The Navasota River is a river in east Texas, United States. It is about 125 miles long, beginning near Mount Calm and flowing south into the Brazos River at a point where Brazos and Washington counties converge; the river has been known by several names. The indigenous people called it the Nabasoto, Domingo Terán de los Ríos called it San Cypriano, Fray Isidro Félix de Espinosa called it the San Buenaventura, in 1727, Pedro de Rivera y Villalón named it the Navasota; the Navasota River is dammed to form several lakes, including Lake Mexia, Springfield Lake, Joe Echols Lake, Lake Groesbeck, Lake Limestone, Martin Lake, Lake Fort Parker in Fort Parker State Park. List of rivers of Texas Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Third Edition. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster Incorporated, 1997
Navasota is a city in Grimes County and Brazos County, United States. The population was 7,049 at the 2010 census, rising to an estimated 7,666 in 2018. In 2005, the Texas Legislature named the city "The Blues Capital of Texas", in honor of the late Mance Lipscomb, a Navasota native and blues musician. Navasota is located in southwestern Grimes County, east of the Navasota River, a tributary of the Brazos River, it is 71 miles northwest of Houston. The main part of Navasota is within Texas. Texas State Highway 105 passes through the center of Navasota, leading southwest 25 miles to Brenham and east 41 miles to Conroe. Texas State Highway 6 passes through the eastern side of the city as a four-lane bypass, leading northwest 22 miles to College Station and south 21 miles to Hempstead. Part of Texas State Highway 6 lies in Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.47%, are water. Navasota was founded by European Americans in 1831 as a stagecoach stop named "Nolansville".
Its name was changed in 1858 to Navasota, a name derived from the Native American word nabatoto. After September 1859, when the Houston and Texas Central Railway built into the town, Navasota became important as a shipping and marketing center for the surrounding area; when nearby Washington-on-the-Brazos resisted the coming of the rails, the old historic town forfeited its geographic advantage. It began to decline after many of its businesses and residents began to migrate to the new railhead 7 miles to the northeast across the Brazos River at Navasota. Slavery was integral to the local economy. Planters depended on enslaved African Americans as the workers on their large cotton plantations; the slaves were sold in the domestic slave trade. And local businesses supplied them. Guns were made in nearby Anderson. Cotton and shoes were made and stored there for the Confederacy during the American Civil War. By 1865 the population was about 2,700. All during the Civil War, all the marketable goods produced in the region were brought to Navasota the furthest inland railhead in Texas.
Such goods were shipped south by rail to Galveston, where they could be transported by steamboat along the Texas coast and up the Mississippi River to the war effort, or exported to Mexico or overseas to Europe. Navasota suffered a series of disasters in the mid-1860s that depleted its population. In 1865 a warehouse filled with cotton and gunpowder exploded after it was torched by vagrant Confederate veterans. Not long afterward the town was struck by a deadly cholera epidemic, followed in 1867 by an more dangerous epidemic of yellow fever; as many Navasota citizens, including the mayor, fled to escape the disease, the town population dropped by about 50 percent. In the late 1860s the KKK spread into Navasota. One one occasion a tense confrontation between federal soldiers and a crowd of local whites occurred there. Navasota was considered such a "wild and woolly" place, that women and children were discouraged from going downtown in broad daylight; the downtown buildings were overrun with lawless ruffians, gamblers and drunks.
Lawmen had to hide and watch, were afraid of the streets at night. There were many saloons and gaming halls to entertain the cowboys, railroad men, others on the loose; every Sunday morning the undertaker hitched up the buggy and went downtown to collect the bodies he expected to find, after another wild Saturday night. The greatest and most publicized violence was around the turn of the century, during the decline of the Populist Party in Grimes County, the re-election efforts of Populist candidate Garrett Scott for County Sheriff. A man who spent his entire life in Grimes County, Scott had political skill, he worked well with the black population. Since before the Civil War, the population of the county had been majority black because of planters' dependence on slavery. Few freedmen had relocated after emancipation, but in 1900, the White Man's Union began to attack blacks with mobs from Grimes and surrounding counties. Despite resentment by much of the white population, Scott had been reelected several times, served as sheriff for the better part of two decades.
