Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus history. He was canonized as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church by Metropolite Macarius in 1547, as it was told by the prophet Isaiah, Thus sayeth the Lord, I appoint the princes because they are sacred and I direct them. He was taller than others and his voice reached the people as a trumpet, and his face was like the face of Joseph and his power was a part of the power of Samson and God gave him the wisdom of Solomon. This Prince Alexander, he used to defeat but was never defeated, born in Pereslavl-Zalessky, Alexander was the second son of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold. Alexander seemed to have no chance of claiming the throne of Vladimir, in 1236, however, he was summoned by the Novgorodians to become knyaz of Novgorod and, as their military leader, to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders.
According to the Novgorod Chronicle written in the 14th cent, the Neva battle of 1240 saved Novgorod from a full-scale invasion from the West. Because of this battle, 19-year-old Alexander was given the sobriquet Nevsky and he would soon have to leave Novgorod because of this conflict. This supposed battle is not mentioned in any Swedish or other source, the supposed Swedish commander was called Spiridon which is an Orthodox, not Scandinavian name. Furthermore, Sweden was on the brink of war with Norway ever since the Norwegians infamous Värmland expedition in 1225, relations improved only after the Treaty of Lödöse in 1249, which was forged by the newly empowered Birger Jarl. Before the treaty, Norway remained an ally of the folkungs, giving them refuge and providing men, in this situation, it seems unlikely that Sweden could have been able to organize a major expedition against Novgorod. After Pskov had been invaded by the Germans and Estonians, the Novgorod authorities sent for Alexander, in spring of 1241 he returned from his exile, gathered an army, and drove out the invaders.
Alexander and his men faced the Livonian heavy cavalry led by the bishop of Dorpat Hermann, Nevsky faced the enemy on the ice of the Lake Peipus and defeated the German knights and Estonian infantry during the Battle of the Ice on 5 April 1242. Alexander’s victory was a significant event in the history of the Russia, foot soldiers of Novgorod had surrounded and defeated an army of knights, mounted on horseback and clad in thick armour. Tactical military considerations aside, Alexanders victory was an important milestone in the development of Muscovite Russia, after the Livonian invasion, Nevsky continued to strengthen Russia’s Northwest. He sent his envoys to Norway and, as a result, Alexander led his army to Finland and successfully routed the Swedes, who had made another attempt to block the Baltic Sea from the Russians in 1256. Nevsky proved to be a cautious and far-sighted politician, historians seem to be unsure about Alexander’s behavior when it came to his relations with Mongols. He may have thought that Catholicism presented a more tangible threat to Russian national identity than paying a tribute to the Khan, Alexander tried to strengthen his authority at the expense of the boyars and at the same time suppress any anti-Mongol uprisings in the country.
According to one interpretation, Alexander’s intentions were to protect scattered principalities of what would become Muscovy from repeated invasions by the Mongol army
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan IV Vasilyevich, commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome, was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, Tsar of All the Russias until his death in 1584. The last title was used by all his successors, during his reign, Russia conquered the Khanates of Kazan and Sibir, becoming a multiethnic and multicontinental state spanning approximately 4,050,000 km2. Ivan exercised autocratic control over Russias hereditary nobility and developed a bureaucracy to administer his new territories and he transformed Russia from a medieval state into an empire, though at immense cost to its people, and its broader, long-term economy. In one such outburst, he killed his son and heir Ivan Ivanovich and this left his younger son, the pious but politically ineffectual Feodor Ivanovich, to inherit the throne. Ivan was a diplomat, a patron of arts and trade. He was popular among Russias commoners, except possibly the people of Novgorod and surrounding areas, the English word terrible is usually used to translate the Russian word grozny in Ivans nickname, but this is a somewhat archaic translation.
The Russian word grozny reflects the older English usage of terrible as in inspiring fear or terror, powerful and it does not convey the more modern connotations of English terrible, such as defective or evil. Vladimir Dal defines grozny specifically in archaic usage and as an epithet for tsars, magnificent and keeping enemies in fear, other translations have been suggested by modern scholars. Ivan was the first son of Vasili III and his wife, Elena Glinskaya. When Ivan was three years old, his father died from an abscess and inflammation on his leg that developed into blood poisoning, Ivan was proclaimed the Grand Prince of Moscow at the request of his father. His mother Elena Glinskaya initially acted as regent, but she died of what many believe to be assassination by poison, the regency alternated between several feuding boyar families fighting for control. According to his own letters, along with his younger brother Yuri, on 16 January 1547, at age sixteen, Ivan was crowned with Monomakhs Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition.
