Freising is a town in Bavaria and the capital of the Freising district, with a population of 45,227. Freising is north of Munich, near Munich International Airport, on the Isar river and two hills, the cathedral hill with the bishop's castle and Freising cathedral, Weihenstephan Hill with Weihenstephan Abbey, the oldest working brewery in the world, it was the first recorded place of a European tornado. The city is 448 meters above sea level. Freising is located on the Isar halfway between Landshut in Upper Bavaria. Freising is one of the oldest settlements in Bavaria, becoming a major religious centre in the early Middle Ages, it is the centre of an important diocese. Some important historical documents were created between 900 and 1200 in its monastery: Freising manuscripts written in Slovenian, being the first Roman-script continuous text in a Slavic language Chronicle or history of the two cities by Otto of FreisingThe above and other scripts from that time can be found in the "Bayerische Staatsbibliothek" in Munich.
Though archaeological finds show that the area was settled in the Bronze Age, no proof has been found yet to suggest a continuous settlement until the 8th century AD Frigisinga. Saint Corbinian settled at a shrine that existed at Freising in 724, he was the forerunner of the diocese of Freising, established after his death by Saint Boniface. According to his Vita by Bishop Arbeo he ordered a bear to carry his luggage over the Alps after it had killed his packhorse; the saddled bear is still the symbol of the city, displayed in the coat of arms. Though the seat of the diocese was moved to Munich in 1821, including the elevation to an arch-diocese, Freising has remained the seat of diocese administration until today. Between 764-783, Bishop Arbeo founded a scriptorium at the abbey; the settlement started to become a religious centre. The earliest recorded tornado in Europe struck Freising in 788; the mortal remains of Pope Alexander I are said to have been transferred to Freising in 834. In 996, Freising received city rights from Emperor Otto III.
However, after the " destruction of the episcopal bridge, custom houses and salt works near Oberföhring by Duke Henry the Lion, who transferred the custom houses and bridge site to the upper part of Oberföhring, placing them in the village of Munich on the Isar" in 1158, Freising started to lose its economic significance. In 1159, the romanesque cathedral was constructed. In the secularization of 1803, the Roman Catholic Church lost most of its properties and authority over the city; the Lord Mayor of Freising is Tobias Eschenbacher. The majority of seats in the city council are held by the so-called "Free Voters"; the distribution of seats in Freising's city council can be seen in the following diagram: Schools include: Camerloher-Gymnasium Freising Dom-Gymnasium Freising Josef-Hofmiller-GymnasiumUniversities include: Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf TU-München Weihenstephan Prince-Bishopric of Freising Freising is twinned with: Obervellach, since 1963 Innichen, since 1969 Maria Wörth, since 1978 Waidhofen an der Ybbs, since 1986 Arpajon, since 1991 Škofja Loka, since 2004 Otto of Freising, bishop.
Mair von Landshut, late 15th-century artist, was a citizen and born in Freising. The Bavarian General and War Minister Benignus Ritter von Safferling was born in Freising. Georg Eder and historian Martin Ruland the Elder and alchemist Johann Stadlmayr, court music director and composer Benignus von Safferling, Bavarian General and Minister of War Ludwig Prandtl, physicist Ernst Kraus, a German geologist Karl Maria Demelhuber, SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS Karl Lederer, 1933 to 1942 mayor of Freising. Karl Gustav Fellerer, a German musicologist Albrecht Obermaier, German naval officer, last deputy naval officer of the Bundesmarine Pope Benedict XVI, Pope from 2005-2013 Karl Huber, German painter and sculptor Heinrich Reinhardt, Roman Catholic priest and professor of philosophy Peter Neumair, wrestler Joseph Weiss, German diplomat Hans Pflügler, former clubs: Bayern Munich - World champion 1990 Alexander Kutschera, footballer Stefan Diez, German industrial designer Ferdinand Bader, ski jumper Brigitte Wagner, wrestler Maximilian Haas, footballer Maximilian Wittek, footballer Veit Arnpeck, Bavarian chronicler Benignus von Safferling, General of the Bavarian Army and War Minister Ludwig Petuel, Munich businessman Oskar Knight of Niedermayer and adventurer Simone Blum Show jumper Freising cathedral Sichtungsgarten Weihenstephan, a notable horticultural garden Freising travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Bavarian state library Pictures of Freising
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Salzburg "salt castle", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Federal State of Salzburg. Its historic centre is renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, with 27 churches, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was film The Sound of Music. Traces of human settlements have been found in the area; the first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were by the Celts around the 5th century BC. Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontier’s collapse, Juvavum declined so that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.
