Stepan Timofeyevich Razin, known as Stenka Razin, was a Cossack leader who led a major uprising against the nobility and tsarist bureaucracy in southern Russia in 1670-1671. Razin's parents were from the village of Usman Sobakina, 8 kilometres outside of Voronezh, he was first noted by history in 1661, as part of a diplomatic mission from the Don Cossacks to the Kalmyks. That same year Razin went on a long-distance pilgrimage to the great Solovetsky Monastery on the White Sea for the benefit of his soul. After that, all trace of him was lost for six years, when he reappeared as the leader of a robber community established at Panshinskoye, among the marshes between the rivers Tishina and Ilovlya, from whence he levied tribute from all vessels passing up and down the Volga. A long war with Poland in 1654-1667 and Sweden in 1656-1658 put heavy demands upon the people of Russia. Taxes increased. Many peasants, hoping to escape these burdens, fled south and joined bands of Razin's marauding Cossacks.
They were joined by many others who were disaffected with the Russian government, including people of the lower classes, as well as representatives of non-Russian ethnic groups such as Kalmyks, that were being oppressed at the time. Razin's first considerable exploit was to destroy the great naval convoy consisting of the treasury barges and the barges of the Patriarch and the wealthy merchants of Moscow. Razin sailed down the Volga with a fleet of 35 vessels, capturing the more important forts on his way and devastating the country. At the beginning of 1668, he defeated the voivode Yakov Bezobrazov, sent against him from Astrakhan, in the spring embarked on a predatory expedition into Daghestan and Persia, which lasted for eighteen months. Russia began the 17th century with the Time of Troubles, which lasted from 1598 to 1613; this time marked the beginning of the Romanov dynasty. Michael Romanov and his son Alexis both strove to strengthen the power of the tsar in order to stabilize the country after the turmoil of the Time of Troubles.
As a result, the Zemsky Sobor and the boyar council, two other bodies of government in Russia lost influence. The Russian population went from fifteen years of "near anarchy" to the reigns of two strong, centralizing autocrats. In addition, a deep divide existed between the nobility in Russia. Recent changes in the treatment and legal standing of peasants, including the institutionalization of serfdom in the Law Code of 1649, contributed to the unrest among the peasantry; the Don Cossacks, a lower-class group that lived independently near the Don River and whom the tsar's government supplied in exchange for defending Russia, led Razin's rebellion. Historian Paul Avrich characterizes Razin's revolt as a "curious mixture of brigandage and revolt," similar to other popular uprisings of the period. Razin revolted against the "traitor-boyars" rather than the tsar; the Cossacks supported the tsar. In 1667, Razin gathered a small group of Cossacks and left the Don for an expedition in the Caspian Sea.
He aimed to set up a base in plunder villages from there. However, Moscow attempted to stop him; as Razin traveled down the Volga River to Tsaritsyn, the voivodes of Astrakhan warned Andrei Unkovsky of Razin's arrival and recommended that he not allow the Cossacks to enter the town. Unkovsky attempted to negotiate with Razin, but Razin threatened to set fire to Tsaritsyn if Unkovsky interfered; when he encountered a group of political prisoners being transported by the tsar's representatives on his way from the Don to the Volga, Razin said, "I shall not force you to join me, but whoever chooses to come with me will be a free Cossack. I have come to fight the wealthy lords; as for the poor and plain folk, I shall treat them as brothers."When Razin sailed by Tsartisyn, Unkovsky did not attack. This incident gave Razin the reputation of an "invincible warrior endowed with supernatural powers." He continued his travels down the Volga and into the Caspian Sea, defeating several detachments of streltsy, or armed guardsmen.
In July 1667, Razin captured Yaitsk by disguising himself and some of his companions as pilgrims to pray at the cathedral. Once inside Yaitsk, they opened the gates for the rest of the troops to occupy the city; the opposition sent to fight Razin felt reluctant to do so because they sympathized with the Cossacks. In the spring of 1668, Razin led the majority of his men down the Yaik River while a small portion stayed behind to guard Yaitsk. However, the government defeated Razin's men in Razin lost his base there. After losing Yaitsk, Razin sailed south down the coast of the Caspian Sea to continue his pillaging, he and his men attacked Persia. Failing to capture the well-defended fortress port of Darband/Derbent in present-day Dagestan, his forces moved south to attack the small port of Badkuba located on the Absheron Peninsula in present-day Republic of Azerbaijan, but at Rasht the Persians killed 400 Cossacks in a surprise attack. Razin we
Alexis of Russia
Aleksey Mikhailovich was the tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, the major Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. At the time of his death Russia spanned 2,000,000,000 acres. Born in Moscow on 19 March 1629, the son of Tsar Michael and Eudoxia Streshneva, the sixteen year old Alexei acceded to the throne after his father's death on 12 July 1645. In August, the Tsar's mother died, following a pilgrimage to Sergiyev Posad he was crowned on 28 September in the Dormition Cathedral, he was committed to the care of his tutor Boris Morozov, a shrewd boyar open to Western ideas. Morozov's pursued a peaceful foreign policy, securing a truce with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and avoiding complications with the Ottoman Empire, his domestic policy aimed at limiting the privileges of foreign traders and abolishing a useless and expensive court offices. On 17 January 1648 Morozov procured the marriage of the tsar with Maria Miloslavskaya, himself marrying her sister, ten days both daughters of Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky.
Morozov was accused of sorcery and witchcraft. In May 1648 Muscovites rose against his faction in the Salt Riot, the young Tsar was compelled to dismiss them and exile Boris to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Four months Boris secretly returned to Moscow to regain some of his power; the popular discontent demonstrated by the riot was responsible for Alexis' 1649 issuance of a new legal code, the Sobornoye Ulozhenie. In 1648, using the experience of creating regiments of the foreign system during the reign of his father, Alexis began reforming the army; the main direction of the reform was the mass creation of New Order Regiments: Reiters, Soldiers and Hussars. These regiments formed the backbone of the new army of Tsar Alexis. To fulfill the reform goals, a large number of European military specialists were hired for service; this became possible because of the end of the Thirty Years' War, which created a colossal market for military professionals in Europe. Throughout his reign, Alexei faced rebellions across Russia.
After resolving the 1648 Salt Riot Alexei faced rebellions in 1650 in the cities of Pskov and Great Novgorod. Alexei put down the Novgorod rebellion but was unable to subdue Pskov, was forced to promise the city amnesty in return for surrender; the Metropolitan Nikon distinguished himself at Great Novgorod and in 1651 became the Tsar's chief minister. By the 1660s, Alexei's wars with Poland and Sweden had put an increasing strain on the Russian economy and public finances. In response, Alexei's government had begun minting large numbers of copper coins in 1654 to increase government revenue but this led to a devaluation of the ruble and a severe financial crisis; as a result, angry Moscow residents revolted in the 1662 Copper Riot, put down violently. In 1669, the Cossacks along the Don in southern Russia erupted in rebellion; the rebellion was led by Stenka Razin, a disaffected Don Cossack who had captured the Russian terminus of Astrakhan. From 1670 to 1671, Razin seized multiple towns along the Volga River.
The turning point in his campaign was his failed siege of Simbirsk in October 1670. Razin was captured on the Don in April 1671, was drawn and quartered in Moscow. In 1651 Safavid troops attacked Russian fortifications in the North Caucasus; the main issue involved the expansion of a Russian garrison on the Koy Su River, as well as the construction of several new fortresses, in particular the one built on the Iranian side of the Terek River. The successful Safavid offensive resulted in the destruction of the Russian fortress and its garrison being expelled. In 1653 Alexis thinking about sending the Zaporozhian Cossacks decided to send an embassy to Persia for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. In August 1653 courtier Prince Ivan Lobanov-Rostov and steward Ivan Komynin traveled from Astrakhan to Isfahan. Shah Abbas II agreed to settle the conflict, stating that the conflict was initiated without his consent. In 1653 the weakness and disorder of Poland, which had just emerged from the Khmelnytsky Uprising, encouraged Alexei to attempt to annex the old Rus’ lands.
On 1 October 1653 a national assembly met at Moscow to sanction the war and find the means of carrying it out, in April 1654 the army was blessed by Nikon, elected patriarch in 1652. The campaign of 1654 was an uninterrupted triumph, scores of towns, including the important fortress of Smolensk, fell into the hands of the Russians. Ukrainian Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky appealed to Tsar Alexei for protection from the Poles, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought about Russian dominance of the Cossack Hetmanate in Left-Bank Ukraine. In the summer of 1655, a sudden invasion by Charles X of Sweden swept the Polish state out of existence, in what became known as the Deluge; the Russians, unopposed appropriated nearly everything, not occupied by the Swedes. When the Poles offered to negotiate, the whole grand-duchy of Lithuania was the least of the demands made by Alexei; however Alexei and the king of Sweden quarrelled over the apportionment of the spoils, at the end of May 1656, with encouragement by the Habsburg emperor and the other enemies of Sweden, Alexei declared war on Sweden.
