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Grimm's law

Grimm's law is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the Proto-Indo-European stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic in the 1st millennium BC. It establishes a set of regular correspondences between early Germanic stops and the stop consonants of certain other centum Indo-European languages. Grimm's law was the first discovery of a systematic sound change, it led to the creation of historical phonology as a separate discipline of historical linguistics; the correspondence between Latin p and Germanic f was first noted by Friedrich von Schlegel in 1806. In 1818, Rasmus Rask extended the correspondences to other Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit and Greek, to the full range of consonants involved. In 1822, Jacob Grimm put forth the rule in his book Deutsche Grammatik and extended it to include standard German, he noticed that there were many words which had different consonants from what his law predicted, these exceptions defied linguists for a few decades, but they received explanation from Danish linguist Karl Verner in the form of Verner's law.

Grimm's law consists of three parts. The phases are constructed as follows: Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops change into voiceless fricatives. Proto-Indo-European voiced. Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced fricatives; this chain shift can be abstractly represented as: bʰ > b > p > ɸ dʰ > d > t > θ gʰ > g > k > x gʷʰ > gʷ > kʷ > xʷHere each sound moves one position to the right to take on its new sound value. Note that within Proto-Germanic, the sounds denoted by ⟨b⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨g⟩ and ⟨gw⟩ were stops in some environments and fricatives in others, so bʰ > b should be understood here as bʰ > b/β, for the others. The voiceless fricatives are customarily spelled ⟨ þ ⟩, ⟨ h ⟩ and ⟨ hw ⟩ in the context of Germanic; the exact details of the shift are unknown, it may have progressed in a variety of ways before arriving at the final situation. The three stages listed above show the progression of a "pull chain", in which each change leaves a "gap" in the phonological system that "pulls" other phonemes into it to fill the gap.

But it is conceivable that the shift happened as a push chain, where the changes happened in reverse order, with each change "pushing" the next forward to avoid merging the phonemes. The steps could have occurred somewhat differently. Another possible sequence of events could have been: Voiceless stops are allophonically aspirated under most conditions. Voiced stops become. All aspirated stops become fricatives; this sequence would lead to the same end result. This variety of Grimm's law is suggested in the context of the glottalic theory of Proto-Indo-European, followed by a minority of linguists; this theoretical framework assumes that "voiced stops" in PIE were voiceless to begin with, so that the second phase did not exist as such, or was not devoicing but a loss of some other articulatory feature such as glottalization or ejectiveness. This alternative sequence accounts for the phonetics of Verner's law, which are easier to explain within the glottalic theory framework when Grimm's law is formulated in this manner.

Additionally, a change from aspirated stops to fricatives is known to have happened in the transition between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Italic, so represents a plausible potential change from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. Once the changes described by Grimm's law had taken place, there was only one type of voiced consonant, with no distinction between voiced stops and voiced fricatives, they became stops at the beginning of a word, as well as after a nasal consonant, but fricatives elsewhere. Whether they were plosives or fricatives at first is therefore not clear; the voiced aspirated stops may have first become voiced fricatives, before hardening to stops under certain conditions. But they may have become stops at first, softening to fricatives in most positions later. Around the same time as the Grimm's law adjustments took place, another change occurred known as Verner's law. Verner's law caused, under certain conditions, the voicing of the voiceless fricatives that resulted from the Grimm's law changes, creating apparent exceptions to the rule.

For example: Proto-Indo-European *bʰréh₂tēr > Proto-Germanic *brōþēr Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr > Proto-Germanic *fadēr Here, the same sound *t appears as *þ /θ/ in one word, but as *d /ð/ in another. See the Verner's law article for a more detailed explanation of this discrepancy; the early Germanic *gw that had arisen from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰ underwent further changes of various sorts: After *n it was preserved as a labiovelar stop *gw, but changed to a plain velar *g in West Germanic. Following vowels, it seems to have become *w through a fricative stage *ɣʷ. Word-initially, the most plausible reflex is a labiovelar stop *gʷ at first, but the further development is unclear. In that position, it became either * b during late Proto-Germanic; the regular reflex next to *u would have been *g, due to loss of the labial element before a labial vowel in Proto-Indo-European, which continued to act as a surface filter. The

Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Ireland)

This article covers euro gold and silver commemorative coins issued by the Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland. It covers rare cases of collectors coins minted using other precious metals, it does not cover the Irish Pound commemorative coins. For euro gold and silver commemorative coins of other countries see Euro gold and silver commemorative coins. A silver 10 Euro commemorating John McCormack, Irish tenor and Papal Count. A gold 20 Euro commemorating Brian Boru's victory in the Battle of Clontarf. A silver 15 Euro commemorating John Philip Holland, an Irish engineer regarded as the father of the modern submarine. A silver 15 Euro Proof Coin commemorating Ernest Walton, an Irish physicist and 1951 Nobel laureate for being the first person to artificially split the atom. A silver 15 Euro Proof Coin commemorating the 150th anniversary of the birth of W. B. Yeats, Irish poet and Nobel Laureate. A silver 10 Euro Proof Coin commemorating the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II and the 70th anniversary of peace in Europe.

Centenary of the Easter Rising: a €15 silver coin and €50 gold coin, both depicting Hibernia. A.925 sterling silver proof 10 Euros depicting architect and furniture designer Eileen Gray, the first woman to appear on an Irish commemorative coin, sold for €60 each. Some of these coins were found to be blemished, the Central Bank offered a refund. €15 silver proof coin depicting electrical engineer Sir Charles Algernon Parsons. 10 Euros silver proof coin depicting the Ha'penny Bridge. 15 Euros commemorating Gulliver's Travels, satirical 1726 novel by Irish author Jonathan Swift. €15 Silver Proof to commemorate the 70th anniversary of Rory Gallagher's birth. €15 Silver Proof Coin to Commemorate Bram Stoker’s Dracula.€15 silver proof coin commemorating the centenary of women's suffrage. €100 half-ounce gold proof coin to mark the centenary of the First Dáil.€15 silver proof coin to mark the centenary of the transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, which landed in Ireland. €15 silver proof coin to commemorate the 70th anniversary of Phil Lynott's birth.

€15 silver proof coin to commemorate the 80th anniversary of Luke Kelly's birth. €10 silver proof coin to commemorate Gothic architecture in Ireland. €15 silver proof coin to commemorate Kathleen Lynn. Commemorative coins of Ireland €2 commemorative coins Ireland 2007 commemorative 2 euro coin "The Central Bank & Financial Authority Of Ireland"

Yan Prefecture (Shandong)

Yanzhou or Yan Prefecture was a zhou in imperial China centering on modern Yanzhou District, Shandong, China. It existed until 1385. Yan Prefecture was named after one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China; the modern district of Yanzhou District retains its name. The administrative region of Yan Prefecture in the Tang dynasty is in modern central Shandong, it includes parts of modern: Under the administration of Jining: Jining Qufu Zoucheng Wenshang County Sishui County Under the administration of Tai'an: Tai'an Ningyang County Under the administration of Laiwu: Laiwu Shi Weile, ed.. Zhongguo Lishi Diming Da Cidian. China Social Sciences Press. P. 1636. ISBN 7-5004-4929-1

The Complete Capitol Singles Collection

The Complete Capitol Singles Collection is a compact disc box set by the American singer Frank Sinatra, released on Capitol Records in 1996. The four-disc set contains all 45 singles released by Sinatra during his tenure at the label between 1953 and 1961. Of those, 25 made the Top 40 on the Billboard singles chart, it does not include releases for jukeboxes or for extended play singles, with one exception. The original tapes were digitally remastered by Bob Norberg; the packaging includes many photographs, detailed session notes, a long essay by Will Friedwald, who explains that Sinatra followed a "singles aesthetic" that set these songs quite apart from the "concept" albums he was recording at Capitol simultaneously. Of the 96 tracks included in the box, six were not Sinatra singles. "Well, Did You Evah!," a duet with Bing Crosby, is the b-side to Capitol single 3507A "True Love" by Bing Crosby and Grace Kelly. The five others are tracks 23 through 27 on disc four: "Look to Your Heart" appeared on an EP single released to promote the 1955 television production of Our Town with Sinatra cast as the stage manager.

Several songs are duets with other artists. "How Are Ya' Fixed for Love" and its flip "Nothing in Common" present Sinatra with Keely Smith, the usual singing partner of Louis Prima. The Pied Pipers, whom Sinatra had worked alongside while with Tommy Dorsey, appear with their new singer June Hutton on "Don't Change Your Mind About Me." Celeste Holm appears on "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?". A doo-wop vocal group the Nuggets provide vocal backing for his rock and roll single "Two Hearts, Two Kisses," and the Ralph Brewster Singers are credited for the holiday single "The Christmas Waltz" with "Mistletoe and Holly." Most tracks were arranged by Sinatra's mainstay while at Nelson Riddle. Orchestras consisting of Los Angeles session musicians were conducted by Riddle, with the following exceptions: "Lean Baby," "I'm Walking Behind You," and "I'll Remember April" conducted by Axel Stordahl. Conducted by Johnny Green. Frank Sinatra — vocals Bing Crosby, June Hutton, Keely Smith, The Nuggets, The Ralph Brewster Singers — vocals Bill Millerpiano Alvin Stollerdrums Nelson Riddle — principal arranger Voyle Gilmore, Dave Cavanaugh — producers Capitol 45 catalogue numbers and chart positions taken from Sinatra Family website singles discography.

All arrangements by Nelson Riddle except where indicated. ♣ arranged by Heinie Beau ♥ arranged by Axel Stordahl ♣ arranged by Dick Reynolds ♦ arranged by Dave Cavanaugh ♠ arranged by Skip Martin ♣ arranged by Conrad Salinger ♠ arranged by Gordon Jenkins ♦ arranged by Billy May ♥ arranged by Felix Slatkin ♣ arranged by Heinie Beau ♦ arranged by Billy May


Maximum-Football is a gridiron and arena football computer game developed by Wintervalley Software and published by Matrix Games for Windows-based computers. Players can choose to play a game under Canadian, American or indoor rules, or create their own league with unique rules; the game allows for maximum customization of players and uniforms, has a detailed Play Development System for creating plays and playbooks. The game includes a basic career mode. Team owners can set up a training camp. Maximum-Football does not feature licenses of any current football league, but the game does allow users maximum customization of leagues thus the game creates names and locations based on the actual teams name and location; the game had spent 2½ years in development. The initial prices of the game were $40 and $50. There is no demo available for this title. Maximum-Football 1.0 was released on March 3, 2006, after missing previous release targets in the two years leading up to release. Many of the delays were caused by features being added to the game, asked for by community members on the Maximum-Football and Matrix Games message boards.

Version 1.0 was the first public version of the game. Version 2.0 was released on September 21, 2007. Version 2.0 supports a new graphics engine and improved player animations and improved arcade play features, as well as additional league support features. Version 2.2 is the shipping version. A 2019 version of the game will feature an endorsement from Doug Flutie, the former NFL and CFL quarterback. Matrix Games MaxMykal forum

