The Uruk-hai are fictional characters in J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional universe of Middle-earth, they are introduced in The Lord of the Rings as an advanced breed of Orcs that serve Sauron and Saruman. The first uruks appeared out of Mordor in attacks on Gondor in T. A. 2475. The name "Uruk-hai" has the element Uruk, a Black Speech word related to Orc, related to the word "Urko" in Tolkien's invented language of Quenya; the element hai means "folk", so "Uruk-hai" is "Orc-folk". A similar term is "Olog-hai", used for a breed of strong and vicious trolls capable of surviving sunlight. Christopher Tolkien describes "Uruks" as an anglicization of "Uruk-hai" and his father used the two terms interchangeably a number of times. While "Uruk-hai" means "Orc-folk", the term was reserved for the soldier orcs of Mordor and Isengard; the larger orcs called the smaller breeds snaga. The Uruk-hai, described as large black orcs of great strength, first appeared from Mordor about the year 2475 of the Third Age, when they took Ithilien and the city of Osgiliath.
These original Uruks were of Sauron's breeding, but Saruman bred his own, which could endure sunlight. Due to their superior size and strength, the Uruk looked down upon and bullied other breeds of orc. In The Two Towers, Aragorn observes that the fallen Uruk-hai at Amon Hen had different gear than he had seen before: swords and bows like those of men, shields and helmets set with the white hand and S-rune of Saruman. Treebeard speculates that Saruman had crossbred Men; these orcs, who named themselves "the fighting Uruk-hai", made up a large part of Saruman's army, together with the Dunlendings and other human enemies of Rohan. They were faster and larger than normal orcs, could travel during the day without being weakened, although they still did not like it. Saruman fed them with human flesh. Saruman's Uruk-hai fought against the Rohirrim at the Battles of the Fords of Isen, at the first of which King Théoden's son Théodred was killed, at the Battle of the Hornburg, where the vast majority of the Uruks were defeated and destroyed.
The chapter "The Uruk-hai" details some differences among the orcs. The raiding party included orcs from Mordor led by Grishnákh, Saruman's "fighting Uruk-hai" from Isengard led by Uglúk, "northerners", orcs from Moria, it was the dead Uruks from Isengard. The Uruk-hai of Isengard were the tallest of these orcs, had large hands and thick legs; the orcs of Mordor were all long-armed and crook-legged, not as tall as the Isengarders but larger and more powerful than the orcs from Moria. The orcs of Moria in turn could see better in the dark than the Isengarders. Grishnákh from Mordor is described as "short" but "very broad". In The Return of the King the orcs Shagrat and Gorbag are identified as Uruks of Mordor; the Lord of the Rings describes several differences in the equipment and heraldry of Uruks and other orcs. Uruks and other orcs in the service of Barad-dûr used the symbol of the red Eye of Sauron; the orcs of Mordor referred to Sauron as the Great Eye, the Red Eye was painted on their shields.
In contrast, Aragorn comments that the Uruk-hai of Saruman were not equipped in the manner of other orcs at all: instead of curved scimitars, they used short broad-bladed swords. It was clear the "S" stood for Saruman, considering Sauron's general desire not to have his name written or spoken. Saruman's Uruks used black shields emblazoned with a symbol of Saruman; the book speculates that Saruman commands various hybrids of Men, including in the Shire. Some of these, called "half-orcs" in The Two Towers, were sallow-skinned, squint-eyed, as tall as men. Merry describes them as "horrible: man-high, but with goblin-faces". An account of the first Battle of the Fords of Isen in Unfinished Tales treats Uruk-hai and "orc-men" separately. In Morgoth's Ring, Tolkien states that Saruman did interbreed orcs and men, resulting in "Man-orcs large and cunning, Orc-men treacherous and vile." However, the relationship of the Uruk-hai, as well as half-orcs and "goblin-men", to these creatures is not made explicit.
In Ralph Bakshi's animated The Lord of the Rings, differences between Orc kinds are not noted, though there are recurring physical and costume variations. In Peter Jackson's film trilogy, Saruman's Uruk-hai are bred from pits beneath Isengard and when the time is "right" they are dug up by lesser orcs working for Saruman, who are killed by the newborn Uruks. Jackson's depiction of the Uruks being spawned from the mud came from Tolkien's old description of orcs being "bred from the heats and slimes of the earth." It is said they were a result of cross-breeding orcs and "Goblin-men", instead of Men. In Tolkien's writings "Goblin" is just another term for orc; the film versions of the Uruk-hai tend to be tall, broad and with long black hair. They wield hooked broadswords and pikes; the first of them is Lurtz, an original character, the first of Saruman's Uruk-hai to be bred and leads the raiding party that ambush the Fellowship of the Ring at Amon Hen, where Lurtz himself fatally wounds Boromir before being slain in turn by Aragorn.