Great things were expected by Russia of the Swedish war. Dorpat was taken. In the meantime Poland had so far recovered herself as to become a much mo
Battle of Konotop
The Battle of Konotop or Battle of Sosnivka was fought between a coalition led by the Hetman of Ukrainian Cossacks Ivan Vyhovsky and cavalry units of the Russian Tsardom under the command of Semyon Pozharsky and Semyon Lvov, supported by Cossacks of Ivan Bezpaly, on 29 June 1659, near the town of Konotop, during the Russo-Polish War. Vyhovsky's coalition, in which the Crimean Tatars of Mehmed IV Giray played a major role, defeated the Russians and their allies and forced the main Russian army to interrupt the siege of Konotop. However, the result of the battle only intensified political tensions in Ukraine and led to Vyhovsky's removal from power several months later; the Battle of Konotop took place during the period of Ukrainian history, referred to as the Ruin. This was the time after the death of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, during which many power struggles within the Cossack elite took place. Arguably, these power struggles were instigated by the Russian tsar, in an effort to undermine the authority of the Cossacks.
During his reign, Bohdan Khmelnytsky managed to wrestle Ukraine out of Polish domination, but was forced to enter into a new and uneasy relation with Russia in 1654. His successor, general chancellor and close adviser Ivan Vyhovsky, was left to deal with Moscow's growing interference in Ukraine's internal affairs and overt instigation of a civil war by way of supporting Cossack factions opposing Vyhovsky. In 1656, Russia signed a peace accord in Vilno with Poland in violation of the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1654, increased pressure on the Cossack Hetmanate; as a result, Vyhovsky entered into negotiations with the Poles, concluded the Treaty of Hadiach on 16 September 1658. Under the planned new treaty three voyevodships of central Ukraine were to become an equal constituent nation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth along with Poland and Lithuania under the name of Grand Principality of Rus', forming the Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth. However, the Sejm ratified the treaty in a limited version, where the idea of an independent Ruthenian Principality was abandoned.
The news of a Cossack-Polish alliance alarmed Moscow and the Ukrainian cossacks opposing Vyhovsky to the extent that an expeditionary force was dispatched to Ukraine in the autumn of 1658 headed by Prince Grigory Romodanovsky. Moscow's military commander not only supported the election by Vyhovsky's opponents of a new rival hetman, but started to occupy towns held by Vyhovsky's supporters; the latter were mercilessly exterminated along with widespread abuse and robbery of the civilian population. The situation having escalated that far, open hostilities followed. Skirmishes and attacks occurred in different towns and regions throughout the country, the most prominent of, the capture of Konotop by Cossacks of the Nizhyn and Chernihiv Regiments headed by Hryhoriy Hulyanytsky, a colonel of Nizhyn. In the spring of 1659 a Russian army of 28,600 men according to documents of Razryadny prikaz or 100,000–150,000 according to "The Сhronicle of the Witness" and Sergey Solovyov was dispatched to Ukraine to assist Romodanovsky.
The latter numbers are being criticized by modern historians as exaggerated. The army came to the Ukrainian border on 30 January 1659 and stood 40 days till Trubetskoy negotiated with Vyhovsky since the Russian commander had instructions to persuade the Cossacks. Vyhovsky's rivals, the Cossack forces of commanders Bezpalyi and the Zaporizhian Cossacks of Barabash joined the Russian troops. After the negotiations failed, hostilities began; the Russian army together with anti-Vyhovsky insurgents defeated Vyhovsky's troops in the battle of Romny and the battle of Lokhvytsya. After that, the supreme military commander Prince Aleksey Trubetskoy decided to finish off the small 4,000 garrison of Konotop Castle held by Cossacks of Hulyanytsky before proceeding in his pursuit of Vyhovsky. Prince Trubetskoy's hopes for a quick resolution of the Konotop stand-off were dimmed when Hulyanytsky and his Cossacks refused to betray hetman Vyhovsky and mounted a fierce and protracted defence of Konotop with only 4,000 Cossacks.
