Gríms saga loðinkinna
Gríms saga loðinkinna, or The Saga of Grim Shaggy-Cheek is one of the legendary sagas. It takes place in 8th century Norway, it is one of the sagas called the Hrafnistumannasögur surrounding his relatives. Grimr Loðinkinna was the son of Ketill Hængr. From birth, one of his cheeks was covered with dark hair and that area was impervious to weapons, he ruled over most of Halogaland, a province in northern Norway, traveled south to betroth Lofthæna, daughter of a powerful ruler in the Oslo Fjord. Seven nights before the wedding, Lofthæna mysteriously disappears. On a subsequent trip to Finnmark in the far north, Grímr vanquishes two trolls in a cave encounter and loses all his men in a pitched battle over a beached whale. Close to death himself, a hideous troll woman offers to help him, but only if he will kiss her and lie with her at night, he awakes to find Lofthæna, transformed to an ogress by Grímhildr, her wicked step-mother. They return to the Oslo Fjord, have Grímhildr stoned to death, marry.
Years their beautiful, 12-year-old daughter, Brynhildr, is wooed by the land owner Sörkvir. Angered by her rejection the unwelcome suitor challenges Grímr and his men to a duel on an island and shows up with eleven berserkers. Grímr dispatches Sörkvir and his shield bearer with one blow and he and his men kill the berserkers; the remainder of the saga mentions numerous descendants of Grímr. Besides the many folktale motifs and seven skaldic stanzas, of special interest in this short saga is the cave encounter with a troll pair, not just because it can be linked to the Bear’s Son Folktale, but because it contains a verbal parallel there to Hálfdanar saga Brönufóstra showing that both sagas were using a common, written source. Ohlmarks, Åke.. Fornnordiskt lexikon. Tiden. ISBN 91-550-2511-0 The saga in English translation with Facing Old Norse Text The saga in Icelandic
Hagen or Högni is a Burgundian warrior in tales about the Burgundian kingdom at Worms. Hagen is identified as a brother or half-brother of King Gunther. In the Nibelungenlied he is nicknamed "from Tronje". Of the main manuscripts of the Nibelungenlied, the chief representatives of versions B and C use the spelling "Tronege": "from Tronege Hagene", "Hagen of Tronege", "geborn of Tronege", "helt of Tronege"; the A version writes "Trony". "Tronje" is the appropriate modern German form. In the B and C versions, the name is in the dative case, with the nominative being "Troneg". All attempts to interpret Hagen's name or home are speculative. Although the Nibelungenlied has a historic center, it was written down only centuries in 1200, therefore incorporated the author's Medieval knowledge and intentions. There are suggestions that the epithet refers to less similar-sounding place names. However, names that have only a phonetic similarity but no meaningful link with the legend are rejected by scholars, since it is likely that such connections are random and add nothing to the interpretation of the character.
It is believed that the poet of the Nibelungenlied accepted Tronje as a real place name in the Burgundian kingdom. A link to Hagen has been discussed regarding the following places: The suffix "of Tronje" could signify a derivation from the Greek "Troy", since it was fashionable in late antiquity and early medieval Europe to ascribe such ancestors to oneself. With this ascription, people could connect themselves to the ancient Romans. "Tronje" could be the Colonia Ulpia Traiana, a Roman city close to modern Xanten, the area from which Siegfried came. This would explain Hagen's profound knowledge of incidents and deeds from Siegfried's youth; the Belgian city of Drongen in Ghent was known in Latin as "Truncinas" and had various Romanesque spellings over the following centuries: "Truncinas", "Truncinis" and "Troncinium". Today, its French name is "Tronchiennes", which sounds like "Tronje". Dutch authors place the Kudrun saga here since it contains townscape and landscape names such as "Wulpe Tenenbaums".
According to this interpretation, Hagen of the Nibelungenlied could be identical with the Hagen of the Kudrun. The name of the small village of Castle Dhronecken in the Hunsrück Mountains sounds like "Tronje". Not too far away, there are place names that hint at further figures from the Nibelungenlied Hagen's relative Ortwin of Metz and his colleagues Hunold and Volker von Alzey. Based on the castles around Dhronecken, Ortwin can be assigned to Metz, Hagen to Dhronecken, Hunold to Hunoldispetra, Volker to Alzey; these are places that travelers coming from Xanten and over Metz and Worms to Passau, would pass along the way. In the Nibelungenlied, he is called Hagen of Tronje; some versions indicate that Hagen is the'Oheim' of the three kings, i.e. their mother Ute's brother. Some count him as Gunter's, Gernot's and Giselher's'uncle', so this may more hint to an old custom - nearly, but not yet outdated - where people close to a family take over the role of a fatherly / motherly friend and acquire the'honorary title' of an uncle or aunt.
