The griffon vulture is a large Old World vulture in the bird of prey family Accipitridae. It is known as the Eurasian griffon, it is not to be confused with Rüppell's griffon vulture. It is related to the white-backed vulture; the griffon vulture is 93–122 cm long with a 2.3–2.8 m wingspan. In the nominate race the males weigh 6.2 to 10.5 kg and females weigh 6.5 to 10.5 kg, while in the Indian subspecies, the vultures average 7.1 kg. Extreme adult weights have been reported from 4.5 to 15 kg, the latter a weight attained in captivity. Hatched naked, it is a typical Old World vulture in appearance, with a white head broad wings and short tail feathers, it has yellow bill. The buff body and wing coverts contrast with the dark flight feathers. Like other vultures, it is a scavenger, feeding from carcasses of dead animals which it finds by soaring over open areas moving in flocks, it establishes nesting colonies in cliffs that are undisturbed by humans while coverage of open areas and availability of dead animals within dozens of kilometres of these cliffs is high.
It hisses at roosts or when feeding on carrion. The maximum recorded lifespan of the griffon vulture is 41.4 years for an individual in captivity. It breeds on crags in mountains in southern Europe, north Africa, Asia, laying one egg. Griffon vultures may form loose colonies; the population is resident. Juveniles and immature individuals may embark on long-distance movements. In Italy, the species managed to survive only in the island of Sardinia, but a few attempts at reintroducing the griffon in the peninsula have been made, too; as a result, several specimens have been spotted again in August 2006 on the Gran Sasso massif. Populations in Italy are thought to be undergoing a vigorous increase, thanks to reintroduction schemes in neighbouring countries taking effect, a ban on hunting the species. In Croatia, a colony of griffon vultures can be found near the town of Beli on the island of Cres. There they breed with some nests just 10 m above sea level. Therefore, contact with people is common; the population makes frequent incursions in the Slovenian territory in the mountain Stol above Kobarid.
The bird is protected in an area called Kuntrep on the Croatian island of Krk In the United Kingdom, griffon vultures were made extinct at some point before the 1600s. Occasional vagrants appear in the UK, in 2000 a vulture took up residence on the Channel Island of Guernsey. In Cyprus, there is an unsustainable colony of fewer than 30 birds at Episkopi, in the south of the island. In Israel colonies of griffon vultures can be found in northern Israel and in the Golan Heights, where a large colony breeds in the Carmel Mountains, the Negev desert and at Gamla, where reintroduction projects are being carried out at breeding centers in the Carmel and Negev. In Greece, there are nearly 1000 birds. On Crete they can be found in most mountainous areas, sometimes in groups of up to 20. Griffon vultures have been reintroduced into the Massif Central in France. Griffon vultures are spotted over the Millau bridge, since 2015 in the Cantal Mountains. In Belgium and the Netherlands, around 100 birds were present in the summer of 2007.
These were vagrants from the Pyrenees population. In Germany, the species died out in the mid-18th century; some 200 vagrant birds from the Pyrenees, were sighted in 2006, several dozen of the vagrants sighted in Belgium the following year crossed into Germany in search for food. There are plans to reintroduce the species in the Alps. In September 2008, pieces of a griffon vulture bone, about 35,000 years old, were excavated from Hohle Fels cave in southern Germany, which are believed to form a flute. In Serbia, there are around 60–65 pairs of griffon vultures in the western parts of the country, around Zlatar mountain and 35 birds in the canyon of the Trešnjica river, they are under legal protection from hunting. In Switzerland, there is a population of several dozen birds. In Austria, there is a remnant population around Salzburg Zoo, vagrants from the Balkans are seen. In Spain and France, in 2008, there were 25,000 birds, from a low of a few thousand around 1980. Spain has the biggest colony of Griffon vultures in all Europe.
It is located at Hoces del Río Duratón Natural Park. The Pyrenees population has been affected by an EC ruling that due to danger of BSE transmission, no carcasses must be left on the fields for the time being; this has critically lowered food availability, carrying capacity. Although the griffon vulture does not attack larger living prey, there are reports of Spanish griffon vultures killing weak, young or unhealthy living animals as they do not find enough carrion to eat. In May 2013, a 52-year-old woman, hiking in the Pyrenees and had fallen off a cliff to her death was eaten by griffon vultures before rescue workers were able to recover her body, leaving only her clothes and a few of her bones. Due to her being the first human to be documented being eaten by griffon vultures, the story brought worldwide attention to the griffon vulture problems in Southern Europe. In Armenia there are 46-54 pairs according to last estimation of population. In Russia, nests on the northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus.
The main cause of the rapid decline in the griffon vulture population is the consumption of poisoned baits set out
U. S. Route 19E is a divided highway of US 19 in the U. S. states of North Tennessee. The U. S. Highway, complemented by US 19W to the west, travels 75.9 miles from US 19 and US 19W at Cane River, North Carolina, north to US 11E, US 19, US 19W in Bluff City, Tennessee. US 19E connects Asheville, North Carolina, Bristol, with Burnsville, Spruce Pine, Elk Park in North Carolina and Roan Mountain and Elizabethton in Tennessee. US 19E has an unsigned concurrency with Tennessee State Route 37 for its entire course in Tennessee. US 19E begins at US 19W at Cane River. US 19 heads west and south toward Interstate 26 and Asheville; the transition from US 19 to US 19E is a seamless transition. US 19E heads east towards the towns of Spruce Pine; the highway is an easy drive, as it nears Spruce Pine, it expands to a four-lane that bypasses the mountain city. US 19E reverts to two-lane once out of city limits widening to four-lane again after entering Avery county. Once reaching the community of Ingalls, the highway becomes curvy as it follows along the banks of the North Toe River.
Most travelers will take turn onto NC 194 as an alternate route towards Elk Park. Passing through several small communities, it reaches the town of Elk Park, where it proceeds into Tennessee. US 19E travels a total of 45 miles from Cane River to the Tennessee state line. From the North Carolina state line, US 19E lazily curves down to Roan Mountain, from which SR 143 heads south toward Roan Mountain State Park and the actual Roan Mountain at the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Near Hampton, US 19E widens to an expressway and begins to run concurrently with US 321. At Elizabethton, US 321 splits west toward Johnson City. At Bluff City, US 19E and US 19W merge back into US 19. Established in 1927, US 19 traversed from the Georgia state line to the Tennessee state line similar to the route seen today. In 1930, US 19 was truncated at Cane River, where it was split into US 19E and US 19W. In 1984, US 19E was realigned in Yancey County to its current routing. On November 2, 2012, US 19 and US 19E were widened from I-26 to Jacks Creek Road, just west of Burnsville.
At a cost of $107.9 million, the 13.6 miles two-lane mountain road was upgraded to a four-lane highway, the first for Yancey County. Governor Bev Perdue was on hand at the ribbon cutting ceremony opening the highway. US 19 first appeared in Tennessee from the North Carolina state line to Bluff City. In the same year, it was extended through Bristol into Virginia. In 1930, US 19 was truncated at Bluff City, splitting into US 19E along the original route into North Carolina and US 19W going towards Johnson City and on into North Carolina. In 1994, a new four-lane expressway was completed between Elizabethton to Bluff City. US 19E from the east end of the four-lane divided highway west of Burnsville to Ingalls is to be widened into a multi-lane highway; the segment through Burnsville to Micaville is scheduled for a July 2015 completion. The two remaining sections west and east of Spruce Pine is subject to reprioritization. Doe Hill Mountain East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail Pisgah National Forest Unaka Range
Dylan Ryan is an American drummer and composer. He leads the progressive-jazz sextet and the Los Angeles-based guitar and drums trio, Dylan Ryan / Sand, he is a founding member, along with Dave McDonnell, of Chicago's experimental rock trio, Michael Columbia. He has performed with Icy Demons, Tim Kasher and Rainbow Arabia. Dylan Ryan's drumming style with Sand has been compared to Ginger Baker, John Bonham, Stewart Copeland. In January 2013, Dylan Ryan / Sand released Sky Bleached on Cuneiform Records; the second Dylan Ryan / Sand recording, was released on Cuneiform Records in September 2014. Dylan Ryan / SandCirca - Cuneiform Records, 2014 Sky Bleached - Cuneiform Records, 2013HerculaneumUCHŪ - 2012 Olives & Orchids - 2010 III - Clean Feed Records, 2009 Orange Blossom - 482 Music, 2006with Tim KasherAdult Film - Saddle Creek, 2013with Icy DemonsMiami Ice - 2008 Tears of a Clone - 2006Michael ColumbiaThese are Colored Bars Stay Hard with Rainbow ArabiaFM Sushi - Kompakt, 2013with The DiminisherImaginary Volcano - 2006 Official Site Herculaneum Official Site Dylan Ryan at AllMusic Dylan Ryan / Sand on Cuneiform Records Rainbow Arabia artist page on Time No Place 12 O'Clock Track: Sand, "White Nights" Washington Post Critics Notebook/Critics Pick of Dylan Ryan / Sand Dylan Ryan, Istanbul Cymbals artist Dylan Ryan, ProMark artist Jazz Times review of Herculaneum's UCHŪ Icy Demons Interview with Dylan Ryan