The Côte dAzur, often known in English as the French Riviera, is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France, including the sovereign state of Monaco. There is no boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from the Italian border in the east to Saint-Tropez, Hyères, Toulon. This coastline was one of the first modern resort areas and it began as a winter health resort for the British upper class at the end of the 18th century. In the summer, it played home to many members of the Rothschild family. After World War II, it became a popular tourist destination and convention site, many celebrities, such as Elton John and Brigitte Bardot, have homes in the region. Officially, the Côte dAzur is home to 163 nationalities with 83,962 foreign residents and its largest city is Nice, which has a population of 347,060. The city is the center of a communauté urbaine – Nice-Côte dAzur – bringing together 24 communes, Nice is home to Nice Côte dAzur Airport, Frances third-busiest airport, which is on an area of partially reclaimed coastal land at the western end of the Promenade des Anglais.
A second airport at Mandelieu was once the commercial airport. The A8 autoroute runs through the region, as does the old main road known as the Route nationale 7. Trains serve the region and inland to Grasse, with the TGV Sud Est service reaching Nice-Ville station in five. The French Riviera has a population of more than two million. The region has 35,000 students, of whom 25 percent are working toward a doctorate, the French Riviera is a major yachting and cruising area with several marinas along its coast. As a tourist center, French Riviera benefits from 310 to 330 days of sunshine per year,115 kilometres of coastline, the name Côte dAzur was given to the coast by the writer Stéphen Liégeard in his book, La Côte d’azur, published in December 1887. Liégeard was born in Dijon, in the French department of Côte-dOr, the term French Riviera is typical of English use. It was built by analogy with the term Italian Riviera, which extends east of the French Riviera. As early as the 19th century, the British referred to the region as the Riviera or the French Riviera, usually referring to the part of the coast.
Originally, riviera is an Italian noun which means coastline, in Occitan and French, the only usual names are Còsta dAzur in Occitan and Côte dAzur in French. A name like French Riviera is unusual and sounds odd, it could work as a word-to-word translation of the British point of view
Bormes-les-Mimosas is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in southeastern France. Bormes-les-Mimosas is a city in bloom and won the 2003 Gold Medal awarded by the Entente Florale, the Fort de Brégançon, located in the commune, was the official retreat for the President of the French Republic until 2013. The historical village is on the hills, medieval houses are overgrown with bougainvillea flowers. Some significant buildings include the church and the town hall, other parts of town include the seaside district of La Faviere with its marina. Hippolyte de Bouchard, was born in Bormes-les-Mimosas, on January 15,1780, he was sailor and corsair who fought for independence of Argentina and Peru
The Var is a department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in Provence in southeastern France. It takes its name from the river Var, which used to flow along its eastern boundary, Toulon is the largest city and administrative capital of the Var. Other important towns in the Var include Fréjus, Saint-Raphaël, Brignoles, Hyères, the Department of the Var was created at the time of the French Revolution, on March 4,1790, from a portion of the former Royal province of Provence. Its capital was originally Toulon, but this was moved to Grasse in 1793 to punish the Toulonnais for having handed the town to the British in 1793, subsequently the capital was moved to Brignoles in 1795, to Draguignan in 1797. It was not returned to Toulon until 1974,1815 - Following the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo the department was occupied by Austrian troops until November 1818. 1854 – The first railroad reaches Toulon and this move shifted the Var River, which had given the department its name, to the new Department.
1884 – A cholera epidemic struck Toulon, the leader of the fight against the epidemic was Georges Clemenceau, a doctor and a member of the National Assembly for the Seine region. He was elected Deputy from the Var from 1888 to 1893 and Senator from 1902 to 1920, 1914–1918 – The First World War stimulates growth in shipyards and military industries in the region, but weakens the agricultural and food industry. 1942 – The German Army moves from Occupied France into the Unoccupied Zone, the French Fleet is sabotaged in Toulon Harbor to keep it from falling into German hands. The Maquis Vallier, a group of resistance fighters, is active. August 15,1944 – American and Free French forces land at Cap Nègre, at Trayas, at Saint-Tropez, at Sainte-Maxime, the Free French fleet arrived at Toulon on September 13. 1960s – About one hundred thousand French citizens were repatriated from Algeria following the Algerian War of Independence, the Department of the Var has a surface area of 6,032 km2, and 420 km of coastline, including the offshore islands.