He was the first to be crowned as Tsar of All the Russias, prior to that, rulers of Muscovy were crowned as Grand Princes, although Ivan III the Great, his grandfather, styled himself tsar in his correspondence. Two weeks after his coronation, Ivan married his first wife Anastasia Romanovna, a member of the Romanov family, who became the first Russian tsaritsa. By being crowned Tsar, Ivan was sending a message to the world and to Russia, he was now the one and only ruler of the country. The new title symbolized an assumption of powers equivalent and parallel to those held by former Byzantine Emperor, the political effect was to elevate Ivans position. The new title not only secured the throne, but it granted Ivan a new dimension of power and he was now a divine leader appointed to enact Gods will, as church texts described Old Testament kings as Tsars and Christ as the Heavenly Tsar. The newly appointed title was passed on from generation to generation
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. Classicism is a genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources. It was particularly expressed in the Neoclassicism of the Age of Enlightenment, Classicism is a recurrent tendency in the Late Antique period, and had a major revival in Carolingian and Ottonian art. Until that time the identification with antiquity had been seen as a history of Christendom from the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine I. Renaissance classicism introduced a host of elements into European culture, including the application of mathematics and empiricism into art, humanism and depictive realism, importantly it introduced Polytheism, or paganism, and the juxtaposition of ancient and modern. The classicism of the Renaissance led to, and gave way to and this period sought the revival of classical art forms, including Greek drama and music.
Opera, in its modern European form, had its roots in attempts to recreate the combination of singing and dancing with theatre thought to be the Greek norm, examples of this appeal to classicism included Dante and Shakespeare in poetry and theatre. Tudor drama, in particular, modeled itself after classical ideals, studying Ancient Greek became regarded as essential for a well-rounded education in the liberal arts. They began reviving plastic arts such as bronze casting for sculpture, for example, the painting of Jacques-Louis David which was seen as an attempt to return to formal balance, clarity and vigor in art. Various movements of the period saw themselves as classical revolts against a prevailing trend of emotionalism and irregularity. The 20th century saw a number of changes in the arts, both pre-20th century disciplines were labelled classical and modern movements in art which saw themselves as aligned with light, sparseness of texture, and formal coherence. Examples of classicist playwrights are Pierre Corneille, Jean Racine and Moliere, the influence of these French rules on playwrights in other nations is debatable.
In the English theatre, Restoration playwrights such as William Wycherly and those of Shakespeares plays that seem to display the unities, such as The Tempest, probably indicate a familiarity with actual models from classical antiquity. Classicism in architecture developed during the Italian Renaissance, notably in the writings and designs of Leon Battista Alberti and this style quickly spread to other Italian cities and to France, England and elsewhere. In the 16th century, Sebastiano Serlio helped codify the classical orders, building off of these influences, the 17th-century architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren firmly established classicism in England. For the development of classicism from the mid-18th-century onwards, see Neoclassical architecture, for Greek art of the 5th century B. C. E. See Classical art in ancient Greece and the Severe style Italian Renaissance painting and sculpture are marked by their renewal of classical forms and subjects. In the 15th century Leon Battista Alberti was important in theorizing many of the ideas for painting that came to a fully realised product with Raphaels School of Athens during the High Renaissance
Vasily Kuzmich Shebuyev was a Russian painter, State Councilor and Rector at the Imperial Academy of Arts. His father was of lineage and served as the ranking custodian of materiels at the Admiralty Board. His artistic abilities were noticed early and he began taking lessons at the Imperial Academy as soon as he was old enough, in 1794, he officially became a student there, studying under Ivan Akimov and Grigory Ugryumov. He won a silver after his first year, and a medal the year following. In 1797, he graduated with a first degree certificate and he immediately became an assistant teacher and, a year later, was entrusted with teaching drawing to younger students. In 1803, he was sent on a fellowship to study in Rome, three years later, he was recalled to Saint Petersburg to participate in decorating the Kazan Cathedral. After that, his life devoted to the Academy. He was named an Academician in 1807, rose through the ranks, ten years his title became the Honored Rector. In 1831, he used his anatomical drawing experience to create textbooks for art students.