According to a historian Markevych, on 21 April 1659, after a morning prayer, Trubetskoy ordered an all-out assault on the fortress's fortifications. The city was shelled, a few incendiary bombs were dropped inside, the army moved on to capture the city. At one point Trubetskoy's troops broke inside the city walls, but were repelled by the fierce resistance of the Cossacks inside. After the fiasco of the initial assault, Trubetskoy abandoned his plans of a quick assault and proceeded to shell the city and to fill the moat with earth; the Cossacks stubbornly held on in spite of all the fire unleashed on the city: during the night, the earth filled into the moat was used to strengthen the city walls, the besieged undertook several counterattacks on Trubetskoy's besieging army. These attacks forced Prince Trubetskoy to move his military camp 10 km away from the city and thereby split his forces between the main army at his headquarters and the army besieging Konotop. Another attack on 29 April was repelled and the Russians lost close to 400 men and suffered around 3000 wounded.
Instead of a quick campaign the siege dragged on for 70 days and gave Vyhovsky the much-needed time to prepare for the battle with the Russian army. The hetman not only managed to organize his own troops, but secured support of his allies — the Crimean Tatars and the Poles. By agreement with the Tatars, the Khan Mehmed IV Giray, at the head of his 30,000-strong army, made his way towards Konotop in early summer of 1659, as did the 4000-man Polish detachment with the support of Serbian and German mercenaries. By 24 June 1659 Vyhovsky and hi
Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681)
The Russo–Turkish War of 1676–1681, a war between the Tsardom of Russia and Ottoman Empire, caused by Turkish expansionism in the second half of the 17th century. After having captured and devastated the region of Podolia in the course of the Polish–Turkish War of 1672–1676, the Ottoman government strove to spread its rule over all of the Right-bank Ukraine with the support of its vassal, Hetman Petro Doroshenko; the latter’s pro-Turkish policy caused discontent among many Ukrainian Cossacks, which would elect Ivan Samoilovich as a sole Hetman of all Ukraine in 1674. Despite this, Doroshenko continued to keep Chyhyryn, he cleverly used the support of the Turkish-Tatar army. The Russian and Ukrainian forces under the command of Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky besieged Chyhyryn and forced Doroshenko to surrender in 1676. Leaving a garrison in Chyhyryn, the Russian and Ukrainian armies retreated to the left bank of the Dnieper; the Turkish Sultan appointed Yuri Khmelnitsky Hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine, the Sultan’s prisoner at that time.
In July 1677, the Sultan ordered his army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha to advance towards Chyhyryn. July 30, 1677 at the fortress appeared advanced detachments, on August 3 - the main forces of the Turks. Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky's forces joined on August 10, only on August 24 they crossed the Sula River on the way to Chyhyryn. On August 26–27, a skirmish between their and Ottoman troops removed Ottoman observation posts and allowed the rest of the Muscovite and Ukrainian forces to cross the river under the cover of artillery fire. Turkish attempts to drop back into the river the first crossing detachment under the command of Major-General Shepelev were repulsed. Muscovite and Ukrainian cavalry attacked and overwhelmed Turkish-Tatar army camp, on the August 28, inflicting heavy casualties; the following day, Ibrahim Pasha lifted the siege of Chyhyryn and hastily retreated to the Inhul River and beyond. Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky relieved Chyhyryn on September 5; the Ottoman Army had lost 20,000 men and Ibrahim was imprisoned upon his return to Constantinople and Crimean Khan Selim I Giray lost his throne.
In July 1678, the Turkish army of the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa with Crimean Tatar army besieged Chyhyryn once again. The Russian and Ukrainian armies broke through the fortified position of the Turkish covering force and turned them into the flight, they entrenched on the left bank of the Tiasmyn River opposite the fortress with the siege Turkish-Crimean army on the other bank. The crossings were destroyed and it was difficult to attack the Turks; the troops could enter the Chyhyryn, but it was surrounded by well-equipped siege positions and was bombarded. When the Turks broke into the Lower Town of Chyhyryn on August 11, Romodanovsky ordered to leave the citadel and withdraw troops to the left bank; the Russian army retreated beyond the Dnieper, beating off the pursuing Turkish army, which would leave them in peace. The Turks seized Kanev and established the power of Yuri Khmelnitsky on the Right-bank Ukraine, but did not dare to go to Kiev, where the Russian troops were stationed. In 1679–1680, the Russians repelled the attacks of the Crimean Tatars and signed the Bakhchisaray Peace Treaty on January 3, 1681, which would establish the Russo-Turkish border by the Dnieper.