List of Plasmodium species

The genus Plasmodium is a member of the order Haemosporidia. It is the largest genus within this order and consists of over 250 species, they cause malaria in many different vertebrates. The species in this genus are parasitic with part of their life cycle spent in a vertebrate host and another in an invertebrate host - a mosquito. Vertebrates infected by members of this genus include mammals and reptiles. Host range among the mammalian orders is non uniform. At least 29 species infect non human primates; the listing of host species among the reptiles has been attempted. Ayala in 1978 listed 156 published accounts on 54 valid species and subspecies between 1909 and 1975; the regional breakdown was Africa: 30 reports on 9 species. There are ~550 species recognised in this order organised into 17 genera; the diagnostic criteria of this family are: macrogametes and microgamonts develop independently syzygy is absent microgametocyte produces 8 flagellated microgametes zygote is motile conoid present in ookinete stage only sporozoites naked in oocyst heteroxenous: merogony and gamogony occur in vertebrate host and fertilization and sporogony in definitive host hemozoin pigment produced in some genera Merogony occurs both in erythrocytes and other tissues Merozoites, schizonts or gametocytes can be seen within erythrocytes and may displace the host nucleus Merozoites have a "signet-ring" appearance due to a large vacuole that forces the parasite’s nucleus to one pole Schizonts are round to oval inclusions that contain the staining merozoites Forms gamonts in erythrocytes Gametocytes are'halter-shaped' similar to Haemoproteus but the pigment granules are more confined Hemozoin is present Vectors are either mosquitoes or sandflies.

Vertebrate hosts include mammals and reptiles Mammalian erythrocytes do not possess a nucleus. Although it has been suggested that the nucleus was lost in the erythrocytes better to enable them to traverse capillaries evidence for this is lacking, it appears that this loss along with the mitochondria that the erythrocytes lose may protect the erythrocytes against oxidative stress. The full taxonomic name of a species includes the subgenus but this is omitted in practice; the full name indicates some features of the type of host species. Sixteen subgenera are recognised; the avian species were discovered soon after the description of P. falciparum and a variety of generic names were created. These were subsequently placed into the genus Plasmodium although some workers continued to use the genera Laverinia and Proteosoma for P. falciparum and the avian species respectively. The 5th and 6th Congresses of Malaria held at Istanbul and Lisbon recommended the creation and use of subgenera in this genus.

Laverinia was applied to the species infecting humans and Haemamoeba to those infecting lizards and birds. This proposal was not universally accepted. Bray in 1955 proposed a definition for the subgenus Plasmodium and a second for the subgenus Laverinia in 1958. Garnham described a third subgenus - Vinckeia - in 1964. In 1963 Corradetti and Laird proposed a new classification of the avian malaria parasites, they created four sub-genera - Giovannolaia, Haemamoeba and Novyella - based on the size of the schizonts, the gametocyte forms and the type of exo-erythrocytic schizogony. Additional subgenera have been created since; the recognised subgenera are listed below. Asiamoeba Telford 1988Bennettinia Valkiūnas 1997Carinamoeba Garnham 1966Giovannolaia Corradetti, Garnham & Laird 1963 Haemamoeba Grassi & Feletti 1890Huffia Garnham & Laird 1963Lacertaemoba Telford 1988Laverania Bray 1958Novyella Corradetti, Garnham & Laird 1963Nyssorhynchus Poinar 2005Ophidiella Garnham 1966Papernaia Landau et al 2010Paraplasmodium Telford 1988Plasmodium Bray 1963 emend.

Garnham 1964Sauramoeba Garnham 1966Vinckeia Garnham 1964 The current classification scheme was developed prior to the widespread use of DNA sequence based taxonomy and is based on host and morphological criteria. Plasmodium has since been shown to be paraphytic with the genera Haemoproteus and Hepatocystis. Revision of this genus will be undertaken; this forthcoming reclassification project is not unique to this genus as DNA based taxonomy is revising many traditional groupings of protozoa. The bird infecting taxa can be separated into two groups on the basis of the gametocytes: species with round gametocytes and species with elongated gametocytes; the monophyly of the Bennettinia and Huffia subgenera was subsequently confirmed by molecular studies. The other two genera were found to be paraphytic; the genera were revised and a new subgenus - Papernaia - was created. Laverania Species in this subgenus infect higher primates and have characteristic sickle shaped female gametocytes; the type species is Plasmodium falciparum.

Plasmodium Species infecting higher primates other than those in the subgenus Laverania are placed in the subgenus Plasmodium. The type species is Plasmodium malariae. Vinckeia Parasites infecting other mammals including lower primates are classified in the subgenus Vinckeia; the type species is Plasmodium bubalis. Bennettinia Schizonts contain scant cytoplasm, are often