Among those who studied under him at the Academy, one may name Karl Briullov, Alexander Ivanov, Fyodor Bruni and he was named Supervisor of Paintings for Saint Isaacs Cathedral in 1844. Большая биографическая энциклопедия @ Aкадемик Русская живопись Biography and portrait, media related to Vasily Shebuyev at Wikimedia Commons
Yaroslavl Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, which is located in the Central Federal District, surrounded by Tver, Ivanovo, Vladimir and Vologda Oblasts. This geographic location affords the oblast the advantages of proximity to Moscow, the administrative center of the oblast—the city of Yaroslavl—is an intersection of major highways and waterways. The climate of Yaroslavl Oblast is temperate continental, with long and snowy winters, Average January temperature is about −12 °C, while average Julys is +18 °C. Formerly almost all territory was covered with conifer forest, but now a large portion of it has been replaced with birch-and-aspen secondary forests. Large animals have been reduced in numbers, but there are still some bears, foxes, moose. A great number of birds live and nest in the oblast. In cities, most common birds are pigeons, hooded crows, house sparrows, the Volga River flows through Yaroslavl Oblast, with two major dams constructed at Uglich and Rybinsk. Mineral resources are limited to construction materials and peat, there are mineral water springs and wells.
First people settled in the area of the modern day Yaroslavl Oblast during the Paleolithic Era with the end of the last glacial period, agriculture was introduced in the region not than the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC with the arrival of the Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture. The oblast belonged to the core of the Russian lands since the early Middle Ages, the oldest city in the region, was first mentioned in 862. It soon became the political and religious centers of the Northeast Kievan Rus. Many notable Rurikid princes had their fief in Rostov, among them were St. Boris and Yaroslav the Wise, in 1054 Rostov and other North-Eastern lands were inherited by Yaroslavs son Vsevolod who ruled the southern Principality of Pereyaslavl. Remaining in their distant capital the princes of Pereyaslavl had to rule the province through their viceregents and that period was most memorable for the 1071 smerd rebellion led by still powerful magi of Yarsolavl during which bishop Leontius of Rostov was murdered.
In early 12th century Rostov got its own prince, Yuri Dolgoruky and he moved his capital to Suzdal in 1125 diminishing the influence of Rostov as a result. During his reign Dolgoruky founded many cities of the Northeast Rus. Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky who succeeded his father Yury as a ruler of the Rostov-Suzdal lands in 1157 was the first Russian ruler to give up his claims for the thrones of Kiev and Pereyaslavl. He proclaimed himself a Grand Prince and moved his capital to the city of Vladimir near Suzdal marking the beginning of history of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, after the death of Andreys brother Vsevolod the Big Nest in 1212 Russian North-East entered a continuous stage of feudal fragmentation. Rostov, Yaroslavl and Uglich became principalities on their own right still recognizing formal suzerainty of the Grand Princes of Vladimir, northeastern Rus was attacked by the Mongol-Tatar armies in the winter of 1238
Saint Michael's Castle
St. Michaels Castle, called the Mikhailovsky Castle or the Engineers Castle, is a former royal residence in the historic centre of Saint Petersburg, Russia. St. Michaels Castle was built as a residence for Emperor Paul I by architects Vincenzo Brenna, the castle looks different from each side, as the architects used motifs of various architectural styles such as French Classicism, Italian Renaissance and Gothic. St. Michaels Castle was built to the south of the Summer Garden, afraid of intrigues and assassination plots, Emperor Paul I disliked the Winter Palace where he never felt safe. Due to his fascination with medieval knights and his constant fear of assassination. In 1800, the bronze equestrian Monument to Peter the Great was set up in front of the castle and this statue had been designed during Peter the Greats lifetime and later, with the casting being completed in 1747 by the architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Paul I was assassinated only 40 nights after he moved into his newly built castle and he was murdered on 12 March 1801, in his own bedroom, by a group of dismissed officers headed by General Bennigsen.