The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg", he travelled to evangelise among pagans. The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle"; the name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence, it was expanded during the following centuries. Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire; as the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress.
It was besieged for three months in 1525. Tensions were quelled, the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, Paris Lodron, it was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city centre as it is today along with many palaces. On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia; the rest settled in other Protestant states in the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism. In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon.
In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry. In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram. After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich, Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz. In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire; the city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands; this was replaced by the First Austrian Republic after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
The Anschluss took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps; the synagogue was destroyed. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city. During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan, it was an Arbeitserziehungslager. It operated as a Zwischenlager, holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe. Allied bombing killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen air strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings those a
Saint Corbinian was a Frankish bishop. After living as a hermit near Chartres for fourteen years, he made a pilgrimage to Rome. Pope Gregory II sent him to Bavaria, his opposition to the marriage of Duke Grimoald to his brother's widow, caused Corbinian to go into exile for a time. His feast day is 8 September; the commemoration of the translation of his relics is 20 November. Corbinian was baptized as Waldegiso at Châtres, near Melun, in Frankish territory, he was named after his father. Soon after his father's death, his mother Corbiniana renamed Waldegiso to "Corbinian," after herself. Nothing else is known of his childhood; the early source for Corbinian's life is the Vita Corbiniani of Bishop Arbeo of Freising. He lived in Châtres on the road to Orléans as a hermit for fourteen years, near a church dedicated to Saint Germain, his reputation attracted students to him. His devotion to Saint Peter the Apostle prompted a decision to make a journey to Rome, accompanied by some of the disciples. While in Rome, Pope Gregory II admonished him to use his talents to evangelize Bavaria.
Corbinian, who may have been a bishop or, so consecrated by Gregory, was sent to minister to Grimoald, the Frankish Duke of Bavaria. Corbinian arrived in Bavaria in 724. On a mountain near Freising, where there was a sanctuary, the saint erected a Benedictine monastery and a school, which came to be governed by his brother Erembert, after his death. In 738, when Saint Boniface regulated the ecclesial structure in the Duchy of Bavaria by creating four dioceses to be governed by the archbishop of Mainz, Erembert was chosen first Bishop of Freising. Soon after settling, Corbinian denounced Grimoald's marriage to his brother's widow, though Grimoald had repented of his incest; this incited his anger and the chagrin of his wife, who excoriated Corbinian, labeling him a foreign interloper. She arranged to have him murdered. Corbinian fled Freising until Grimoald was killed and Biltrudis carried off by invaders in 725. Corbinian returned on the invitation of Grimoald's successor and continued his apostolic labors at Freising until his own death in 730.
Corbinian's body, buried at Merano, was translated to Freising in 769 by the aforementioned Bishop Arbeo, author of Corbinian's vita, is now entombed in Freising Cathedral. Corbinian's symbol is the saddled bear. According to his hagiography, a bear killed Corbinian's pack horse on the way to Rome and so the saint commanded it to carry his load. Once he arrived in Rome, however, he let the bear go, it lumbered back to its native forest. Both the heraldic element and the legend itself carry significant symbolism. One interpretation is that the bear tamed by God's grace is the Bishop of Freising himself and the pack saddle is the burden of his episcopate; the bear's submission and retreat can be interpreted as Christianity's "taming" and "domestication" of the ferocity of paganism and, the laying of a " for a great civilization in the Duchy of Bavaria." Corbinian's Bear is used as the symbol of Freising in both ecclesiastical heraldry. It appeared on the arms of Pope Benedict XVI, who first adopted the symbol when, still known as Joseph Ratzinger, he was appointed Archbishop of Freising-Munich in March 1977.
He retained the bear in his revised coat of arms when he was elevated to Cardinal in June of the same year, again on his papal coat of arms when he was elected in 2005. The scallop shell is a traditional reference to pilgrimage. For Pope Benedict XVI, it reminded him of the legend according to which one day St. Augustine, pondering the mystery of the Trinity, saw a child at the seashore playing with a shell, trying to put the water of the ocean into a little hole, he heard the words: This hole can no more contain the waters of the ocean than your intellect can comprehend the mystery of God. The crowned Moor is a regional motif in heraldry seen in Bavaria, Benedict's German homeland. Benedict has been quoted saying that, in addition to the obvious reference back to Saint Corbinian, the founder of the diocese where Benedict would become bishop in 1977, the bear represents Benedict himself being "tamed by God" to bear the spiritual burdens of Benedict's own ministries first as bishop as cardinal, now as pope.
Scenes from the life of Saint Corbinian from a panel in the crypt of Freising Cathedral. Vogel, Lothar. Vom Werden eines Heiligen: Eine Untersuchung der Vita Corbiniani des Bischofs Arbeo von Freising. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016696-8. Munich-Freising at Catholic Encyclopedia Helmut Zenz: Heiliger Korbinian im Internet includes a gallery of images, a timeline of Corbinian's life, sources in many languages for further reading Den hellige Korbinian av Freising Saint Corbinien - Evêque fondateur de l'église en Bavière includes hagiography for Corbinian and pictures of tapestries depicting the story of his life Butler, Alban. "St. Corbinian, Bishop of Frisingen, Confessor", Lives of the Saints, Vol. IX
Charles Martel was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death. The son of the Frankish statesman Pepin of Herstal and a noblewoman named Alpaida, Charles asserted his claims to power as successor to his father as the power behind the throne in Frankish politics. Continuing and building on his father's work, he restored centralized government in Francia and began the series of military campaigns that re-established the Franks as the undisputed masters of all Gaul. According to a near-contemporary source, the Liber Historiae Francorum, Charles was "a warrior, uncommonly...effective in battle". Much attention has been paid to his success in defeating an Arab raid in Aquitaine at the Battle of Tours. Alongside his military endeavours, Charles has been traditionally credited with a seminal role in the development of the Frankish system of feudalism. At the end of his reign, Charles divided Francia between his sons and Pepin.
The latter became the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. Charles' grandson, extended the Frankish realms, became the first Emperor in the West since the fall of Rome. Charles, nicknamed "Martel", or "the Hammer", in chronicles, was the son of Pepin of Herstal and his second wife Alpaida, he had a brother named Childebrand, who became the Frankish dux of Burgundy. In older historiography, it was common to describe Charles as "illegitimate", but the dividing line between wives and concubines was not clear-cut in eighth-century Francia, it is that the accusation of "illegitimacy" derives from the desire of Pepin's first wife Plectrude to see her progeny as heirs to Pepin's power. After the reign of Dagobert I the Merovingians ceded power to the Pippinid Mayors of the Palace, who ruled the Frankish realm of Austrasia in all but name, they controlled the royal treasury, dispensed patronage, granted land and privileges in the name of the figurehead king. Charles' father, Pepin of Herstal, was able to unite the Frankish realm by conquering Neustria and Burgundy.
He was the first to call himself Duke and Prince of the Franks, a title taken up by Charles. In December 714, Pepin of Herstal died. Prior to his death, he had, at his wife Plectrude's urging, designated Theudoald, his grandson by their late son Grimoald, his heir in the entire realm; this was opposed by the nobles because Theudoald was a child of only eight years of age. To prevent Charles using this unrest to his own advantage, Plectrude had him imprisoned in Cologne, the city, intended to be her capital; this prevented an uprising on his behalf in Austrasia, but not in Neustria. Pepin's death occasioned open conflict between his heirs and the Neustrian nobles who sought political independence from Austrasian control. In 715, Dagobert III named Ragenfrid mayor of their palace declaring political independence. On 26 September 715, Ragenfrid's Neustrians met the young Theudoald's forces at the Battle of Compiegne. Theudoald fled back to Cologne. Before the end of the year, Charles Martel had escaped from prison and been acclaimed mayor by the nobles of Austrasia.
That same year, Dagobert III died and the Neustrians proclaimed Chilperic II, the cloistered son of Childeric II, as king. In 716, Chilperic and Ragenfrid together led an army into Austrasia intent on seizing the Pippinid wealth at Cologne; the Neustrians allied with another invading force under Radbod, King of the Frisians and met Charles in battle near Cologne, still held by Plectrude. Charles had little time to gather men, or prepare, the result was the only defeat of his career; the Frisians held off Charles, while the king and his mayor besieged Plectrude at Cologne, where she bought them off with a substantial portion of Pepin's treasure. They withdrew. Charles retreated to the hills of the Eifel to gather men, train them. Having made the proper preparations, in April 716, he fell upon the triumphant army near Malmedy as it was returning to its own province. In the ensuing Battle of Amblève, Martel attacked. According to one source, he split his forces into several groups. Another suggests that while this was his intention, he decided, given the enemy's unpreparedness, this was not necessary.