Brian Davies and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia's Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century, Bloomsbury Academic, 2013. Brian L. Davies, Warfare and Society on the Black Sea steppe, 1500-1700, Routledge, 2007. John Paxton and John Traynor, Leaders of Russia and the Soviet Union, Taylor & Francis Books Inc. 2004. Яфарова, Мадина. Русско-Османское противостояние в 1677-1681 гг. // Диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата исторических наук. Moscow: Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова»
Romodanovsky was a Rurikid princely family descending from sovereign rulers of Starodub-on-the-Klyazma. Their progenitor was Prince Vasily Fyodorovich Starodubsky who changed his name to Romodanovsky after the village of Romodanovo where he lived in. Although the family was one of the first Rurikids to enter the service of the Grand Duke of Muscovy, it was in the 17th century that they rose to the highest offices of Muscovite Russia. Among Vasily's sons, one was Ivan III's okolnichi, another sat in the Boyar Duma during Vasily III's reign, their nephew was sent by Ivan the Terrible as a Russian ambassador to Copenhagen. The latter's nephew, Prince Ivan Petrovich Romodanovsky, was killed by the Kalmucks on his way from Persia in 1607. Since the 17th century, the family was divided into senior and cadet lines, both of which benefited from extinction of the higher-placed families of Muscovy after the Oprichnina purges and the Time of Troubles. During the reign of the first Romanovs, the Romodanovsky came to be regarded among the noblest families of Muscovy.
It was one of a few clans whose adult males were promoted boyars skipping the lower ranks like stolnik. The most important member of the senior branch was Prince Grigory Grigorievich Romodanovsky. During the 1660s and 1670s, he was instrumental in spreading Muscovite influence in the Cossack Hetmanate, sometimes interfering into election of hetmans and promoting the candidates backed up by Moscow. Grigory's cousin, Prince Yury Ivanovich Romodanovsky, was a personal friend of Tsar Alexis and one of his most trusted courtiers, it was he who galvanized Alexis into rupture with Patriarch Nikon and announced to Nikon the tsar's anger for his having styled himself "grand sovereign". The matter ended in Nikon resigning his patriarchy; the cadet line was continued by Yury's son Fyodor Yurievich Romodanovsky, given the post of the head of the Preobrazhensky prikaz in 1686. His integrity and resolution won him the admiration of young Tsar Peter, who made him commander of his toy army. For his vital services to the crown Peter had him jocundly styled "His Caesarean Majesty" and "Prince Caesar".
Romodanovsky had the right to keep his own court at Ropsha and to promote officers. Upon his death, the Prince-Caesar's extraordinary titles devolved upon his son, Prince Ivan Fyodorovich Romodanovsky, he was related to the tsar through his sister Feodosiya, the wife of Eudoxia Lopukhina's brother, through his wife Anastasia Saltykova, Ivan V's sister-in-law. Despite his high position, Prince Ivan was not well suited for active service. Under Peter II of Russia, he served as governor of Moscow but retired a year before his death, which followed in 1730, whereupon the family became extinct. Princess Catherine, his only daughter and heir, was married by her first cousin, Empress Anna, to Gavrila Golovkin's son, thus bringing the Romodanovsky estates under control of that Chancellor of the Russian Empire; this was not the end of their story, however. Seven decades on April 8, 1798, Emperor Paul authorized his favourite general, Nikolay Ivanovich Lodyzhensky, to take the title and arms of Princes Romodanovsky on account of his matrilineal descent from Prince Grigory Grigorievich Romodanovsky.