The Uruks are shown to use crossbows at Helm's Deep, though Tolkien does not mention the weapon in the book. Berserker Uruks were used during the siege of Helm's Deep, both to clear the ramparts of defenders and to detonate explosive mines to breach the deeping wall; these Uruks were tall, wore no armour and were prepared for battle by donning helmets filled with the blood of their enemy. Sauron is shown to have bred his own Uruk-hai, known as Black Uruks, they can be
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in 1962; the book contains 16 poems, two of which feature Tom Bombadil, a character encountered by Frodo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring. The rest of the poems are an assortment of bestiary fairy tale rhyme. Three of the poems appear in The Lord of the Rings as well; the book is part of Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium. The volume includes The Sea-Bell, subtitled Frodos Dreme, which W. H. Auden considered Tolkien's best poem, it is a piece of metrical and rhythmical complexity that recounts a journey to a strange land beyond the sea. Drawing on medieval'dream vision' poetry and Irish'immram' poems the piece is markedly melancholic and the final note is one of alienation and disillusion; the book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and by Roger Garland. The book, like the first edition of The Fellowship of the Ring, is presented as if it is an actual translation from the Red Book of Westmarch, contains some background information on the world of Middle-earth, not found elsewhere: e.g. the name of the tower at Dol Amroth and the names of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.
There is some fictional background information of those poems, linking them to Hobbit folklore and literature and to their actual writers. The book uses the letter "K" instead of "C" for the /k/ sound in Sindarin, a spelling variant Tolkien used many times in his writings; the Adventures of Tom Bombadil Bombadil Goes Boating Errantry Princess Mee The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late* The Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon The Stone Troll* Perry-the-Winkle The Mewlips Oliphaunt* Fastitocalon Cat Shadow-bride The Hoard The Sea-Bell The Last Ship*Poems featured in The Lord of the Rings The Adventures of Tom Bombadil was first published as a stand-alone book in 1962. Some editions, such as the Unwin Paperbacks edition and Poems and Stories, erroneously state that it was first published in'1961'. Tolkien's letters confirm. Beginning with The Tolkien Reader in 1966, it was included in a number of anthologies of Tolkien's shorter works; this trend continued after his death with Tales from the Perilous Realm.
In 2014 Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond edited a new stand-alone edition, which includes for each poem detailed commentary, original versions and their sources. Barrow-wight Farmer Maggot Goldberry Old Forest Old Man Willow The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King is a 2003 epic fantasy adventure film co-produced, co-written, directed by Peter Jackson based on the second and third volumes of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, it is the last installment in The Lord of the Rings trilogy, following The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers, preceding The Hobbit film trilogy. Released on 17 December 2003, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King became one of the most critically and commercially successful films of all time, is considered one of the greatest films made, it was the second film to gross $1 billion worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing film released by New Line Cinema, as well as the biggest financial success for Time Warner in general at the time. The film was the highest-grossing film of 2003 and, by the end of its theatrical run, the second highest-grossing film in history; as of February 2019, it is the twenty second highest-grossing film of all time. At the 76th Academy Awards, it won all 11 Academy Awards for which it was nominated, therefore holding the record for the highest clean sweep at the Oscars.
The wins included the award for the first time a fantasy film had done so. The film jointly holds the record for most Academy Awards won by a single film with Ben-Hur and Titanic. Two Hobbits, Sméagol and Déagol, are fishing. Sméagol is ensnared by the Ring, kills his friend for it, he retreats into the Misty Mountains as the Ring twists his body and mind, until he becomes the creature Gollum. Centuries Gandalf leads Aragorn, Legolas and King Théoden to Isengard, where they reunite with Merry and Pippin. Gandalf retrieves the defeated Saruman's palantír. Pippin looks into the seeing-stone, is telepathically attacked by Sauron. Gandalf deduces, he rides there to warn Gondor's steward Denethor, taking Pippin with him. Gollum leads Frodo Samwise Gamgee to Minas Morgul; the hobbits begin climbing a stair carved in the cliff face that will take them into Mordor via a'secret way' - unaware that Gollum plans to kill them and take the Ring. Sauron's army strikes and overwhelms Osgiliath, forcing Faramir and his garrison to retreat to Minas Tirith.