In German tradition, Hagen is grim and violent, in two accounts one-eyed. According to the Thidreks saga, Hagen was Gunnar's half-brother. Not human, though, as being fathered by an elf on the king's wife while the king was away; the Thidrekssaga tells that it was Walter of Waskensten who put out Hagen's eye in a fight. In these forementioned accounts, it is Hagen who kills the hero Siegfried during a hunt, wounding him on the only part of his body, not invulnerable; this version of the character appears in Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen. In Norse tradition, Hagen's counterpart Högni is less extreme and the actual slayer of Sigurd is Gutthorm, a younger brother of Gunnar and Högni, but Gutthorm does. In German accounts and Hagen are the final casualties of the fall of the Nibelungs. Hagen refuses to reveal the hiding place of the Nibelung treasure to Kriemhild as long as his king Gunther lives; when Gunther is slain, the mortally-wounded Hagen continues his refusal with sure knowledge that Gunther cannot now weaken and betray the secret.
In Norse accounts, however, it is Gunnar who refuses to tell the secret to Attila the Hun as long as Högni lives, so brings about Högni's death, as his heart is cut out. In Atlamál, Hniflung, a son of Hagen/Högni, avenges his father's death and the deaths of his kin, together with his aunt Guðrún; this work states that Hogni had a wife named Kostbera and two other sons: Solar and Snævar. The Drap Niflunga mentions a fourth son named Gjuki. In the opera Götterdämmerung, part of The Ring Cycle, Hagen is portrayed as the half-brother of Gunther and Gutrune, illegitimately fathered by the dwarf Alberich, he is simi
Evil Queen (Disney)
The Evil Queen known as the Wicked Queen or just the Queen, sometimes instead identified by her given name as Queen Grimhilde, is a fictional character who appears in Walt Disney Productions' first animated feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and a villain character in the extended Disney's Snow White franchise. She is based on the Evil Queen character from German fairy tale "Snow White". In the film, similar to the Brothers Grimm story it is based on, the Evil Queen is cold and vain, owning a magic mirror, obsessively desiring to remain the "fairest in the land", she becomes madly envious over the beauty of her stepdaughter, Princess Snow White, as well as the attentions of the Prince from another land. This leads her to plot the death of Snow White and on the path to her own demise, which in the film is indirectly caused by the Seven Dwarfs; the film's version of the Queen character uses her dark magic powers to transform herself into an old woman instead of just taking a disguise like in the Grimms' story.
The Queen lives on in a variety of non-canonical Disney works. The film's version of the Queen was created by Walt Disney and Joe Grant, animated by Art Babbitt and voiced by Lucille La Verne. Inspiration for her design came from the characters of Queen Hash-a-Motep from She and Princess Kriemhild from Die Nibelungen; the Queen has since been voiced by Eleanor Audley, June Foray, Janet Waldo, Eda Reiss Merin, Louise Chamis and Susanne Blakeslee, was portrayed live by Anne Francine, Jane Curtin, Olivia Wilde, Kathy Najimy. This version of the fairy tale character has been well received by film critics and the public, is considered one of Disney's most iconic and menacing villains. Besides in the film, the Evil Queen has made numerous appearances in Disney attractions and productions, including not only these directly related to the tale of Snow White, such as Fantasmic!, The Kingdom Keepers and Kingdom Hearts Birth by Sleep, sometimes appearing in them alongside Maleficent from Sleeping Beauty.
The film's version of the Queen has become a popular archetype that influenced a number of artists and non-Disney works. In "another land, far away," "many, many years ago," about the time of fairy tales of castles, fair maidens, romance and witches," a mysterious and icily beautiful woman with magical powers has gained her royal position by marrying the widowed King, giving her rule over his kingdom before he died. "From that time on the cruel Queen ruled all alone, her every word was law, all trembled in mortal fear of her anger." The vain Queen owned a magical mirror. The Magic Mirror shows a haunted, smokey face of her familiar demon which replies to the Queen's requests, she asks the mirror, the fairest in the realm, the mirror would always reply that she is. The Queen has magical power only over her own domain, the castle. One day, the mirror tells her that there is a new fairest woman in the land, her 14-year-old stepdaughter, Princess Snow White, she became obsessively jealous of the princess' emerging beauty, therefore turning her into a scullery maid in her own home.