The conspirators forced him to a table, and tried to compel him to sign his abdication, Paul offered some resistance, and one of the assassins struck him with a sword, and he was strangled and trampled to death. He was succeeded by his son, Emperor Alexander I, who was actually in the palace at the time and was informed of his accession by General Nicholas Zubov, one of the assassins. After Pauls death, the family returned to the Winter Palace, St. Michaels Castle was abandoned. From on, the building was known as the Engineers Castle, between 1838 and 1843, the Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky studied as a cadet at the Main Engineering School. In the early 1990s, St. A. N, petrov, 4th ed. Leningrad, Stroyizdat,1976. Nordisk Familjebok, Nordisk familjeboks förlags aktiebolag,2 ed.1904
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
Finland Guard Regiment
Finliandsky Guard Regiment was a Russian Imperial Guard infantry regiment. 1807–1813 – Napoleonic Wars 1828–1829 – Russo-Turkish War 1831 – Polish campaign, handbook of the Russian Army 1914 by the British General Staff
Hagar is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis. She was an Egyptian handmaid of Sarai, who gave her to Abraham to bear a child, the product of the union was Abrahams firstborn, the progenitor of the Ishmaelites. According to Theodor Nöldeke, she is the personification of the nomadic Hagrites. The name Hagar originates from the Book of Genesis, and is alluded to in the Quran. She is considered Abrahams second wife in the Islamic faith and acknowledged in all Abrahamic religions, in mainstream Christianity, she is considered a concubine to Abraham. This is a summary of the account of Hagar from Genesis 16 and 21, Hagar was the Egyptian handmaiden of Sarai, Abrahams wife. Hagar became pregnant, and tension arose between the two women, Sarah complained to Abraham, and treated Hagar harshly, and Hagar ran away. Hagar fled into the desert on her way to Shur. Genesis 16,12 Then she was told to call her son Ishmael, Hagar referred to God as El Roi. She returned to Abraham and soon gave birth to Ishmael, Sarah gave birth to Isaac, and the tension between the women returned.
At a celebration after Isaac was weaned, Sarah found the teenage Ishmael mocking her son and she was so upset by it that she demanded that Abraham send Hagar and her son away. She declared that Ishmael would not share in Isaacs inheritance, Abraham was greatly distressed but God told Abraham to do as his wife commanded because Gods promise would be carried out through both Isaac and Ishmael. Early the next morning, Abraham brought Hagar and Ishmael out together, Abraham gave Hagar bread and water sent them into the wilderness of Beersheba. She and her son wandered aimlessly until their water was completely consumed, in a moment of despair, she burst into tears. God heard her and her son crying and came to rescue them, the angel opened Hagars eyes and she saw a well of water. He told Hagar that God will make a nation of Ishmael. Hagar found her son a wife from Egypt and they settled in the Desert of Paran, according to the Bahai Faith, the Báb was a descendant of Abraham and Hagar, and that God made a promise to spread Abrahams seed.
The Bahai Publishing House released a text on the wives and concubines of Abraham, in the New Testament, Paul the Apostle made Hagars experience an allegory of the difference between law and grace in his Epistle to the Galatians. Mount Sinai has been referred to as Agar, possibly named after Hagar, in Catholicism, Saint Augustine referred to Hagar as symbolizing an earthly city, or sinful condition of humanity, In the earthly city
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Ivan Akimovich Akimov was a Russian painter in the Classical style. His father was a typographer and typesetter for the Governing Senate, at the age of ten, after his fathers death, he wrote a letter to the Imperial Academy of Arts, requesting admission and pleading poverty. The letter was successful, and he was admitted and he was there from 1765 to 1773 and studied under Anton Losenko. He found the teaching there unsatisfactory, however and, after numerous unanswered petitions to the Academy and he arrived there only to discover that their Academy was really an association of artists with private students. Thanks to a recommendation from a Russian nobleman residing in Italy, later, on orders from the Imperial Academy, he finished his course in Bologna, lived successively in Rome and Florence. In 1779, he returned to Saint Petersburg and became a lecturer at the Academy, three years later, he was named an Academician for his painting of Hercules burning himself on a pyre. In 1785, he was promoted to Associate Professor and, in 1791 and he taught drawing to Tsar Paul Is daughters.
Three years later, he rose to Associate Director of the Academy and, finally, in the following years, he turned to painting more contemporary historical scenes, under patriotic pressure from the war with Napoleon. They were not highly thought of, but cannot be judged now because few have survived, although he is not considered to be a first-rate artist, he had a special talent for teaching and was a great influence on Russian history painting. Among his best-known students are Andrey Ivanovich Ivanov, Vasily Shebuyev, alexander Stupin actually boarded with Akimov and his family. He was one of the founders of Russian art historiography, in his will, he bequeathed 15,000 Rubles to the Academy. Media related to Ivan Akimov at Wikimedia Commons
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction, among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive, Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by motifs and ideas. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action, the term painting is used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization, and symbols.
In technical drawing, thickness of line is ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music, color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent, the word red, for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic, painters deal practically with pigments, so blue for a painter can be any of the blues, phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, cobalt, and so on.
Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to light in painting, shades to dynamics and these elements do not necessarily form a melody of themselves, they can add different contexts to it. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer, there is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required, rhythm is important in painting as it is in music