Gollum disposes of the Hobbits' food. Frodo tells Sam to go home, before Frodo and Gollum continue to the tunnel leading to Mordor, where Gollum tricks him into venturing into the lair of the giant spider Shelob. Frodo narrowly escapes and confronts Gollum, telling him that he must destroy the Ring for both their sakes. Gollum falls down a chasm. Frodo continues on, but Shelob discovers and binds him. However, Sam drives her away. Sam hides as Orcs take Frodo with them. Sam follows the Orcs into the Tower of Cirith Ungol, frees Frodo so they can continue their journey. Aragorn learns from Elrond that Arwen is dying, having refused to leave Middle Earth after seeing a vision of her son with Aragorn. Elrond gives Aragorn Andúril, Isildur's sword Narsil reforged, so he can reclaim his birthright while gaining reinforcements from the Dead Men of Dunharrow. Joined by Legolas and Gimli, Aragorn travels to the Paths of the Dead, recruiting the Army of the Dead by pledging to release them from the curse Isildur put on them.
Faramir is gravely wounded after a futile effort to retake Osgiliath. Gandalf is left to defend the city against the Orc army, led by Gothmog; as Gothmog's army forces its way into the city, Denethor attempts to kill himself and Faramir on a pyre. Pippin alerts Gandalf and they save Faramir, but a burning Denethor leaps to his death from the top of Minas Tirith just before Théoden and his nephew, Éomer, arrive with the Rohirrim. During the ensuing battle, they are overwhelmed by the Oliphaunt-riding Haradrim, while the Witch-king of Angmar mortally wounds Théoden. Though Théoden's niece Éowyn destroys the Witch-King with Merry's help, Théoden dies of his wounds. Aragorn arrives with the Army of the Dead, who win the battle. Aragorn decides to lead his army upon the Black Gate as a distraction, so Frodo and Sam can get to Mount Doom. Aragorn's army draw out Sauron's forces and empties Mordor, allowing Frodo and Sam to reach the volcano, but Gollum attacks them just as they reach Mount Doom. Frodo claims it as his own.
Gollum bites his finger off to reclaim the Ring. Frodo fights back and knocks Gollum, holding the Ring, into the volcano, destroying the Ring and killing Gollum; as Frodo and Sam escape, Sauron is destroyed and Mordor crumbles. Gandalf flies in with eagles to rescue the Hobbits, who awaken in Minas Tirith and are reunited with the surviving Fellowship members. Aragorn takes Arwen as his queen; the Hobbits return home to the Shire. A few years Frodo departs Middle Earth for the Undying Lands with his uncle Bilbo and the Elves, he leaves Sam the Red Book of Westmarch. Sam returns to the Shire, where he embraces Rosie and their children. Like the preceding films in the trilogy, The Return of the King has an ensemble cast, some of the cast and their respective characters include: Elijah Wood as Frodo Baggins: a young hobbit who continues his quest to destroy the One Ring. Ian McKellen as Gandalf: a wizard who travels to aid the Men of Gondor, acting as a general at the Siege of Gondor. Sean Astin as
The Lord of the Rings (film series)
The Lord of the Rings is a film series of three epic fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson, based on the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien; the films are subtitled The Fellowship of The Two Towers and The Return of the King. They are a New Zealand-American venture, produced by WingNut Films and The Saul Zaentz Company and distributed by New Line Cinema; the trilogy was one of the biggest and most ambitious film projects undertaken, with a reported budget of $281–330 million. The three films were shot and in Jackson's native New Zealand. One in every 160 New Zealanders participated in the production. A special extended edition of each film was released on DVD a year after its theatrical release. While the films follow the book's general storyline, they omit some plot elements and include additions to and deviations from the source material. Set in the fictional world of Middle-earth, the films follow the hobbit Frodo Baggins as he and the Fellowship embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring, to ensure the destruction of its maker, the Dark Lord Sauron.
