many prominent Nazis were moved there from POW Camp 21 at Comrie in Perthshire.
These prisoners included Gunter d'Alquen, Himmler's chief propagandist, leading U-boat captain Otto Kretschmer, dubbed the "Wolf of the Atlantic", SS-Sturmbannführer Max Wünsche, one of Hitler's top aides. The camp closed in 1948. Watten was the birthplace of Alexander Bain, inventor of a type of pendulum-regulated electric clock and the fax machine. Bain is commemorated by a carved stone monument outside the village hall; the fax machine is referred to on this monument as "The Electric Printing Telegraph"
Historic Scotland was an executive agency of the Scottish Government from 1991 to 2015, responsible for safeguarding Scotland's built heritage, promoting its understanding and enjoyment. Under the terms of a Bill of the Scottish Parliament published on 3 March 2014, Historic Scotland was dissolved and its functions were transferred to Historic Environment Scotland on 1 October 2015. HES took over the functions of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Historic Scotland was a successor organisation to the Ancient Monuments Division of the Ministry of Works and the Scottish Development Department, it was created as an agency in 1991 and was attached to the Scottish Executive Education Department, which embraces all aspects of the cultural heritage, in May 1999. As part of the Scottish Government, Historic Scotland was directly accountable to the Scottish Ministers. In 2002, proposals to restore Castle Tioram in the West Highlands, by putting a roof back on, were blocked by Historic Scotland, which favoured stabilising it as a ruin.
This position was supported in an extensive local Public Inquiry at which the arguments for both sides were heard. It has been implied. After widespread consultation, Historic Scotland published a comprehensive series of Scottish Historic Environment Policy papers, consolidated into a single volume in October 2008; the agency's Framework Document set out the responsibilities of the Scottish Ministers and the agency's Chief Executive. Its Corporate Plan sets out its targets and performance against them. Historic Scotland and the Glasgow School of Art's Digital Design Studio formed the Centre for Digital Documentation and Visualization to promote the documentation and 3D representation of heritage objects and environments with laser scanning and 3D visualization software. Historic Scotland had direct responsibility for maintaining and running over 360 monuments in its care, about a quarter of which are manned and charge admission entry; these properties have additional features such as guidebooks and other resources.
Historic Scotland sought to increase the number of events run at its sites, most designed to engage young people with history. New museums and visitor centres were opened, notably at Arbroath Abbey and Urquhart Castle. There was a hospitality section, which makes some properties available for wedding receptions and other functions. Membership of Historic Scotland was promoted by the organisation, with benefits such as free entry to all their properties and over 400 events for the duration of the annual membership, as well as half price entry to properties in England and the Isle of Man, becoming free in subsequent years. Lifetime memberships were available, all members received a quarterly magazine'Historic Scotland'. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland Scottish Ten Official website
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce