Grid computing

Grid computing is the use of distributed computer resources to reach a common goal. A computing grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve many files. Grid computing is distinguished from conventional high-performance computing systems such as cluster computing in that grid computers have each node set to perform a different task/application. Grid computers tend to be more heterogeneous and geographically dispersed than cluster computers. Although a single grid can be dedicated to a particular application a grid is used for a variety of purposes. Grids are constructed with general-purpose grid middleware software libraries. Grid sizes can be quite large. Grids are a form of distributed computing whereby a "super virtual computer" is composed of many networked loosely coupled computers acting together to perform large tasks. For certain applications, distributed or grid computing can be seen as a special type of parallel computing that relies on complete computers connected to a computer network by a conventional network interface, such as Ethernet.

This is in contrast to the traditional notion of a supercomputer, which has many processors connected by a local high-speed computer bus. Grid computing combines computers from multiple administrative domains to reach a common goal, to solve a single task, may disappear just as quickly; the size of a grid may vary from small—confined to a network of computer workstations within a corporation, for example—to large, public collaborations across many companies and networks. "The notion of a confined grid may be known as an intra-nodes cooperation whereas the notion of a larger, wider grid may thus refer to an inter-nodes cooperation". Grids are a form of distributed computing whereby a “super virtual computer” is composed of many networked loosely coupled computers acting together to perform large tasks; this technology has been applied to computationally intensive scientific and academic problems through volunteer computing, it is used in commercial enterprises for such diverse applications as drug discovery, economic forecasting, seismic analysis, back office data processing in support for e-commerce and Web services.

Coordinating applications on Grids can be a complex task when coordinating the flow of information across distributed computing resources. Grid workflow systems have been developed as a specialized form of a workflow management system designed to compose and execute a series of computational or data manipulation steps, or a workflow, in the grid context. “Distributed” or “grid” computing in general is a special type of parallel computing that relies on complete computers connected to a network by a conventional network interface producing commodity hardware, compared to the lower efficiency of designing and constructing a small number of custom supercomputers. The primary performance disadvantage is that the various processors and local storage areas do not have high-speed connections; this arrangement is thus well-suited to applications in which multiple parallel computations can take place independently, without the need to communicate intermediate results between processors. The high-end scalability of geographically dispersed grids is favorable, due to the low need for connectivity between nodes relative to the capacity of the public Internet.

There are some differences in programming and MC. It can be costly and difficult to write programs that can run in the environment of a supercomputer, which may have a custom operating system, or require the program to address concurrency issues. If a problem can be adequately parallelized, a “thin” layer of “grid” infrastructure can allow conventional, standalone programs, given a different part of the same problem, to run on multiple machines; this makes it possible to write and debug on a single conventional machine and eliminates complications due to multiple instances of the same program running in the same shared memory and storage space at the same time. One feature of distributed grids is that they can be formed from computing resources belonging to one or more multiple individuals or organizations; this can facilitate commercial transactions, as in utility computing, or make it easier to assemble volunteer computing networks. One disadvantage of this feature is that the computers which are performing the calculations might not be trustworthy.

The designers of the system must thus introduce measures to prevent malfunctions or malicious participants from producing false, misleading, or erroneous results, from using the system as an attack vector. This involves assigning work randomly to different nodes and checking that at least two different nodes report the same answer for a given work unit. Discrepancies would identify malicious nodes. However, due to the lack of central control over the hardware, there is no way to guarantee that nodes will not drop out of the network at random times; some nodes may be available for computation but not network communications for unpredictable periods. These variations can be accommodated by assigning large work units and reassigning work units when a given node fails to report its results in expected time. Another set of what could be termed social compatibility issues in the early days of grid computing related to the goals of grid devel

Helen (given name)

Helen is a feminine given name derived from the Ancient Greek name Ἑλένη, Helenē whose etymology is unknown. Another possible derivation is from Greek Σελήνη Selene, meaning'moon'. Helen of Troy is a character in Greek mythology; the name was used by early Christians due to Saint Helena, the mother of the emperor Constantine I, who according to legend found a piece of the cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified when she traveled to Jerusalem. Helen was popular in the United States during the first half of the 20th century, when it was one of the top ten names for baby girls, but became less common following World War 2. Helen, Indian actress Saint Helen of Serbia, Serbian queen Helena Thopia was an Albanian princess of the Thopia family. Helen of Greece and Denmark, Queen Mother of Romania Helen Acquroff, Scottish pianist, singer and music teacher Helen Adams, British television personality Helen Atkinson-Wood, English actress Helen Vickroy Austin, American journalist, suffragette Helen Bar-Yaacov, Uzbekistani-born American rabbi Helen Baxendale, English actress Helen Purdy Beale, US virologist Helen Louisa Bostwick Bird, American author, poet Helen Bjørnøy, Norwegian politician Helen Marie Black, American cultural and civic leader and journalist Helen Blatch, British actress Helen Broderick, American actress Helen Brown, New Zealand painter Helen Stuart Campbell, American author, social reformer, home economist Helen Chadwick, English artist Helen Clark, New Zealand politician Helen Clark, British politician Helen Taggart Clark, American journalist, poet Helen Cross, English author Helen Cross, Australian politician Helen Joy Davidman, American poet and writer Helen Denerley, Scottish sculptor Helen DeWitt, American novelist Helen Don-Duncan, English swimmer Helen Flanagan, English actress Helen Frankenthaler, American painter Helen Gandy, American civil servant Helen Garner, Australian author Helen Golay, American woman who murdered two homeless men for life insurance money Helen Grant, British politician Helen Grant, English author Helen Grant, English field hockey player Helen Hakena and campaigner for peace and women's rights from Bougainville, Papua New Guinea Helen Hayes, American actress Helen Humes, American singer Helen Hunt, American actress Helen Marr Hurd, American educator, poet Helen Hunt Jackson, American poet, activist Helen Jacobs, American tennis player Helen G. James, American equality activist Helen Kane, American singer Helen Keller, American author, political activist and lecturer Helen Klaos, Estonian badminton player Helen Landgarten, American psychotherapist, art therapy pioneer Helen Dortch Longstreet, American newspaper editor, publisher Helen Marshall, American historian of nursing Helene Mayer, German fencer Helen Mayo, Australian medical doctor and medical educator Helen McCall, Canadian photographer Helen Maud Merrill, American litterateur, poet Helen Mirren, English actress Helen Moore, multiple people Helen Morgan, American singer Helen Morse, Australian actress Helen Nielsen, American writer Helen Pai, American television writer and producer Helén Pettersson, Swedish politician Helen Philemon and field athlete from Papua New Guinea Helen Plaschinski, Mexican swimmer Helen Beatrix Potter, English author and natural scientist Helen Reddy, Australian singer Helen Hinsdale Rich, American writer Helen Richardson-Walsh, an English field hockey player Helen Rockel, New Zealand painter Helen Roden, Former college basketballer and Australian rules footballer Helen Rollason, British sports journalist and television presenter Helen Shapiro, English singer Helen Sjöholm, Swedish singer Helen Slater, American actress Helen Slayton-Hughes, American actress Helen Southworth, British politician Helen Ekin Starrett, American educator, suffragette Helen Stephens, American athlete Helen Stewart, New Zealand painter Helen Svedin, Swedish model Helen Sworn, English Baptist missionary Helen Tamiris, American choreographer Helen Thomas, American reporter and author Helen Tobias-Duesberg, Estonian-American composer Helen Va'aga, New Zealand rugby player and coach Helen Volk, Zimbabwean field hockey player Helen M. Winslow, American author, journalist Helen Zenith, Canadian artist Helen Zille, South African politician Helen Ellen Eleanor Eilidh

List of State University of New York units

There are a large variety of campus types and programs in the SUNY system. SUNY divides its campuses into four categories: university centers / doctoral-granting institutions, comprehensive colleges, technology colleges, community colleges. SUNY has a unique relationship with its statutory colleges, which embed state-owned, state-funded colleges within other institutions such as Cornell University and Alfred University. Students at the statutory colleges pay tuition at a state-subsidized rate and are considered students of the private institutions in which the state-funded colleges are embedded. SUNY and the City University of New York are different university systems though both are public institutions that receive funding from New York State. SUNY should not be confused with the University of the State of New York, the governmental umbrella organization for most education-related institutions and many education-related personnel in New York State, which includes, as a component, the New York State Education Department.

The State University of New York at Potsdam, founded in 1816, is the oldest institution in the system. Empire State College, founded in 1971, is the most recent addition to the SUNY system; the largest institution is the University at Buffalo, with over 31,508 students and the smallest member is the College of Optometry, with 408 students. All of the SUNY schools are accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, in addition to other program-specific accreditations held by individual campuses such as the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business and the Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs; the system's central administration is in Albany, New York, in the Old Delaware and Hudson Railroad Company Building. A Each college's founding year is linked to the category of all schools founded in that year. Open SUNY State University of New York Press Official website Media related to State University of New York at Wikimedia Commons