Nikolay's descendants became known as Princes Romodanovsky-Lodyzhensky. Prosopography of the Romodanovsky family
The Cossack Hetmanate known as the Zaporizhian Host was a Ukrainian Cossack host in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764. The Hetmanate was founded by the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Bohdan Khmelnytsky during the Uprising of 1648–57. Establishment of vassal relations with the Tsardom of Russia in the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1654 is considered a benchmark of the Cossack Hetmanate in Soviet and Russian historiography; the second Pereyaslav Council in 1659 further restricted the independence of the Hetmanate, from the Moscow side there were attempts to declare agreements reached with Yuri Khmelnitsky in 1659 as nothing more than the "former Bohdan's agreements" of 1654. The 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo – conducted without any representation from the Cossack Hetmanate – established borders between the Polish and Russian states, dividing the Hetmanate in half along the Dnieper and putting the Zaporizhian Sich under a formal joint Russian-Polish administration. After a failed attempt to break the union with Russia by Ivan Mazepa in 1708, the whole area was included into the Government of Kiev and Cossack autonomy was restricted.
Catherine II of Russia abolished the institute of the Hetman in 1764, in 1764-1781 the Cossack Hetmanate was incorporated as the Little Russia Governorate headed by Pyotr Rumyantsev, with the last remnants of the Hetmanate's administrative system abolished in 1781. The official name of the Cossack Hetmanate was Zaporizhian Host; the historiographic term Hetmanate was coined in the late 19th century, deriving from the word hetman, the title of the general of the Zaporizhian Army. Zaporizhian Host means an "army of the Zaporizhia", where the Zaporizhia is a historical and geographic region in Southern Ukraine centered at the Zaporizhian Sich as well as a general name of Ukrainian Cossacks as a political and military organization. Inhabitants of the Cossack Hetmanate referred to the place in Ukrainian as "Ukraine" or "Vkraine". In Muscovite diplomatic correspondence it was called the Little Russia; the Cossack Hetmanate was called the country of Ukraine by the Ottoman Empire. The founder of the Hetmanate, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, declared himself as the ruler of the Ruthenian state to the Polish representative Adam Kysil in February 1649.
His contemporary Metropolitan Sylvestr Kosiv recognized him as "the leader and the commander of our land". In his letter to Constantin Șerban he referred to himself as Clementiae divinae Generalis Dux Exercituum Zaporoviensium. After many successful military campaigns against the Poles, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky made a triumphant entry into Kiev on Christmas 1648 where he was hailed liberator of the people from Polish captivity. In February 1649, during negotiations in Pereiaslav with a Polish delegation, Khmelnytsky had made it clear to the Poles that he wanted to be the Hetman of Ruthenia that could stretch all the way to Chelm and Halych, build with the Tatar's help, he warned them about his intention to resume his military campaign. When the returned delegation informed John II Casimir of Khmelnytsky's new campaign the king called for all szlachta volunteer army, while sending the regular troops against cossacks to southern Volhynia. However, after obtaining an intelligence report of the superior cossack forces, the Polish troops retreated to Zbarazh to set a defense.
The forces of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki reinforced the Zbarazh defenders while he took the lead of all Polish forces. Khmelnytsky besieged the city wearing down through series of random attacks and firing at it; the king while rushing to help Wiśniowiecki was ambushed with his newly gathered forces. Khmelnytsky leaving part of his army with Ivan Cherniata near Zbarazh moved together with İslâm III Giray to intercept the Polish reinforcements and block their way at a river crossing near Zboriv. Caught by some degree of surprise, John Casimir started negotiations with the Tatar's khan. With the khan on his side, they forced Khmelnytsky to start peace negotiations. Khmelnytsky signed the Treaty of Zboriv in August 1649, with a result somewhat less than the Cossack leader had anticipated from his campaign; as ruler of the Hetmanate, Khmelnytsky engaged in state-building across multiple spheres: in the military, finance and culture. He invested the Zaporozhian Host under the leadership of its hetman with supreme power in the new Ruthenian state, he unified all the spheres of Ukrainian society under his authority.
This would involve building a government system and a developed military and civilian administration out of Cossack officers and Ruthenian nobles, as well as the establishment of an elite within the Cossack Hetman state. The Hetmanate used Polish currency, Polish as an administrative language and a language of command. However, after the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, the "simple language", or the spoken vernacular language of Ukraine, began to be written down and used in official documents of the Cossack Hetmanate; this is known as the modern Ukrainian language. After the Crimean Tatars betrayed the Cossacks for the third time in 1653, Khmelnytsky realized he could no longer rely on Ottoman support against Poland, he was forced to turn to Tsardom of Russia for help. Final attempts to negotiate took place in January 1654 in the town of Pereyaslav between Khmelnytsky with Cossack leaders and the ambassador from Tsar, Vasiliy Buturlin; the treaty was co
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly