Robert Morton Organ Company
The Robert Morton Organ Company was a producer of theater pipe organs and church organs, located in Van Nuys, California. Robert Morton was the number two volume producer of theatre organs, building half as many organs as the industry leader Wurlitzer; the name Robert Morton was derived not from any person in the company, but rather from the name of company president Harold J. Werner's son, Robert Morton Werner; the Robert Morton company had its origins in the Murray Harris Organ Company of Los Angeles. The company passed through various owners, business names and locations between Murray Harris and Robert Morton, including the Los Angeles Art Organ Company, the Johnston Organ Company, the California Organ Company. Despite all the corporate change and upheaval, the output in terms of high quality and tonal character was remarkably consistent. Several Robert Morton key personnel were veteran organbuilders who had served as apprentices with major English organbuilding firms. Tonally, Robert Morton organs had a reputation for being powerful, while at the same time refined and "symphonic" in character.
The company's heyday was in the late 1920s, the era of the lavish movie palace theaters exhibiting silent films. The rise of the Great Depression and the advent of sound films eliminated the demand for theater organs and the company closed in 1931. In addition to their uses in theaters and music halls, Robert Morton organs have been featured in the music for the Haunted Mansion attractions at various Disney theme parks. Arlington Theatre, Santa Barbara, California Egyptian Theatre, Idaho Fox Theater, Redwood City, California W. N. Shoberg & Company Pipe Organ Builders shop. Installed in Fox Theatre, California. Hawaii Theatre, Hawaii installed Princess Theatre, Hawaii, moved June 1969 to Hawaii Theatre, reinstalled by July 1971 Ironstone Vineyards, California. Installed in the Alhambra Theater, California Jefferson Theatre, Texas. Loew's Jersey City, New Jersey. Installed in Loew's Paradise Theatre, New York McMenamins Chapel Pub, Oregon. 1925 organ installed in Chapel Pub 1933, moved from Strand Theater in Oregon.
Music Hall, Municipal Auditorium, Kansas City Missouri, O'Brien Theatre, Ontario, Canada. Ohio Theatre, Ohio Palace Theatre, Hawaii Moved from Palace to Hilo Theatre in 1940. Polk Theatre, Florida. 3 manuals 11, now 12, ranks. Installed in Loews Theater in Canton, this organ was subsequently moved to a private residence in Solon, Ohio and to Scampi's Pizza Restaurant in Austin, Texas; as of April, 2016 it has been presenting pre-show programs at the Polk Theatre for 15 years. Palace Theatre, Hilo Hawaii Originally installed at Hawaii Theatre, Hawaii. Projected completed. Sinai Temple, Los Angeles, California Temple Theater, Mississippi United Palace Theater Loew's 175th St. Theatre, New York City. Awaiting restoration; the last remaining "Wonder Morton" in its original theatre, unaltered. Warnors Center for Performing Arts, California Wilma Theatre, Montana Copley Symphony Hall Fox Theatre, San Diego CA. Organ was installed in the Balboa Theatre in San Diego, moved to the new Fox theatre in 1929 by Robert Morton.
The organ is in regular use and being renovated by the San Diego Symphony. Balboa Theatre, San Diego CA Wonder Morton organ. Relocated from Loew's Valencia Theatre. Restored and installed by Wendell Shoberg in 2008-9. Replaces Balboa's original Robert Morton organ, removed to the Fox theatre in 1929. Believed to be the first Wonder Morton built due to the more ornate console carvings and unique details the other Wonder Mortons lack; the Carolina Theatre, North Carolina The Bob Hope Theatre in Stockton, California Grace Baptist Church, San Jose, CA, Robert Morton 3 manual, 20 ranks. "Wonder Morton". Removed to van der Molen home in 1974. Peninsula Theatre, California Plymouth Theatre, Mass.. Installed in private residence. Company history website
Charles Martin Jones was an American animator, cartoonist, author and screenwriter, best known for his work with Warner Bros. Cartoons on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts, he wrote, and/or directed many classic animated cartoon shorts starring Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner, Pepé Le Pew, Porky Pig, Michigan J. Frog, the Three Bears, a slew of other Warner characters. After his career at Warner Bros. ended in 1962, Jones started Sib Tower 12 Productions, began producing cartoons for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, including a new series of Tom and Jerry shorts and the television adaptation of Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. He started his own studio, Chuck Jones Enterprises, which created several one-shot specials, periodically worked on Looney Tunes related works. Jones was nominated for an Oscar eight times and won three times, receiving awards for the cartoons For Scent-imental Reasons, So Much for So Little, The Dot and the Line, he received an Honorary Academy Award in 1996 for his work in the animation industry.
Film historian Leonard Maltin has praised Jones' work at Warner Bros. MGM and Chuck Jones Enterprises, he said that the "feud" that there may have been between Jones and colleague Bob Clampett was because they were so different from each other. In Jerry Beck's The 50 Greatest Cartoons, ten of the entries were directed by Jones, with four out of the five top cartoons being Jones shorts. Jones was born on September 21, 1912, in Spokane, the son of Mabel McQuiddy and Charles Adams Jones, he moved with his parents and three siblings to the Los Angeles, California area. In his autobiography, Chuck Amuck, Jones credits his artistic bent to circumstances surrounding his father, an unsuccessful businessman in California in the 1920s, his father, Jones recounts, would start every new business venture by purchasing new stationery and new pencils with the company name on them. When the business failed, his father would turn the huge stacks of useless stationery and pencils over to his children, requiring them to use up all the material as fast as possible.
Armed with an endless supply of high-quality paper and pencils, the children drew constantly. In one art school class, the professor gravely informed the students that they each had 100,000 bad drawings in them that they must first get past before they could draw anything worthwhile. Jones recounted years that this pronouncement came as a great relief to him, as he was well past the 200,000 mark, having used up all that stationery. Jones and several of his siblings went on to artistic careers. During his artistic education, he worked part-time as a janitor. After graduating from Chouinard Art Institute, Jones got a phone call from a friend named Fred Kopietz, hired by the Ub Iwerks studio and offered him a job, he worked his way up starting as a cel washer. I went on to take animator's drawings and traced them onto the celluloid. I became what they call an in-betweener, the guy that does the drawing between the drawings the animator makes". While at Iwerks, he met a cel painter named Dorothy Webster, who became his first wife.
Jones joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, the independent studio that produced Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies for Warner Bros. in 1933 as an assistant animator. In 1935, he was promoted to animator, assigned to work with new Schlesinger director Tex Avery. There was no room for the new Avery unit in Schlesinger's small studio, so Avery and fellow animators Bob Clampett, Virgil Ross, Sid Sutherland were moved into a small adjacent building they dubbed "Termite Terrace"; when Clampett was promoted to director in 1937, Jones was assigned to his unit. Jones became a director himself in 1938; the following year Jones created his first major character, Sniffles, a cute Disney-style mouse, who went on to star in twelve Warner Bros. cartoons. He was involved in efforts to unionize the staff of Leon Schlesinger Studios, he was responsible for recruiting animators, layout men, background people. All animators joined, in reaction to salary cuts imposed by Leon Schlesinger; the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer cartoon studio had signed a union contract, encouraging their counterparts under Schlesinger.
In a meeting with his staff, Schlesinger talked for a few minutes turned over the meeting to his attorney. His insulting manner had a unifying effect on the staff. Jones gave a pep talk at the union headquarters; as negotiations broke down, the staff decided to go on strike. Schlesinger locked them out before agreeing to sign the contract. A Labor Management Committee was formed and Jones served as a moderator; because of his role as a supervisor in the studio, he could not himself join the union. Jones created many of his lesser-known characters during this period, including Charlie Dog and Bertie, The Three Bears. During World War II, Jones worked with Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, to create the Private Snafu series of Army educational cartoons. Jones collaborated with Seuss on animated adaptations of Seuss' books, including How the Grinch Stole Christmas! in 1966. Jones directed such shorts as The Weakly Reporter, a 1944 short that related to shortag
Walt Disney World Quest: Magical Racing Tour
Walt Disney World Quest: Magical Racing Tour is a 2000 go-kart racing video game based on attractions at the Walt Disney World Resort. Players compete in races on tracks inspired by attractions such as the Haunted Mansion, Pirates of the Caribbean, Space Mountain and Big Thunder Mountain Railroad to acquire missing parts for the park's fireworks machine, accidentally destroyed by Chip'n' Dale while they were gathering acorns; the game was published by Eidos Interactive. The Game Boy Color version was developed by Prolific Publishing; the game consists of normal kart racing gameplay, racing in three-lap races around tracks inspired by Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, Blizzard Beach, Rock'n' Roller Coaster, the Haunted Mansion, the Jungle Cruise, Tomorrowland Speedway, Space Mountain, Pirates of the Caribbean to win parts for the fireworks machine in the game's story mode. Completing the story will unlock a track inspired by Splash Mountain. However, on tracks inspired by Test Track, Typhoon Lagoon, Disney Studios Florida, players must collect thirty coins around the driving areas of these tracks within four minutes in order to complete their events.
With the exceptions of Chip and Jiminy Cricket, the game's playable characters are original characters made for the game. The soundtrack features authentic Disney music from the attractions, with the exception of Space Mountain, which features music from the Disneyland version, Rock'n' Roller Coaster, which does not feature Aerosmith as the actual attraction does; the game received positive reception. Reviewers from IGN and Eurogamer gave the game a 8 out of 10, respectively. Both praised the presentation of the game, how the developers were able to recreate popular attractions in-game, the "Disney-esque" charm it has. Both berated the difficulty, some of the graphics, the fact that the developers only used a small sound sample from each attraction and looped it, which got annoying quickly. A reviewer from GameSpot gave the Dreamcast version of the game a 7.5 out of 10, calling it a good entry to the kart racing genre, while bringing attention to its many similarities to Mario Kart. The amount of detail put into the tracks and the sound were praised, but the reviewer was disappointed by the game's short play length.
List of Disney video games
Tubular bells are musical instruments in the percussion family. Their sound resembles that of carillon, or a bell tower; each bell is 30 -- 38 mm in diameter, tuned by altering its length. Its standard range is C4–F5, though many professional instruments reach G5. Tubular bells are replaced by studio chimes, which are a smaller and less expensive instrument. Studio chimes are similar in appearance to tubular bells, but each bell has a smaller diameter than the corresponding bell on tubular bells. Tubular bells are sometimes struck on the top edge of the tube with a rawhide- or plastic-headed hammer. A sustain pedal will be attached to allow extended ringing of the bells, they can be bowed at the bottom of the tube to produce a loud high-pitched overtone. The tubes used provide a purer tone than solid cylindrical chimes, such as those on a mark tree. Chimes are used in concert band pieces, it plays melody, instead being used most as a color to add to the ensemble sound. It does have solos often depicting church bells.
Play In tubular bells, modes 4, 5, 6 appear to determine the strike tone and have frequencies in the ratios 92:112:132, or 81:121:169, "which are close enough to the ratios 2:3:4 for the ear to consider them nearly harmonic and to use them as a basis for establishing a virtual pitch". The perceived "strike pitch" is thus an octave below the fourth mode. Multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield has used tubular bells on many of his studio albums, most notably Tubular Bells, Tubular Bells II and Tubular Bells III, he has used them on most of his other albums such as Hergest Ridge, Incantations, Crises and Amarok. Tubular bells appear on Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon on the song "Brain Damage", but are rendered inaudible on the original stereo mix and quadrophonic mix. Tubular bells appear as part of the fascist rally in a scene from the movie adaptation of Pink Floyd's The Wall, they serve to emphasize the delusional Pink's inflammatory cries for the beginnings of an ethnic cleansing. Percussionist Carl Palmer used tubular bells on Emerson, Lake & Palmer's Brain Salad Surgery tour, featuring them on the song "Toccata" as well as during his solo.
Queensrÿche drummer Scott Rockenfield used tubular bells on the song "En Force" both in the studio and live. Culture Club guitarist Roy Hay used tubular bells on the song "Time"; the Flaming Lips' 2002 track "Do You Realize??" Features tubular bells. Film composer James Horner took advantage of the heraldic quality of tubular bells in his score for the Civil War film Glory; the animated television series Futurama's theme is played on tubular bells. The "funding for this program provided by..." rider that followed the end credits of the children's television show Sesame Street in the 1970-80s prominently featured tubular bells. The tune, by Sesame Street music director Joe Raposo, is sometimes referred to as "Funky Chimes"; the Smashing Pumpkins' 1994 recording "Disarm" uses tubular bells. Tracey Ullman's 1983 cover of Kirsty MacColl's "They Don't Know" features tubular bells in a celebratory manner, reminiscent of wedding bells. Rush drummer Neil Peart used tubular bells on the songs "Xanadu" and "Closer to the Heart".
He has used them on concert tours, as heard on the live album Exit... Stage Left and the accompanying video release. On tours, Peart replaced the tubular bells with a more compact MIDI controller modeled on a marimba, allowing him to reproduce a wide variety of percussion sounds. However, on the band's R40 tour, the second set featured a retro 1970s-style kit complete with tubular bells, used on the songs "Jacob's Ladder", "Closer to the Heart" and "Xanadu"; the award ceremony scene from the game Mario Kart Wii has some tubular bell phrases played on its theme music. Tubular bells can be used as church bells, such as at St. Alban's Anglican Church in Copenhagen, Denmark; these were donated by Prince of Wales. Tubular bells are used in longcase clocks because they produce a louder sound than gongs and regular chime-rods and therefore could be heard more easily. Giuseppe Verdi – Rigoletto Giuseppe Verdi – Il trovatore Giuseppe Verdi – Un ballo in maschera Modest Mussorgsky – Boris Godunov Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky – 1812 Overture Pietro Mascagni – Cavalleria rusticana Ruggero Leoncavallo – The Bajazzo Gustav Mahler – Symphony No. 2 Giacomo Puccini – Tosca Alexander Scriabin – Le Poème de l'extase Anton Webern – Six Pieces for large orchestra Claude Debussy – Ibéria Gustav Holst – The Planets Giacomo Puccini – Turandot Edgard Varèse – Ionisation Richard Strauss – Die schweigsame Frau Paul Hindemith – Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber Benjamin Britten – Albert Herring Aaron Copland – Symphony No. 3 Olivier Messiaen – Turangalîla-symphonie Carl Orff – Antigonae Dmitri Shostakovich – Symphony No. 11 Olivier Messiaen – Chronochromie Information about tubular bells – Vienna Symphonic Library
Thurl Arthur Ravenscroft was an American voice actor and bass singer known as the booming voice behind Kellogg's Frosted Flakes animated spokesman Tony the Tiger for more than five decades. He was the uncredited vocalist for the song "You're a Mean One, Mr. Grinch" from the classic Christmas television special, Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas! Ravenscroft did some voice-over work and singing for Disney in both the films and the attractions at Disneyland; the best known of these attractions are Haunted Mansion as a singing bust, Country Bear Jamboree, Mark Twain Riverboat, Pirates of the Caribbean, Disneyland Railroad, Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room as "Fritz". His voice acting career began in 1940 and lasted until his death in 2005 at age 91. Ravenscroft left his native Norfolk, Nebraska, in 1933 for California, where he studied at Otis Art Institute, he achieved early success. The Mellomen can be heard on many popular recordings of the Big Band Era, including backup for Bing Crosby, Frankie Laine, Spike Jones, Jo Stafford, Rosemary Clooney.
Their earliest contribution to a Disney film was for Pinocchio, to which they contributed the song "Honest John". This was deleted from the film, but can still be heard in the supplements on the 2009 DVD. Ravenscroft did voice Monstro the Whale in Pinocchio; the Mellomen did contribute to other Disney films, such as Alice in Wonderland and Lady and the Tramp. The group appeared on camera in a few episodes of the Disney anthology television series. Ravenscroft is heard with the quartet on some of the Merrie Melodies and Looney Tunes with Mel Blanc at Warner Bros. as well as on radio "driving Jack Benny crazy" on The Jack Benny Program. During World War II, Ravenscroft served as a civilian navigator contracted to the U. S. Air Transport Command, spending five years flying courier missions across the north and south Atlantic. Among the notables carried on board his flights were Bob Hope; as he told an interviewer: "I flew Winston Churchill to a conference in Algiers and flew Bob Hope to the troops a couple of times.
So it was fun."Ravenscroft sang bass on Rosemary Clooney's "This Ole House", which went to No. 1 in both the United States and Britain in 1954, as well as Stuart Hamblen's original version of that same song. He sang on the soundtrack for Ken Clark as "Stewpot" in South Pacific, one of the top-selling albums of the 1950s. Singing with the Johnny Mann Singers, his distinctive bass can be heard as part of the chorus on 28 of their albums that were released during the 1960s and 1970s, he was the bass singer on Bobby Vee's 1960 Liberty hit record "Devil or Angel". Andy Williams' recording of "The 12 Days of Christmas" features him as well. In the 1980s and 1990s, Ravenscroft was narrator for the annual Pageant of the Masters art show at the Laguna Beach, Festival of the Arts, he sang the opening songs for the two Disney serials used on The Mickey Mouse Club, Boys of the Western Sea and The Hardy Boys: Mystery of the Applegate Treasure. He sang the "Twitterpatter Song" and "Thumper's Song" on the Disneyland record Peter Cottontail and other Funny Bunnies.
On the Disneyland record All About Dragons, he both provided the narration and sang the songs "The Reluctant Dragon" and "The Loch Ness Monster". His voice was heard during the Pirates of the Caribbean ride as well as the Haunted Mansion at Disneyland as Uncle Theodore, the lead vocalist of the singing busts in the cemetery near the end of the ride, he played the Narrator in The Story and Song From the Haunted Mansion. Ravenscroft is heard in the Enchanted Tiki Room as the voice of Fritz the Animatronics parrot, he was the voice of the Disneyland Railroad in the 1990s. Further roles include that of The First Mate on The Mark Twain Riverboat and of the American bison head named Buff at The Country Bear Jamboree. One of Ravenscroft's best-known uncredited works is as the vocalist for the song "You're a Mean One, Mr. Grinch." His name was accidentally omitted from the credits, leading many to believe that the cartoon's narrator, Boris Karloff, sang the song, while others cited Tennessee Ernie Ford as the song's signature voice.
Ravenscroft sang "No Dogs Allowed" in the Peanuts animated motion picture Snoopy, Come Home and I Was a Teenaged Brain Surgeon for Spike Jones. For more than 50 years, he was the uncredited voice of Tony the Tiger for Kellogg's Frosted Flakes, his booming bass gave the cereal's tiger mascot a voice with the catchphrase "They're g-r-r-r-eat!!!!". Various record companies, such as Abbott, Brunswick, "X" released singles by Ravenscroft in duets with little-known female vocalists, in an attempt to turn the bass-voiced veteran into a pop singer; these efforts were commercially unsuccessful, if quite interesting. He was teamed up with the Andrews Sisters on the cover of Johnny Cymbal's "Mr. Bass Man"; the Mellomen released some doo-wop records under the name Big John & the Buzzards, a name given to them by the rock-and-roll-hating Mitch Miller. His lifelong dream, which he shared in an interview in 1999 with Peter Anthony Holder, was to record the entire Bible on tape, but James Earl Jones "beat him out".
However, being a devoted Christian, he appeared on many religious television shows such as The Hour of Power. In 1970, he recorded an album called "Great Hymns in Story and Song", which featured him singing 10 hymns, each prefac
The alto flute is a type of Western concert flute, a musical instrument in the woodwind family. It is the next extension downward of the C flute after the flûte d'amour, it is characterized by its mellow tone in the lower portion of its range. It is a transposing instrument in G, uses the same fingerings as the C flute; the tube of the alto flute is thicker and longer than a C flute and requires more breath from the player. This gives it a half of its range, it was the favourite flute variety of Theobald Boehm, who perfected its design, is pitched in the key of G. Its range is from G3 to G6 plus an altissimo register stretching to D♭7; the headjoint may be curved. British music that uses this instrument refers to it as a bass flute, which can be confusing since there is a distinct instrument known by that name; this naming confusion originated in the fact that the modern flute in C is pitched in the same range as the Renaissance tenor flute. Alto flute headjoints are built in'curved' and'straight' versions.
The curved headjoint is preferred by smaller players because it requires less of a stretch for the arms, makes the instrument feel lighter by moving the center of gravity nearer to the player. However, the straight version is more used for better overall intonation; the embouchure for alto flute is similar to that for C flute, but in proportion to the size of the instrument. Hence the embouchure-hole sits lower on the lower lip, the lip-aperture is wider; the following lists are not intended to be complete, but rather to present a representative sampling of the most played and well-known works in the genre. The lists do not include works written for other instruments and subsequently transcribed, adapted, or arranged for alto flute, unless such piece is common in the repertory, in which case it is listed with its original instrumentation noted. Bruno Bartolozzi: Cantilena Garth Baxter: Variations on the Willow Tree Jonathan Bayley: Music for Pan Michael Csany-Wills: Trystyng Charles Delaney: Variations on the'Seeds of Love' Jon Gibson: Untitled Alexander Goehr: Ariel Sing Philippe Hersant: Cinq Miniatures Daniel Kessner: A Serene Music Coreen Morsink: Andromache Patrick Nunn: Maqamat Michael Oliva: Les Heures Bleues Edwin Roxburgh: The Curlew Kaija Saariaho: Couleurs du vent Harvey Sollberger: Hara Karlheinz Stockhausen: Susani's Echo, 3.
Ex Nr. 58 1⁄2 Xi, 3. Ex Nr. 55 David Bennett Thomas: Carla Tom Febonio: Sonata for Alto Flute and Piano Daniel Kessner: Simple Motion Melvin Lauf: Passing Thoughts Phyllis Louke: As The Clouds Parted Andrew McBirnie: The Moon by Night Mike Mower: Sonnets Laura Pettigrew: Offertoire John Palmer: Afterglow In the classical literature, the alto flute is associated with the scores of Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel, both of whom used the instrument's distinctive tone color in a variety of scores. It is featured in Ravel's Daphnis et Chloé, Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, Franco Alfano's opera Cyrano de Bergerac, Sergei Prokofiev's Scythian Suite. Shostakovich used it in his operas The Gamblers, Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, as well as in his Symphony No. 7. It figures prominently in several movements of Gustav Holst's The Planets, it appears in Howard Shore's music for The Lord of the Rings among many other contemporary film scores. Before 1940 it had been used in Hollywood. A number of specialist alto flute players have emerged in recent years.
These include French improvisor/composer Christian Le Delezir, American Chris Potter, British Kingma System alto flute player Carla Rees, jazz players Ali Ryerson and Brian Landrus, American Peter Sheridan who resides in Australia, Swiss composers/performers Matthias Ziegler and Stefan Keller and Dutch composer/performer Anne La Berge
Magic Kingdom is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, near Orlando. Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks and Products division, the park opened on October 1, 1971, as the first of four theme parks at the resort; the park was designed by WED Enterprises. Its layout and attractions are based on Disneyland Park in Anaheim and are dedicated to fairy tales and Disney characters; the park is represented by Cinderella Castle, inspired by the fairy tale castle seen in the 1950 film. In 2017, the park hosted 20.450 million visitors, making it the most visited theme park in the world for the twelfth consecutive year and the most visited theme park in North America for at least the past eighteen years. Although Walt Disney had been involved in planning the Florida Project, he died before he could see the vision through. After Walt's death, Walt Disney Productions began construction on Magic Kingdom and the entire resort in 1967; the park was built as a larger, improved version of Disneyland Park in California.
There are several anecdotes regarding some of the features of Walt Disney World, Magic Kingdom specifically. According to one story, Walt Disney once saw a Frontierland cowboy walking through Tomorrowland at Disneyland, he disliked that the cowboy intruded on the futuristic setting of Tomorrowland and wanted to avoid situations like this in the new park. Therefore, Magic Kingdom was built over a series of tunnels called utilidors, a portmanteau of utility and corridor, allowing employees or VIP guests to move through the park out of sight; because of Florida's high water table, the tunnels could not be put underground, so they were built at the existing grade, meaning the park is built on the second story, giving Magic Kingdom an elevation of 108 feet. The area around the utilidors was filled in with dirt removed from the Seven Seas Lagoon, being constructed at the same time; the utilidors were not extended as the park expanded. The tunnels were intended to be designed into all subsequent Walt Disney World parks, but were set aside because of financial constraints.
Epcot's Future World and Disney Springs' Pleasure Island each have a smaller network of utilidors. Magic Kingdom opened as the first part of the Walt Disney World Resort on October 1, 1971, commencing concurrently with Disney's Contemporary Resort and Disney's Polynesian Village Resort, it opened with twenty-three attractions, three unique to the park and twenty replicas of attractions at Disneyland, split into six themed lands, five copies of those at Disneyland and the Magic Kingdom exclusive of Liberty Square. The Walt Disney Company promised to increase this number with a combination of replicas and unique attractions. While there is no individual dedication to Magic Kingdom, the dedication by Roy O. Disney for the entire resort was placed within its gates; the only land added to the original roster of lands in the park was Mickey's Toontown Fair. The land opened in 1988 as Mickey's Birthdayland to celebrate Mickey Mouse's 60th birthday; the land was renovated as Mickey's Starland and to Mickey's Toontown Fair.
The land was home to attractions such as Mickey's Country House, Minnie's Country House, The Barnstormer at Goofy's Wiseacre Farm, Donald's Boat. It closed on February 2011, to make way for the expansion of Fantasyland; the Walt Disney World Railroad station in Mickey's Toontown Fair, which opened with Mickey's Birthdayland in 1988, was closed for the duration of the construction. In 2012, the space where Mickey's Toontown Fair sat reopened as a part of Fantasyland, in a sub-land called the Storybook Circus, where the Dumbo the Flying Elephant was relocated; the Barnstormer was re-themed to The Great Goofini. Since opening day, Magic Kingdom has been closed temporarily because of seven hurricanes: Floyd, Frances, Wilma and Irma; the only non-hurricane related day the park has closed is on September 11, 2001, due to the terrorist attacks that day. In addition, there are four "phases" of park closure when Magic Kingdom exceeds capacity, ranging from restricted access for most guests to full closure for everyone cast members."Magic Kingdom" was used as an unofficial nickname for Disneyland before Walt Disney World was built.
The official tagline for Disneyland is "The Happiest Place On Earth", while the tagline for Magic Kingdom is "The Most Magical Place On Earth". Up until the early 1990s, Magic Kingdom was known as Walt Disney World Magic Kingdom, was never printed without the Walt Disney World prefix; this purpose was to differentiate between the park and Disneyland in California, is commonly referred to as the Magic Kingdom. In 1994, to differentiate it from Disneyland, the park was renamed Magic Kingdom Park, but is still known as Magic Kingdom or sometimes The Magic Kingdom. Like all Disney theme parks, the official name of the park does not start with an article, though it is referred to that way. Alcoholic beverages had been prohibited from the park since its opening, but this policy has changed in recent years. In 2012, the Be Our Guest restaurant opened selling beer for the first time; this was the only place in the park where alcohol was permitted until December 2016 when four additional restaurants began selling beer and wine including Cinderella's Royal Table, Liberty Tree Tavern, Tony's Town Square Restaurant, the Jungle Navigation Co. Ltd.