During this time a number of black Republican candidates succeeded in their election efforts. An all-white mob flooded into Anderson on November 7, 1900, where they killed Emmett Lee Scott, John I. Bradley, many unnamed black residents of the county. A gunman in the courthouse cupola shot Sheriff Scott, his niece, Nealy Tuck, came out of the jail and threw herself over him to protect him from the rage of bullets that rained down from unseen assailants in the courthouse. The only WMU participant to die was William McDonald, the son of Judge McDonald; the assassination attempt failed as Scott was dragged to the jail and survived. He and a large portion of his extended family were pinned down in the jail for many days by constant gunfire. Scott's aunt Elizabeth Rowan Scott Neblett implored the governor to intervene. So did Scott's father, John Newton Scott, his two surviving brothers, postmaster James D. Scott, Navasota lawman John H. Scott, they sent urgent telegrams to the governor explaining how many men and women were "pinned down" in the Anderson Jail with no hope of leaving alive
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Waller County, Texas
Waller County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,205, its county seat is Hempstead. The county was named for Edwin Waller, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and first mayor of Austin. Waller County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Although a majority-white county, it is home of the HBCU Prairie View A&M University. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 518 square miles, of which 513 square miles are land and 4.4 square miles are covered by water. Grimes County Montgomery County Harris County Fort Bend County Austin County Washington County As of the 2000 Census, 32,663 people, 10,557 households, 7,748 families resided in the county; the population density was 64 people per square mile. The 11,955 housing units averaged 23 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 57.83% White, 29.25% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 10.28% from other races, 1.76% from two or more races.
About 19.42% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 10,557 households, 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 13.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were not families. About 21.00% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.25. In the county, the population was distributed as 25.70% under the age of 18, 18.10% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 9.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,136, for a family was $45,868. Males had a median income of $34,447 versus $25,583 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,338. About 11.50% of families and 16.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.00% of those under age 18 and 12.30% of those age 65 or over.
Igloo Corporation, a manufacturer of cooling and portable refrigeration products, is headquartered in unincorporated Waller County between Brookshire and Katy. In 2004, Igloo announced that it was consolidating its corporate and manufacturing operations in Waller County. Goya Foods has its Texas offices in an unincorporated area of the county near Brookshire. District 18: Lois Kolkhorst - first elected in 2014. District 28: John Zerwas - first elected in 2006. A history of controversies exists regarding the reluctance of county officials to allow students attending black Prairie View A&M University to vote in Waller County; as reported by the US District Court in Veasey v Perry, October 2014, pp 6–7 verbatim: In 1971, after the 26th Amendment extended the vote to those 18 years old and older, Waller County, home to Prairie View A&M University, a Black university, became troubled with race issues. Waller County's tax assessor and voter registrar prohibited students from voting unless they or their families owned property in the county.
This practice was ended by a three-judge court in 1979. In 1992, a county prosecutor indicted PVAMU students for illegally voting, but dropped the charges after receiving a protest from the DOJ. In 2003, a PVAMU student ran for the commissioner's court; the local district attorney and county attorney threatened to prosecute students for voter fraud—for not meeting the old domicile test. These threatened prosecutions were enjoined, but Waller County reduced early voting hours, harmful to students because the election day was during their spring break. After the NAACP filed suit, Waller County reversed the changes to early voting and the student narrowly won the election. In 2007-08, during Senator Barack Obama's campaign for president, Waller County made a number of voting changes without seeking clearance; the county rejected “incomplete” voter registrations and required volunteer deputy registrars to find and notify the voters of the rejection. The county limited the number of new registrations any VDR could submit, thus limiting the success of voter registration drives.
These practices were prohibited by a consent decree. In 2018, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund filed a lawsuit a U. S. district court, alleging that the county's early-voting plan unduly limits early voting opportunities for students at Prairie View A&M. On October 10, Jacob Aronowitz, a field director for Democratic U. S. House candidate Mike Siegel, delivered a letter from Siegel, which indicated a solution to attempts to keep students at Prairie View A&M University from voting, to a clerk on the county executive's staff; as a result, Aronowitz was arrested for what he was told was "48 hour investigative detention". It appears. School districts serving Waller County include: Hempstead Independent School District Royal Independent School District Katy Independent School District Waller Independent School District Brazos Valley Sudbury School was in operation in Waller County. Prairie View A&M University is the only university located within the county. Interstate 10 U. S. Highway 90 U. S. Highway 290 State Highway 6The TTC-69 component of the onc
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Washington County, Texas
Washington County is a county in Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 33,718, its county seat is Brenham, located on the Brazos River. The county was created in 1835 as a municipality of Mexico and organized as a county in 1837. is named for George Washington, the first president of the United States. Washington County comprises the Brenham, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Houston-The Woodlands, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Washington-on-the-Brazos in the county is notable as the site of the signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence during the Convention of 1836. Reflecting the county's history as a destination of mid-19th-century German immigrants who came after the 1848 German revolutions, in the 2000 US Census more than one-third of residents identified as being of German ancestry. In 2013, the syndicated television series, Texas Country Reporter, hosted by Bob Phillips, declared the highways between Brenham and Chappel Hill as the No. 2 site for the viewing of wildflowers within Texas.