After observing the handsome Prince from another kingdom singing a love song to Snow White, the proud Queen falls in a jealous rage. She commands Humbert, to take the princess deep into the forest and kill her, he is ordered to bring back her heart in a box to prove that he had done so. But Humbert cannot bear to kill the young princess upon realizing that she is impervious to harm, so he tells Snow White of the Queen's plot and tells her to run away and never to come back. To escape the penalty, he gives it to the Queen; when she questions her mirror, it again replies that Snow White is the fairest in the land, that she is living at the cottage of the Seven Dwarfs, revealing that the box contains the heart of a pig. The Dwarfs decide to take in Snow White anyway. Furious that Humbert tricked her, the Queen decides that first Snow White shall die by her own hand and at any cost, she goes down the dungeon to her secret room where she practices her dark magic, complete with a pet raven that "knows all her secrets," and in desperation uses her spellbook and cauldron to mix a potion that transforms her into a hag.
Her beauty is shrouded in ugliness and age, though reversible. She conjures a poison apple, which will cause "the Sleeping Death", proceeds to leave the castle via a moat boat, she is sure that no one would know or perform the counter-curse to her spell, believes the Dwarfs would bury her rival alive, thinking her dead. The Queen comes to the cottage, followed by two vicious vultures, finds Snow White baking a pie for Grumpy the dwarf. Somehow Snow White's animal friends realize. After an unsuccessful attempt to warn Snow White by attacking the Queen, they go to warn the Dwarfs of the Queen's arrival; the Queen tricks the princess into letting her inside the cottage and eating the bewitched apple, telling her that it is a magic wishing apple. Snow White t
Brunhild known as Brunhilda or Brynhild is a powerful female figure from Germanic heroic legend. She may have her origins in the Visigothic princess Brunhilda of Austrasia. In the Norse tradition, Brunhild is a shieldmaiden or valkyrie, who appears as a main character in the Völsunga saga and some Eddic poems treating the same events. In the continental Germanic tradition, where she is a central character in the Nibelungenlied, she is a powerful Amazon-like queen. In both traditions, she is instrumental in bringing about the death of the hero Sigurd or Siegfried after he deceives her into marrying the Burgundian king Gunther or Gunnar. In both traditions, the immediate cause for her desire to have Sigurd murdered is a quarrel with the hero's wife, Gudrun/Kriemhild. In the Scandinavian tradition, but not in the continental tradition, Brunhild kills herself after Sigurd's death. Richard Wagner made Brunhild an important character in his opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen; the majority of modern conceptions of the figure have been inspired or influenced by Wagner's depiction.
Brunhild has been called "the paramount figure of Germanic legend." The Nibelungenlied introduces her by saying: The name Brunhild in its various forms is derived from the equivalents of Old High German brunia and hiltia. The name is first attested in the sixth century, for the historical Brunhilda of Austrasia, as Brunichildis. In the context of the heroic tradition, the first element of her name may be connected to Brunhild's role as a shieldmaiden. In the Eddic poem Helreið Brynhildar, the valkyrie Sigrdrífa from Sigrdrífumál is identified with Brunhild; this name consists of the elements sigr and drífa and can be translated as "driver to victory". It could be a synonym for valkyrie; the most popular theory about the origins of the legendary Brunhild is that she originates from two historical figures of the Merovingian dynasty: Brunhilda of Austrasia, a Visigothic princess who married the Frankish king Sigebert I, Fredegund, married to Sigebert's brother Chilperic I. Frankish historian Gregory of Tours blames Fredegund for Sigebert's murder in 575, after which Fredegund and Brunhild carried on a feud that lasted until 613, when Chilperic's son Chlothar II captured and killed her.
If this theory is correct Brunhild has taken the role of Fredegund in the Nibelungen story while maintaining Brunhilda of Austrasia's name. A less accepted theory locates the origins of the Brunhild figure in the story of the Ostrogothic general Uraias. Uraias's wife insulted the wife of the Ostrogothic king Witiges, the king's wife had Witiges murder Uraias. Brunhild was a popular figure in Scandinavia, with traditions about her attested around 1220 with the composition of the Prosa Edda; the Scandinavian tradition about Brunhild shows knowledge of the continental Germanic traditions as well. The so-called Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson is the earliest attestation of the Scandinavian version of Brunhild's life, dating to around 1220. Snorri tells the story of Brunhild in several chapters of the section of the poem called Skáldskaparsmál, his presentation of the story is similar to that found in the Völsunga saga, but is shorter. After Sigurd kills the dragon Fafnir, he rides up to a house on a mountain, inside of which he finds a woman sleeping wearing armor.