56% of the Var is covered with forest and its geological formations are divided into two regions, one composed of limestone to the north-west of a line between Toulon and Draguignan, and of crystalline rock to the south-east. The department is in the foothills of the Alps and is largely mountainous, the major mountains include, Massif des Maures and Massif de lEsterel, along the coast, are made of quartz rock. The Sainte-Baume mountain ridge, which lies in the west, mountain of Lachens, in the northwest of the department, and the highest point in the Var. The Plateau of Canjuers is located in the northeast of the Var, in the south and west there are several plateaus, such as the plateau of Siou Blanc to the north of Toulon, which rise from 400 to 700 metres in altitude. The Canyon du Verdon, the gorges of the Verdon River, is a place for hikers, kayakers. The Îles dHyères is a group of three islands off Hyères The islands are named Porquerolles, Port-Cros, and Île du Levant, they make up an area of 26 km2
Aups is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in southeastern France. Located in Provence at 500m alt, Aups is in the first foothills of the Alps, the town is at the gates of Verdon River, at 60 km from the sea and 80 km from the snow stations. Aups is named Capital of Haut-Var and Capital of the truffle and was made a part of the Parc naturel régional du Verdon in 2000 and its typically Mediterranean climate makes the village a healthy place to live. The village was named Oppidum de Alpibus Castrum de Alpibus, castrum de Almis, the place was colonized by the Oxybians during the time of Ancient Rome, near Via Aurelia going from Fréjus to Riez. Julius Caesar visited Aups on his way to conquering Gaul and he is supposed to have said, « I would rather be the first man in Aups than the second in Rome ». In 1574, the town was looted by the Huguenots, who massacred 18 residents, a statue called Maiden of the Massacre was erected on square where the massacre took place, in Clock Street.
Aups was the centre of the Var Republican insurgency in 1851 against the coup détat of Napoleon III, Aups was a stronghold of the French Resistance during World War II. The city earned the Croix de guerre avec palmes, Aups has the third largest black truffle market of France, known for its quality and importance. This market is held every Thursday from November to February, there is a colourful Provençal market, every Wednesday and Saturday featuring local products and handicrafts. J. R. R. Tolkien had a house near the village. Communes of the Var department INSEE
Brignoles is a commune in the Var département in the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur region in southern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department and it was the summer residence of the counts of Provence. Their castle dates from the thirteenth century and it was the birthplace of, Antoine Albalat, writer specialising in French literature. Saint Louis of Toulouse, bishop of Toulouse, françois dArbaud de Porchères, poet born in Brignoles in 1590, died in Senevoy in 1640. Writer of numerous poems, he was made, in 1634, Louis Paul Baille, baron de Saint-Pol et de lEmpire, French soldier of the 19th and 20th centuries. Amy Cissé, former French international basketball player, manu Diaz, former rugby union player. Fabrice Hadjadj and dramatist, teacher at the Lycée Ste Jeanne dArc since 2002, joseph-Louis Lambot, the inventor of ferro-cement which led to the development of reinforced concrete. His first construction was a made of cement which he tested on the lake at Besse-sur-Issole in 1848. The original prototype is preserved in the museum at Brignoles and this boat was patented on January 30,1855, and presented at the 1855 Worlds Fair in Paris.
Jean-Baptiste Maunier, actor René Morizur, musician and buried in Brignoles, Victor Nicolas, sculptor who created many monuments in the departments of Var and Alpes Maritimes Joseph Parrocel, painter. Christian Philibert, film director and screenwriter, françois-Juste-Marie Raynouard, writer born in Brignoles in 1761. A bust of him by the sculptor Victor Nicolas, is in the Place St Pierre, Brignoles is twinned with the towns of, Communes of the Var department INSEE Official website of Brignoles Tourist Office