The first ranking went to the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center in Austin. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622 square miles, of which 604 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 290 State Highway 36 State Highway 105 Brazos County Grimes County Waller County Austin County Fayette County Lee County Burleson County As of the census of 2000, there were 30,373 people, 11,322 households, 7,936 families residing in the county; the population density was 50 people per square mile. There were 13,241 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.68% White, 18.66% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 4.02% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 8.71 % of the population identified as Latino of any race. 33.6% identified as of German, 6.1% American, 5.7% English, 5.3% Irish and 5.0% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 88.1% spoke English, 8.6% Spanish, 1.2% German as their first language.
There were 11,322 households out of which 31.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.80% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 16.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,760, the median income for a family was $43,982. Males had a median income of $31,698 versus $21,346 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,384. About 9.80% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.80% of those under age 18 and 14.50% of those age 65 or over.
Brenham Burton Cedar Creek – a mile north of Chappell Hill Since the 1940s, Washington County has been powerfully Republican, with the only Democratic Presidential candidate to carry it since Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1936 landslide being Hill Country native Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. Since 1968 no Democrat has gained 41 percent of the county’s vote, Bill Clinton in 1996 remains the last to reach thirty percent; the GOP was competitive in the county during the Third Party System and to a smaller extent during the “System of 1896” era as the county had a sizeable freedman population, but the county became “Solid South” Democratic for a brief period once that freedman population was disfranchised. Following the New Deal, the entirely white electorate of Washington County –, being stripped of its freedman population by the Great Migration – was one of the first to turn against FDR, voting for Wendell Willkie in 1940 at a time when most Black Belt counties would vote over ninety percent for Democrats due to Reconstruction memories.
Washington was one of eleven Texas counties to vote in 1920 for American Party candidate James E. Ferguson, the solitary county to give a majority to the conservative “Texas Regulars”, which were a predecessor to the numerous “Dixiecrat” movements of the following two decades, in the 1944 election. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Washington County Washington County government's website Washington County from the Handbook of Texas Online Record Book of Conditional Land Grants for Washington County, 1841, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Walker County, Texas
Walker County is a county located in the east central section of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 67,861, its county seat is Huntsville. Walker County was named for Robert J. Walker, a legislator from Mississippi who introduced into the United States Congress the resolution to annex Texas. Walker supported the Union during the Civil War and earned some enmity. In order to keep the county's name, the state renamed it for Samuel H. Walker, a Texas Ranger and soldier in the United States Army. Walker County is part of the Huntsville, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Houston–The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area. Americans James Mitchell and his wife, the former Calpernia Franklin, immigrated to the future Walker County in 1833 and were awarded a Mexican land grant. Mitchell, who became one of the first county commissioners, established the Mitchell House and Inn on the Old San Antonio Road known as El Camino Real. During the 1840s, the house was a stop for hungry stagecoach travelers.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 802 square miles, of which 784 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. Interstate 45 U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 19 State Highway 30 State Highway 75 Houston County Trinity County San Jacinto County Montgomery County Grimes County Madison County Sam Houston National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 61,758 people, 18,303 households, 11,384 families residing in the county; the population density was 78 people per square mile. There were 21,099 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.12% White, 23.88% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.42% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. 14.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,303 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.80% were married couples living together, 11.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.80% were non-families.
27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 18.00% under the age of 18, 23.00% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, 8.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 151.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 161.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,468, the median income for a family was $42,589. Males had a median income of $27,634 versus $22,579 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,508. About 10.60% of families and 18.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.10% of those under age 18 and 13.40% of those age 65 or over. Sam Houston State University is located in Huntsville. School districts serving portions of the county include: Huntsville Independent School District New Waverly Independent School District Richards Independent School District Trinity Independent School District The Gulf Coast Trades Center, a charter school, is in an unincorporated area of the county.
The headquarters of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the Texas agency that operates adult state correctional facilities, are in Huntsville. Walker County has the highest number of state jails of all of the counties in Texas. Several TDCJ prisons for men, including the Byrd Unit, the Goree Unit, the Huntsville Unit, the Wynne Unit, are in the Huntsville city limits; the Holliday Unit, a transfer unit, is in Huntsville. In addition the Ellis Unit and the Estelle Unit are in unincorporated areas of Walker County; the Huntsville Unit houses the State of Texas execution chamber. Huntsville New Waverly Riverside Dodge Eugene C. Barker Marilyn McAdams Sibley Walker County Jane Doe, an unidentified teenager or young woman found murdered on November 1, 1980 National Register of Historic Places listings in Walker County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Walker County John N. Raney Kate Borcherding Walker County government's website Walker County from the Handbook of Texas Online