He cuts the armor from her, she wakes up, says that she was a valkyrie named Hild, but called Brunhild. Sigurd rides away. Sigurd brings Gunnar to Brunhild's brother Atli to ask for Brunhild's hand in marriage. Brunhild lives on a mountain called Hindarfjall. Atli tells them. Gunnar is unable to do this, Sigurd switches shapes with him, riding through the flames. Sigurd weds Brunhild as Gunnar, but places a sword between the two of them on their wedding night; the next morning, he gives Brunhild a ring from the hoard of the Nibelungen, Brunhild gives him a ring in return. Gunnar and Sigurd return to their own shapes and return to the court of Gunnar's father Gjuki; some time Brunhild and Gudrun quarrel while washing their hair in the river. Brunhild says that she does not want the water that passes through Gudrun's hair to touch her own, because her husband Gunnar is braver. Gudrun replies with Sigurd's deeds of killing the dragon, but Brunhild says that only Gunnar had dared to ride through the wall of flame.
Gudrun reveals to Brunhild that Sigurd was the one who rode through the wall, producing Brunhild's ring as proof. Brunhild encourages Gunnar to kill Sigurd, which he does. Once Sigurd is dead, Brunhild kills herself, is burned on the same pyre as Sigurd, it is possible that Snorri's account of the quarrel between Brunhild and Gudrun derives from a lost Eddic poem. The Poetic Edda, a collection of heroic and mythological Nordic poems, appears to have been compiled around 1270 in Iceland, assembles mythological and heroic songs of various ages. A large number of poems deal with the relationship between Sigurd and Brunhild, which seems to have been of special interest to the compiler. None of the poems in the collection is thought to be older than 900 and some appear to have been written in the thirteenth century, it is possible that old poems have been written in an archaicizing style and that recent poems are reworkings of older material, so that reliable dating is impossible. Much of the Brunhild material is taken to have a recent origin.
In Grípisspá, Sigurd receives a prophecy of his life from his uncle Grípir. Among the prophesied actions a
A troll is a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore. In Old Norse sources, beings described as trolls dwell in isolated rocks, mountains, or caves, live together in small family units, are helpful to human beings. In Scandinavian folklore, trolls became beings in their own right, where they live far from human habitation, are not Christianized, are considered dangerous to human beings. Depending on the source, their appearance varies greatly. Trolls are sometimes associated with particular landmarks, which at times may be explained as formed from a troll exposed to sunlight. Trolls are depicted in a variety of media in modern popular culture; the Old Norse nouns troll and tröll and Middle High German troll, trolle "fiend" developed from Proto-Germanic neuter noun *trullan. The origin of the Proto-Germanic word is unknown. Additionally, the Old Norse verb trylla'to enchant, to turn into a troll' and the Middle High German verb trüllen "to flutter" both developed from the Proto-Germanic verb *trulljanan, a derivative of *trullan.
In Norse mythology, like thurs, is a term applied to jötnar and is mentioned throughout the Old Norse corpus. In Old Norse sources, trolls are said to dwell in isolated mountains and caves, sometimes live together, are described as helpful or friendly; the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál describes an encounter between an unnamed troll woman and the 9th-century skald Bragi Boddason. According to the section, Bragi was driving through "a certain forest" late one evening when a troll woman aggressively asked him who he was, in the process describing herself: Bragi responds in turn, describing himself and his abilities as a skillful skald, before the scenario ends. There is much confusion and overlap in the use of Old Norse terms jötunn, troll, þurs, risi, which describe various beings. Lotte Motz theorized that these were four distinct classes of beings: lords of nature, mythical magicians, hostile monsters, heroic and courtly beings, the last class being the youngest addition. On the other hand, Ármann Jakobson is critical of Motz's interpretation and calls this theory "unsupported by any convincing evidence".