The Fellowship splits up and Frodo continues the quest with his loyal companion Sam and the treacherous Gollum. Meanwhile, heir in exile to the throne of Gondor, along with Legolas, Merry and the wizard Gandalf, unite to rally the Free Peoples of Middle-earth in the War of the Ring in order to aid Frodo by weakening Sauron's forces; the series was met with overwhelming praise. It was a major financial success, is among the highest-grossing film series of all time; each film was critically acclaimed and awarded, winning 17 out of their 30 Academy Award nominations. The series's final film, The Return of the King, won all 11 of its Academy Award nominations including Best Picture, tying with Ben-Hur and Titanic for the record of most Academy Awards won by a single film; the series received wide praise for its innovative visual effects. Director Peter Jackson first came into contact with The Lord of the Rings when he saw Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film The Lord of the Rings. Jackson "enjoyed the film and wanted to know more."
Afterwards, he read a tie-in edition of the book during a twelve-hour train journey from Wellington to Auckland when he was seventeen. In 1995, Jackson was finishing The Frighteners and considered The Lord of the Rings as a new project, wondering "why nobody else seemed to be doing anything about it". With the new developments in computer-generated imagery following Jurassic Park, Jackson set about planning a fantasy film that would be serious and feel real. By October, he and his partner Fran Walsh teamed up with Miramax Films boss Harvey Weinstein to negotiate with Saul Zaentz who had held the rights to the book since the early 1970s, pitching an adaptation of The Hobbit and two films based on The Lord of the Rings. Negotiations stalled when Universal Studios offered Jackson a remake of King Kong. Weinstein was furious, further problems arose when it turned out Zaentz did not have distribution rights to The Hobbit. By April 1996, the rights question was still not resolved. Jackson decided to move ahead with King Kong before filming The Lord of the Rings, prompting Universal to enter a deal with Miramax to receive foreign earnings from The Lord of the Rings while Miramax received foreign earnings from King Kong.
It was revealed that Jackson wanted to finish King Kong before The Lord of the Rings began. But due to location problems, he decided to start with The Lord of the Rings franchise instead; when Universal cancelled King Kong in 1997, Jackson and Walsh received support from Weinstein and began a six-week process of sorting out the rights. Jackson and Walsh asked Costa Botes to write a synopsis of the book and they began to re-read the book. Two to three months they had written their treatment; the first film would have dealt with what would become The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, the beginning of The Return of the King, ending with Saruman's death, Gandalf and Pippin going to Minas Tirith. In this treatment and Gandalf visit Edoras after escaping Saruman, Gollum attacks Frodo when the Fellowship is still united, Farmer Maggot, Radagast and Elrohir are present. Bilbo attends the Council of Elrond, Sam looks into Galadriel's mirror, Saruman is redeemed before he dies and the Nazgûl just make it into Mount Doom before they fall.
They presented their treatment to Harvey and Bob Weinstein, the latter of whom they focused on impressing with their screenwriting as he had not read the book. They agreed upon a total budget of $75 million. During mid-1997, Jackson and Walsh began writing with Stephen Sinclair. Sinclair's partner, Philippa Boyens, was a major fan of the book and joined the writing team after reading their treatment, it took 13 -- 14 months to write the two film scripts, which were 144 pages respectively. Sinclair left the project due to theatrical obligations. Amongst their revisions, Sam is caught eavesdropping and forced to go along with Frodo, as occurs in the original novel. In the final treatment Sam and Pippin infer the existence of One Ring and voluntarily go along after confronting Frodo about it. Gandalf's account of his time at Orthanc was pulled out of flashback and Lothlórien was cut, with Galadriel doing what she does in the story at Rivendell. Denethor attends the Council with his son. Other changes included having Arwen rescue Frodo, the action sequence involving the cave troll.
The writers considered having Arw
Théoden is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy novel, The Lord of the Rings; the King and Lord of the Mark of Rohan, he appears as a major supporting character in The Two Towers and The Return of the King. When first introduced, Théoden is weak with age and sorrow and the machinations of his top advisor, Grima Wormtongue, he does nothing as his kingdom is crumbling. Once roused by Gandalf, however, he becomes an instrumental ally in the war against Saruman and Sauron. Théoden is introduced in The Two Towers, the second volume of The Lord of the Rings, as the King of Rohan. By the time of the War of the Ring, Théoden had grown weak with age, was controlled by his chief advisor Gríma, secretly in the employ of the corrupt wizard Saruman. In Unfinished Tales, it is implied that the failure of the king's health was "...induced or increased by subtle poisons, administered by Gríma". As Théoden sat powerless, Rohan was troubled by Orcs and Dunlendings, who operated under the will of Saruman, ruling from Isengard.
When his son Théodred was mortally wounded at a battle at the Fords of Isen, Théoden's nephew Éomer became his heir. However, Éomer was out of favour with Wormtongue, who had him arrested; when Gandalf the White and Aragorn, along with Legolas and Gimli, appeared before him in The Two Towers, Théoden rebuffed the wizard's advice to oppose Saruman. When Gandalf revealed Wormtongue for what he was, however, Théoden returned to his senses, he restored his nephew, took up his sword Herugrim, in spite of his age, led the Riders of Rohan into the Battle of the Hornburg. After this he became known as the Renewed. In The Return of the King, Théoden led the Rohirrim to the aid of Gondor at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. In that battle he routed the Harad cavalry killing their chieftain and banner-bearer in the process, he challenged the Witch-king of Angmar, the leader of the Nazgûl, was mortally wounded when his horse Snowmane fell upon him. He was avenged by his niece Éowyn and the hobbit Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck, who had ridden to war in secret.
Before mustering the Rohirrim to ride to Gondor's aid, Théoden enlisted Merry into his army, but did not let the hobbit ride into battle at Pelennor. In his last moments, he appointed Éomer the next king. Théoden's body lay in Minas Tirith, he was the last of the Second Line of the kings, judging from direct descent from Eorl the Young. The appendices of The Return of the King explain that Théoden was the only son of King Thengel and Morwen of Lossarnach, he was the second-born of five children, the only boy. Théoden was closest to Théodwyn, he was born in Gondor. Théoden became king after the death of his father. Théodwyn lived with him in Edoras, he married Elfhild. After Théodwyn and her husband, Éomund died, he adopted their children, Éomer and Éowyn. In his prime, Théoden was a strong and vital king respected by his subjects; as with other Men of the Riddermark, Théoden was a skilled horseman. He acted as the First Marshal of the Mark after the death of Éomund, his sword was called Herugrim. In the etymology of Middle-earth, the name Théoden is a translation of Rohirric Tûrac, an old word for King.
Some scholars relate Théoden to the Old English word þēoden, meaning "leader of a people". As with other descriptive names in his legendarium, Tolkien uses this name to create the impression that the text is "'historical','real' or'archaic'"; the character of Théoden was inspired by a concept of courage as found in Norse mythology in the Beowulf epos: the protagonist of a story shows perseverance while knowing that he is going to be defeated and killed. This is reflected in Théoden's decision to ride against Sauron's far superior army in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. There are repeated references by Tolkien to a historic account of the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields by Jordanes. Both battles take place between civilizations of the "East" and "West", like Jordanes, Tolkien describes his battle as one of legendary fame that lasted for several generations. Another apparent similarity is the death of king Theodoric I on the Catalaunian Fields and that of Théoden on the Pelennor. Jordanes reports that Theodoric was thrown off by his horse and trampled to death by his own men who charged forward.
Théoden rallies his men shortly before he falls and is crushed by his horse. And like Theodoric, Théoden is carried from the battlefield with his knights weeping and singing for him while the battle still goes on. In one of Tolkien's early drafts, Théoden had a daughter by the name of Idis, but she was removed when her character was eclipsed by that of Éowyn. In Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated version of The Lord of the Rings, the voice of Théoden was provided by Philip Stone. Théoden appears in Rankin/Bass's attempt to complete the story left unfinished by Bakshi in their television adaptation of The Return of the King, though he speaks little, is voiced by Don Messick, his death is narrated by Gandalf. In the 1981 BBC Radio 4 version of The Lord of the Rings, Théoden's death is described in song rather than dramatized conventionally. In this adaptation he is voiced by Jack May. Théoden is an important character in Peter Jackson's film adaption of the Lord o
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is a publisher of textbooks, instructional technology materials, reference works, fiction and non-fiction for both young readers and adults. The company is based in Boston's Financial District; the company was known as Houghton Mifflin Company but changed its name following the 2007 acquisition of Harcourt Publishing. Prior to March 2010, it was a subsidiary of Education Media and Publishing Group Limited, an Irish-owned holding company registered in the Cayman Islands and known as Riverdeep. In 1832, William Ticknor and John Allen purchased a bookselling business in Boston and began to involve themselves in publishing. James Thomas Fields joined as a partner in 1843 and with Tickner gathered an impressive list of writers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry David Thoreau; the duo formed a close relationship with Riverside Press, a Boston printing company owned by Henry Oscar Houghton. Houghton founded his own publishing company with partner Melancthon Hurd in 1864, with George Mifflin joining the partnership in 1872.
In 1878, Ticknor and Fields, now under the leadership of James R. Osgood, found itself in financial difficulties and merged its operations with Hurd and Houghton; the new partnership, named Houghton and Company, held the rights to the literary works of both publishers. When Osgood left the firm two years the business reemerged as Houghton and Company. Despite a lucrative partnership with Lawson Valentine, Houghton and Company still had debt it had inherited from Ticknor and Fields, so it decided to add partners. In 1884 James D. Hurd, the son of Melancthon Hurd, became a partner. In 1888, three others became partners as well: James Murray Kay, Thurlow Weed Barnes, Henry Oscar Houghton Jr. Shortly thereafter, the company established an Educational Department, from 1891 to 1908 sales of educational materials increased by 500 percent; the firm incorporated in 1908. Soon after 1916, Houghton Mifflin became involved in publishing standardized tests and testing materials, working with such test developers as E. F. Lindquist.
By 1921, the company was the fourth-largest educational publisher in the United States. In 1961, Houghton Mifflin famously passed on Julia Child's Mastering the Art of French Cooking, giving it up to Alfred A. Knopf who published it in 1962, it is considered by many to be the bible of French cooking. Houghton Mifflin's strategic error was depicted in the 2009 film Julia. In 1967, Houghton Mifflin became a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol HTN. In 1979, Houghton Mifflin acquired the children's division of Seabury Press. Under president Nader F. Darehshori Houghton Mifflin acquired McDougal Littell in 1994 for $138 million, an educational publisher of secondary school materials, the following year acquired D. C. Heath and Company, a publisher of supplemental educational resources. In 1996, the company created their Great Source Education Group to combine the supplemental material product lines of their School Division and these two companies. In 1998, HMH announced a sub-brand called LOGAL Software, to release a new line of interactive science software called Science Gateways, to support the United States curriculum.
As of 2017, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is offering the "Logal Science" brand as a licensing opportunity on its website. In 2017, it was announced that Houghton Mifflin Harcourt would be getting involved in TV production with a planned 2019 Netflix series that will revive the Carmen Sandiego franchise. Mergers and acquisitions activities have had major effects on this company. In 2001, Houghton Mifflin was acquired by French media giant Vivendi Universal for $2.2 billion including assumed debt. In 2002, facing mounting financial and legal pressures, Vivendi sold Houghton to private equity investors Thomas H. Lee Partners, Bain Capital, Blackstone Group for $1.66 billion, including assumed debt. On December 22, 2006, it was announced that Riverdeep PLC had completed its acquisition of Houghton Mifflin; the new joint enterprise would be called the Houghton Mifflin Riverdeep Group. Riverdeep paid $1.75 billion in cash and assumed $1.61 billion in debt from the private investment firms Thomas H. Lee Partners, Bain Capital and Blackstone Group.
Tony Lucki, a former non-executive director of Riverdeep, remained in his position as the company's chief executive officer until April 2009. Houghton Mifflin sold its professional testing unit, Promissor, to Pearson plc in 2006; the company combined its remaining assessment products within Riverside Publishing, including San Francisco-based Edusoft. On July 16, 2007, Houghton Mifflin Riverdeep announced that it signed a definitive agreement to acquire the Harcourt Education, Harcourt Trade and Greenwood-Heinemann divisions of Reed Elsevier for $4 billion; the expanded company would become Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. McDougal Littell was merged with Harcourt's Rinehart & Winston to form Holt McDougal. On December 3, 2007, Cengage Learning announced that it had agreed to acquire the assets of the Houghton Mifflin College Division for $750 million, pending regulatory approval. On November 25, 2008, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt announced a temporary freeze on acquisition of new trade division titles in response to the economic crisis of 2008.
The publisher of the trade division resigned in protest. Many observers familiar with the publishing industry saw the move as a devastating blunder. Harcourt Religion was sold to Our Sunday Visitor in 2009. On July 27, 2009, the Irish