Dora d'Istria, pen-name of duchess Helena Koltsova-Massalskaya born Elena Ghica was a Wallachian-born Romantic writer and feminist of Albanian-Romanian descent. She was born in Bucharest in 1828 as a member of the Ghica family and was the daughter of Mihai Ghica and the niece of the reigning Prince of Wallachia Grigore IV Ghica, she received a thorough education, continued abroad - first in Dresden in Vienna in Venice, in Berlin where she gave a sample of her mastery of Ancient Greek to Alexander Von Humboldt. D'Istria returned to her home country in 1849 and married the Russian duke Alexander Koltsov-Massalski making her the duchess Helena Koltsova-Massalskaya, they lived for several years in Russia in Saint Petersburg, but Dora never cherished the Russian nationalist views of her husband or the Eastern Orthodox bigotry of the Court of the Despotic Emperor Nicholas I. As her health decayed in the Russian climate, she took her husband's advice and travelled to Central Europe, she first went to Switzerland for several years and journeyed through Greece and Anatolia.
She returned to Italy and lived in a villa in Florence, while traveling to France and the United States. As a writer she was first noticed in 1855 while she was writing in French under the name d'Istria, she published a number of works that not only showed her proficiency in Romanian, German, Latin and Modern Greek, Russian, but her knowledge of scientific topics, her liberal views on religious and political topics, as well as a talent for presenting her points. Her general world view was cosmopolitan, but she worked hard to bring the resources and technologies available in Western Europe to Eastern Europe, worked towards the emancipation of her gender, she died in Florence on November 17, 1888. Her first work was La vie monastique dans l'Église orientale, in which she called for the abolishment of monastic orders, it was followed by La Suisse allemande, a description of Switzerland and its people with a passage describing a climb up the Mönch. In the tract Les femmes en Orient she spoke out for the emancipation of women in the Levant.
Before this volume, Excursions en Roumélie et en Morée was published, in which she tried to show that 19th-century Germany had the same civilizing task as Ancient Greece. She published the narrative Au bord des lacs helvétiques, the novels Fylétia e Arbenoré prèj Kanekate laoshima and Gli Albanesi in Rumenia, a history of her own family the dukes of Ghica from the 17th to the 19th century, La poésie des Ottomans, as well as numerous writings on literary history, political social and religious questions, history and more in renowned journals including the French Revue des Deux Mondes, the Belgian Libre Recherche, the Italian Diritto, Antologia nuova, Rivista europea and more, as well as various Swiss, Greek and American journals. D'Istria was a painter, she was a member such as the Italian academy. She was a mountaineer, making an early female ascent of Mont Blanc on June 1, 1860; as noted, she wrote a description of her climb of Mönch in La Suisse allemande. Her family's history and fame, as well as its putative Albanian origins, are known to the Western readers from Princess Elena Ghica's memoirs Gli Albanesi in Rumenia.
Storia dei principi Ghika. For Dora d'Istria, the crumbly theory of the Albanian origin of the family's founder, resurrected after several centuries of latent existence, proved to be lucrative, she started learning Albanian history and in 1866 she became the main advocate in Western Europe for the Albanian cause, despite the fact that she never learned the Albanian language. Her book "Gli Albanesi in Rumenia" was preceded by a series of articles on the nationalities from South-Eastern Europe and their struggle for independence. After articles on the Romanian and Serbian ethnic identities came out, Dora d'Istria published in 1866 an article entitled The Albanian nationality according to folksongs; the study was translated into Albanian in 1867 by the Italo-Albanian patriot Dhimitër Kamarda, was prefaced by a revolutionary poem written by an Albanian author and addressed to his countrymen urging Albanians to rise up against the Ottomans. Henceforth Dora d'Istria became known in Albanians nationalist circles that used her name to gain support for their cause.
This situation was mutual and nurtured her writings (most notably her correspon
The Ghica family was a noble family active in Wallachia, Moldavia and in the Kingdom of Romania, between the 17th and 19th centuries. The Ghicas held the rank of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, a title first bestowed upon Grigore II Ghica in 1673 by Leopold I; the family's origins is established to be Albanian by the Sturdza family of Moldavia whose patriarch Demetrios Sturdza is the authority on the Medieval Family Genealogies in Europe. He writes that "His father was a certain Georgje Ghica, Albanian by birth, who lived in Moldavia in the time of his companion, Basile the Wolf". At the end of the page he gives full account of this "Albanian' family and its contribute to Moldavia. Wiet, the French Counsel in Shkodra cites the'Albanese Gjica, the compatriot of the Grand Vesir" per Adrianopoli letters 3 April 1658, the Austrian Chancellery; the writer Dora d'Istria, a descendant, claimed that the family hailed from southern Albania, more from Labovë e Madhe, where they had an estate. Albanologist Robert Elsie views the family as being of Albanian origin.
It has been suggested that the family was of Aromanian origin. A legend — full of Oriental charm, historical inaccuracies and anachronisms — transmitted by the Moldavian chronicler Ion Neculce speaks about two poor boys destined to greatness, meeting on the road to Constantinople, who promise mutual support in the future to come: one is an "Arbëreshë" standing in for Gheorghe Ghica, the founder of the Ghica family, while on the other is a "Turk from Cyprus" — the founder of the Köprülü family. On the other hand members of the Ghica family displayed an Aromanian national consciousness or promoted Aromanian culture — e.g. Grigore III Ghica's plans for an Aromanian school network in the Ottoman ruled areas of the Balkans; each of the two theories influenced the Albanian and the Aromanian communities in Romania and elsewhere, with each claiming the Ghica's as their own. In any case, until 1777 — the year Grigore III Ghica was assassinated for opposing the annexation of Bukovina by the Habsburgs, the Ghicas' identity oscillated only between a Romanian and a Hellenic one.
The family's history and fame, as well as its putative Albanian origins, are known to the Western readers from Princess Elena Ghica's memories, Gli Albanesi in Rumenia. Storia dei principi Ghika. For Dora d'Istria, the crumbly theory of an Albanian origin of the family's founder, resurrected after several centuries of latent existence, proved to be lucrative: it gave a new sense for her Romantic involvement in the Balkan people's emancipation struggle, as well as in her anti-establishment attitude generated by the entrenching of the Hohenzollern in the Romanian Principality to the detriment of her family who had high hopes for a return on the throne, she started learning Albanian history, became — since 1866 — the main advocate in Western Europe of the Albanian cause, despite the fact that she never knew or learned the Albanian language. Her book, Gli Albanesi in Rumenia. Storia dei principi Ghika, which upon its publication in 1873 in Florence caused the wrath of her family, repudiating her, managed to forever shift the public perception towards the Albanian theory for the origin the family, at the expense of the Aromanian one.
The book was preceded by a series of articles on the nationalities from South-Eastern Europe and their struggle for independence. After articles on the Romanian and Serbian ethnic identity, Dora d'Istria published in 1866 the article entitled The Albanian nationality according to folksongs; the study was translated into Albanian in 1867 by the Italo-Albanian patriot Dhimitër Kamarda, was prefaced by a poem with a revolutionary content, written by an Albanian author and addressed to his countrymen, urging them to rise up against the Ottomans. Henceforth, Dora d'Istria became popular in Albanian nationalists circles, whose members did not hesitate to use her name for gaining support for their cause; this development was accepted and nurtured by the Romanian author, she cultivated correspondences with several notable Albanian patriots, including Kamarda and Jeronim de Rada. After the publication of Gli Albanesi in Romania... the Albanian nationalists in Italy proceeded to declare Elena Ghica as the uncrowned queen of Albania.
These speculations were tacitly entertained by Elena Ghica. Modern Romanian historiography has expressed vexation at the appropriation, undertaken by Albanian historiography, of not only the Romanian writer Elena Ghica, but of the whole Ghica family, at the proliferation of dubious spellings of the family names, false information concerning the birthplaces and other historical facts, at the family's a posteriori labeling as the "Albanians of Romania". Gheorghe Ghica, the first notable member of the Ghica family, seems to
Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An independent and autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; the region of Pokuttya was part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine; the original and short-lived reference to the region was Bogdania, after Bogdan I, the founding figure of the principality. The names Moldova are derived from the name of the Moldova River. Dragoș was accompanied by his female hound called Molda; the dog's name would have been extended to the country. The old German Molde, meaning "open-pit mine" the Gothic Mulda meaning "dust", "dirt", referring to the river. A Slavic etymology, marking the end of one Slavic genitive form, denoting ownership, chiefly of feminine nouns.
A landowner named Alexa Moldaowicz is mentioned in a 1334 document as a local boyar in service to Yuriy II of Halych. In several early references, "Moldavia" is rendered under the composite form Moldo-Wallachia. Ottoman Turkish references to Moldavia included Boğdan Boğdan. See names in other languages; the name of the region in other languages include French: Moldavie, German: Moldau, Hungarian: Moldva, Russian: Молдавия, Turkish: Boğdan Prensliği, Greek: Μολδαβία. The inhabitants of Moldova were Christians. Archaeological works revealed the remains of a Christian necropolis at Mihălășeni, Botoșani county, from the 5th century; the place of worship, the tombs had Christian characteristics. The place of worship had a rectangular form with sides of seven meters. Similar necropolises and places of worship were found at Nicolina, in IașiThe Bolohoveni, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century; the chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev.
Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. Their ethnic identity is uncertain. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. Somewhere in the 11th century, a Viking named Rodfos was killed by Vlachs in the area of what will become Moldavia. In 1164, the future Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, was taken prisoner by Vlach shepherds around the same region. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain.
Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire. In the 14th century, King Charles I of Hungary attempted to expand his realm and the influence of the Catholic Church eastwards after the fall of Cuman rule, ordered a campaign under the command of Phynta de Mende. In 1342 and 1345, the Hungarians were victorious in a battle against Tatar-Mongols; the Polish chronicler Jan Długosz mentioned Moldavians as having joined a military expedition in 1342, under King Władysław I, against the Margraviate of Brandenburg. In 1353, Dragoș, mentioned as a Vlach Knyaz in Maramureș, was sent by Louis I to establish a line of defense against the Golden Horde forces of Mongols on the Siret River; this expedition resulted in a polity vassal to Hungary, centered around Baia. Bogdan of Cuhea, another Vlach voivode from Maramureș who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathians in 1359, took control of Moldavia, succeeded in removing Moldavia from Hungarian control.
His realm extended north to the Cheremosh River, while the southern part of Moldavia was still occupied by t
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Alexandru II Ghica
Alexandru II or Alexandru D. Ghica, a member of the Ghica family, was Prince of Wallachia from April 1834 to 7 October 1842 and caimacam from July 1856 to October 1858, he was son of Eufrosine Karatza. His father was son of Grigore III Ghica, his brothers was Grigore IV Ghica and Michai Ghica, father of Elena Ghica
Constantine Demetrius Mourouzis was a Phanariote Prince of Moldavia, member of the Mourousis family. A remarkable polyglot, he spoke five languages: Greek, French and Turkish. In 1761, he became Grand Postelnic in Moldavia, soon after Dragoman of the Fleet of the Ottoman Admiralty, Grand Dragoman. There are indications that he was politically involved in the dismissal and assassination of his predecessor, Grigore III Ghica, by the Porte. Trusted by the Porte, he obtained the throne of Moldavia on October 12, 1770. Mourouzis spent much of his time in Iaşi, supervising the gathering of agricultural resources demanded by the Porte, but fought extravagant luxury and surrounded himself with scholars, paying particular attention to schools and founding scholarships, he was exiled to the island of Tenedos. He returned in 1783, but died soon after
Ioan Teodor Callimachi
Ioan Teodor Callimachi was Prince of Moldavia from 1758 to 1761. Ioan was the second son of Teodor Calmăşul. Teodor, born Calmăşul, changed the family name to the Greek form Callimachi. Ioan's older brother, Gavriil Callimachi was a monk at Putna Monastery. Ioan pursued his studies at Lvov, he knew Latin, Italian and French. Callimachi served of Grigore II Ghica, he was Grand Dragoman at the Ottoman Porte in Istanbul where, over the course of his sixteen years of service, he was recognized for his diplomatic ability. In 1758, he was rewarded with the position of Prince of Moldavia which he held until 1761. Callimachi retired to Constantinople. Callimachi married Raliţa Chrisoscoleo and they had four children, their son, Grigore Callimachi, succeeded Callimachi as Prince of Moldavia. Their elder daughter, Sevastiţa, married Mihai Suţu. Nita Dan Danielescu. "Gavriil Callimachi, ctitorul Catedralei mitropolitane Sf. Gheorghe din Iasi" Ziarul Lumina, 2006-02-20