Ármann highlights that the term is used to denote various beings, such as a jötunn or mountain-dweller, a witch, an abnormally strong or large or ugly person, an evil spirit, a ghost, a blámaðr, a magical boar, a heathen demi-god, a demon, a brunnmigi, or a berserker. In Scandinavian folklore, trolls become defined as a particular type of being. Numerous tales are recorded about trolls in which they are described as being old strong, but slow and dim-witted, are at times described as man-eaters and as turning to stone upon contact with sunlight. However, trolls are attested as looking much the same as human beings, without any hideous appearance about them, but living far away from human habitation and having "some form of social organization"—unlike the rå and näck, who are attested as "solitary beings". According to John Lindow, what sets them apart is that they are not Christian, those who encounter them do not know them. Therefore, trolls were in the end dangerous, regardless of how well they might get along with Christian society, trolls display a habit of bergtagning and overrunning a farm or estate.
Lindow states that the etymology of the word "troll" remains uncertain, though he defines trolls in Swedish folklore as "nature beings" and as "all-purpose otherworldly being, for example, to fairies in Anglo-Celtic traditions". They "therefore appear in various migratory legends where collective nature-beings are called for". Lindow notes that trolls are sometimes swapped out for cats and "little people" in the folklore record. A Scandinavian folk belief that lightning frightens away trolls and jötnar appears in numerous Scandinavian folktales, may be a late reflection of the god Thor's role in fighting such beings. In connection, the lack of trolls and jötnar in modern Scandinavia is sometimes explained as a result of the "accuracy and efficiency of the lightning strokes". Additionally, the absence of trolls in regions of Scandinavia is described in folklore as being a "consequence of the constant din of the church-bells"; this ring caused the trolls to leave for other lands. Large local stones are sometimes described as the product of a troll's toss.
Additionally, into the 20th century, the origins of particular Scandinavian landmarks, such as particular stones, are ascribed to trolls who may, for example, have turned to stone upon exposure to sunlight. Lindow compares the trolls of the Swedish folk tradition to Grendel, the supernatural mead hall invader in the Old English poem Beowulf, notes that "just as the poem Beowulf emphasizes not the harrying of Grendel but the cleansing of the hall of Beowulf, so the modern tales stress the moment when the trolls are driven off."Smaller trolls are attested as living in burial mounds and in mountains in Scandinavian folk tradition. In Denmark, these creatures are recorded as troldfolk, bjergtrolde, or bjergfolk and in Norway as troldfolk and tusser. Trolls may be described as small, human-like beings or as tall
Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries. Since January 2016, the name Burgundy has referred to a specific part of the French administrative region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, an entity comprising four departments: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Nièvre; the first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were Celts, who were incorporated in the Roman Empire as Gallo-Romans. During the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people, who may have originated in Bornholm, settled in the western Alps, they founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks. Under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.
The region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté meaning free county. Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy and the county. During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was home to some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, including those of Cluny, Cîteaux, Vézelay. Cluny, founded in 910, exerted a strong influence in Europe for centuries; the first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098 in Cîteaux. Over the next century, hundreds of Cistercian abbeys were founded throughout Europe, in a large part due to the charisma and influence of Bernard of Clairvaux; the Abbey of Fontenay, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is today the best-preserved Cistercian abbey in Burgundy.
The Abbey of Vezelay a UNESCO site, is still a starting point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. Cluny was totally destroyed during the French Revolution. During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold; the duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province; however the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs. With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s; the modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy. The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne.
Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces: Burgundy: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, southern half of Yonne. This corresponds to the old duchy of Burgundy. However, the old county of Burgundy is not included inside the Burgundy region, but it makes up the Franche-Comté region. A small part of the duchy of Burgundy is now inside the Champagne-Ardenne region. Nivernais: now the department of Nièvre; the northern half of Yonne is a territory, not part of Burgundy, was a frontier between Champagne, Île-de-France, Orléanais, being part of each of these provinces at different times in history. The climate of this region is oceanic, with a continental influence; the regional council of Burgundy was the legislative assembly of the region, located in the capital city Dijon at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Burgundy is one of France's main wine producing areas, it is well known for both its red and white wines made from Pinot noir and Chardonnay grapes although other grape varieties can be found, including Gamay, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc.
The region is divided into the Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, Beaujolais, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world. With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes coq au vin, beef bourguignon, époisses de Bourgogne cheese. Tourist sites of Burgundy include the Rock of Solutré, the Tournus cathedral, Brancion, the castles of Cormatin and Couches, the palace of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, the Pézanin Arboretum, Vézelay Abbey. Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in Le Creusot; these industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century, Le Creusot has tried to reinvent itself as a tourist town. Lecomte, Bernard.
Burgundy, What a Story!. ISBN 978-2-902650-02-6. Davies, Norman. "Ch.3: Burgundia: Five, Six or Seven Kingdoms (c. 411-1