In any event, the suddenness of the assault lead them to believe they were facing a much larger host. Many of the enemy fled and Martel's troops gathered the spoils of the camp. Martel's reputation increased as a result, he attracted more followers; this battle is considered by historians as the turning point in Charles's struggle. Richard Gerberding points out that up to this time, much of Martel's support was from his mother's kindred in the lands around Liege. After Amblève, he seems to have won the backing of the influential Willibrord, founder of the Abbey of Echternach; the abbey had been built on land donated by Plectrude's mother, Irmina of Oeren, but most of Willibrord's missionary work had been carried out in Frisia. In joining Chilperic and Ragenfrid, Radbod of Frisia sacked Utrecht, burning churches and killing many missionaries. Willibrord and his monks were forced to flee to Echternach. Gerberding suggests that Willibrord had decided that the chances of preserving his life's work were better with a successful field commander like Martel than with Plectrude in Cologne.
Willibrord subsequently baptized Martel's son Pepin. Gerberding suggests a date of Easter 716. Martel received support from Bishop Pepo of Verdun. Charles took time to prepare. By the following spring, Charles had attracted e
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Theodo of Bavaria
Theodo known as Theodo V and Theodo II, was the Duke of Bavaria from 670 or, more 680 to his death. It is with Theodo, he strengthened his duchy internally and externally and, according to the medieval chronicler Arbeo of Freising, he was a prince of great power whose fame extended beyond his borders. Theodo's descendance has not been conclusively established. A member of the Agilolfing dynasty, his father was Duke Theodo IV of Bavaria and his mother was Fara of Bavaria, daughter of one of the Kings of the Lombards and by her mother a granddaughter of Gisulf I of Friuli. Theodo established his capital at Ratisbona, he married Folchaid, of the Frankish aristocracy in Austrasia. He intervened in Lombard affairs by harbouring the refugees Ansprand and Liutprand, whom he assisted militarily on his return to claim the Iron Crown. Liutprand married his daughter Guntrude. Theodo defended his duchy ably from the Avars. Theodo is the patron to the four great missionaries of Bavaria: Saint Rupert, Saint Erhard, Saint Emmeram, Saint Corbinian.
He was the first to draw up plans for the Bavarian church, aiming both at a deeper cultivation of the countryside as well as greater independence from the Frankish Kingdom by a closer association with the Pope. He was the first Bavarian duke to travel to Rome, where he conferred with Pope Gregory II; the diocesan seats were placed in the few urban centres, which served as the Duke's seats: Regensburg, Salzburg and Passau. Two of his children are involved with the death of Saint Emmeram. Theodo's daughter Uta had become pregnant by her lover. Fearing her father's wrath, she confided to Emmeram and the saint promised to bear the blame, as he was about to travel to Rome. Soon after his departure, Uta's predicament became known and in keeping with the agreement she named Emmeram as the father, her brother Lantpert went after Emmeram and greeted him as "bishop and brother-in-law," i.e. episcope et gener noster! He had Emmeram cut and torn into pieces. Theodo had the remains of the saint moved to Regensburg.
Nothing more is known of Uta. According to the Renaissance historians Ladislaus Sunthaym and Johannes Aventinus, Theodo married Regintrud a daughter of King Dagobert I of Austrasia. However, the Verbrüderungsbuch codex of St Peter's Abbey, Salzburg only mentions one Folchaid a daughter of the Robertian count Theutacar in Wormsgau, they had the following children: Theodbert, Duke of Bavaria in Salzburg 711/12–c.719 Theobald, Duke of Bavaria in Regensburg c.711/12–717/19 Tassilo II, Duke of Bavaria in Passau 717–719 Grimoald, Duke of Bavaria in Freising c.716–724 a daughter who married her Agilolfing cousin Duke Gotfrid of AlamanniaTheodo was succeeded by his four other sons, between whom he divided his duchy sometime before 715. As early as 702, his eldest son Theodbert had been reigning from Salzburg and from 711 or 712 was the co-ruler of his father, it is impossible to see. If so, Theodbert's capital was Salzburg and the Vita Corbiniani informs that Grimoald had his seat there. References to Theobald and the Thuringii implies a capital at Regensburg and this leaves Tassilo at Passau.
All of this is educated conjecture. Some historians have distinguished between a Duke Theodo I, ruling around 680, a Duke Theodo II, reigning in the early eighth century. Theodo I is associated with events involving Saint Emmeram and Lantpert, while Theodo II is associated with Saints Corbinian and Rupert, the ecclesiastical organisation and the division of the Duchy. However, no contemporary source indicates a distinction between different Dukes of that name. To complicate matters further, Bavarian tradition has referred to Theodo I and Theodo II as Theodo IV and Theodo V to differentiate them from legendary Agilolfing ancestors Theodo I to III, all who would have reigned before 550. Die Genealogie der Franken und Frankreichs Vita of St Robert Cawley, Medieval Lands Project on Theodo V, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy