A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Monte Baldo is a mountain range in the Italian Alps, located in the provinces of Trento and Verona. Its ridge spans northeast-southwest, is bounded from south by the highland ending at Caprino Veronese, from west by Lake Garda, from north by the valley joining Rovereto to Nago-Torbole and, from east, the Val d'Adige; the name derives from the German Wald. The Peace Trail, one of the most important long distance trails in Northern Italy, leads over the range; the ridge is reachable through a cable car from the nearby town of Malcesine, on the shore of Lake Garda. Mount Baldo is characterized by a geographical identity, a ridge parallel to Lake Garda, which stretches for 40 kilometres, between the lake to the west and Val d'Adige to the east, on the south it is bounded by plain Caprino and North Valley Loppio. Mount Baldo reaches its maximum elevation of 2,218 m with the Cima Valdritta, its minimum elevation of 65 m on Lake Garda. Other prominent peaks in the range are Monte Altissimo di Nago, Cima del Longino, Cima delle Pozzette and Punta Telegrafo.
List of Alpine peaks by prominence
Mount Teide is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain. Its 3,718-metre summit is the highest point in Spain and the highest point above sea level in the islands of the Atlantic. If measured from the ocean floor, it is at 7,500 m the highest volcano in the world base-to-peak outside of the Hawaiian Islands, is described by UNESCO and NASA as Earth's third-tallest volcanic structure. Teide's elevation makes Tenerife the tenth highest island in the world. Teide is an active volcano: its most recent eruption occurred in 1909 from the El Chinyero vent on the northwestern Santiago rift; the United Nations Committee for Disaster Mitigation designated Teide a Decade Volcano because of its history of destructive eruptions and its proximity to several large towns, of which the closest are Garachico, Icod de los Vinos and Puerto de la Cruz. Teide, Pico Viejo and Montaña Blanca form the Central Volcanic Complex of Tenerife; the volcano and its surroundings comprise Teide National Park, which has an area of 18,900 hectares and was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on June 28, 2007.
Teide is the most visited natural wonder of Spain, the most visited national park in Spain and Europe and – by 2015 – the eighth most visited in the world, with some 3 million visitors yearly. In 2016, it was visited by 4,079,823 tourists reaching a historical record. Teide Observatory, a major international astronomical observatory, is located on the slopes of the mountain. Before the 1496 Spanish colonization of Tenerife, the native Guanches referred to a powerful figure living in the volcano, which carries light and the sun. El Pico del Teide is the modern Spanish name. Nowadays the name Teide is used as a personal name. Teide was a sacred mountain for the aboriginal Guanches, so it was considered a mythological mountain, as Mount Olympus was to the ancient Greeks. According to legend, Guayota kidnapped Magec and imprisoned him inside the volcano, plunging the world into darkness; the Guanches asked their supreme god Achamán for clemency, so Achamán fought Guayota, freed Magec from the bowels of the mountain, plugged the crater with Guayota.
It is said that since Guayota has remained locked inside Teide. When going on to Teide during an eruption, it was customary for the Guanches to light bonfires to scare Guayota. Guayota is represented as a black dog, accompanied by his host of demons; the Guanches believed that Teide held up the sky. Many hiding places found in the mountains contain the remains of pottery; these have been interpreted as being ritual deposits to counter the influence of evil spirits, like those made by the Berbers of Kabylie. The Guanches believed the mountain to be the place that housed the forces of evil and the most evil figure, Guayota. Guayota shares features similar to other powerful deities inhabiting volcanoes, such as the goddess Pele of Hawaiian mythology, who lived in the Kīlauea volcano and was regarded by the native Hawaiians as responsible for the eruptions of the volcano; the stratovolcanoes Teide and Pico Viejo are the most recent centres of activity on the volcanic island of Tenerife, the largest and highest island in the Canaries.
It has a complex volcanic history. The formation of the island and the development of the current Teide volcano took place in the five stages shown in the diagram on the right. Like the other Canary Islands, volcanic ocean islands in general, Tenerife was built by accretion of three large shield volcanoes, which developed in a short period; this early shield stage volcanism formed the bulk of the emerged part of Tenerife. The shield volcanoes date back to the Miocene and early Pliocene and are preserved in three isolated and eroded massifs: Anaga and Roque del Conde; each shield was constructed in less than three million years, the entire island in about eight million years. The initial juvenile stage was followed by a period of 2–3 million years of eruptive quiescence and erosion; this cessation of activity is typical of the Canaries. After this period of quiescence, the volcanic activity became concentrated within two large edifices: the central volcano of Las Cañadas, the Anaga massif; the Las Cañadas volcano developed over the Miocene shield volcanoes and may have reached 40 km in diameter and 4,500 m in height.
Around 160–220 thousand years ago the summit of the Las Cañadas I volcano collapsed, creating the Las Cañadas caldera. A new stratovolcano, Las Cañadas II, formed in the vicinity of Guajara and catastrophically collapsed. Another volcano, Las Cañadas III, formed in the Diego Hernandez sector of the caldera. All of the Las Cañadas volcanoes attained a maximum altitude similar to that of Teide. Two theories on the formation of the 16 km ×; the first states that the depression is the result of a vertical collapse of the volcano triggered by the emptying of shallow magma chambers at around sea level under the Las Cañadas volcano after large-volume explosive eruptions. The second theory is that the caldera was formed by a series of lateral gravitational collapses similar to those described in Hawaii. Evidence for the latter theory has been found in both onshore observations and marine geology studies. From around 160,000 years ago until the present day, the stratovolcanoes of Teide and Pico Viejo forme
Mulhacén is the highest mountain in continental Spain and in the Iberian Peninsula. It is part of the Sierra Nevada range in the Cordillera Penibética, it is named after Abu l-Hasan Ali, known as Muley Hacén in Spanish, the penultimate Muslim King of Granada in the 15th century who, according to legend, was buried on the summit of the mountain. Mulhacén is the highest peak in western Europe outside the Alps, it is the third most topographically prominent peak in Western Europe, after Mont Blanc and Mount Etna, is ranked 64th in the world by prominence. The peak is not exceptionally dramatic in terms of local relief; the south flank of the mountain is gentle and presents no technical challenge, as is the case for the long west ridge. The shorter, somewhat steeper north east ridge is more technical; the north face of the mountain, however, is much steeper, offers several routes involving moderately steep climbing on snow and ice in the winter. Mulhacén can be climbed in a single day from the villages of either Capileira or Trevélez, but it is more common to spend a night at the mountain refuge at Poqueira, or in the bare shelter at Caldera to the west.
Those making the ascent from Trevelez can bivouac at the tarns to the northeast of the peak. On 5 March 2006, three British climbers from Teesside died on the mountain from suspected hypothermia. Initial reports quoting the Spanish Civil Guard stated that the three were ill-equipped for the extreme conditions; this claim was subsequently disputed both by the family and a colleague of one of the climbers, by one of the rescuers. A plaque dedicated to them has been placed at the summit. Notes Route to climb Mulhacén Mulhacen - Alpujarras.eu: your holiday quide, travel information and rural accommodation
Zois Lodge at Kokra Saddle
The Zois Lodge at Kokra Saddle is a mountain hostel that stands on Kokra Saddle, part of the Kamnik–Savinja Alps. It is named after the brothers Karl Zois, Sigmund Zois; the first lodge was built from wood in 1897 by the Austrian hiking club. After World War I it had to be rebuilt. In 1966 it was connected via a ropeway conveyor to Konec in the Kamnik Bistrica Valley; the lodge operates from the start of June through the middle of October. 3½h: from the Kamnik Bistrica Valley 2½h: from the Suhadolnik Farm in the Kokra Valley 5h: to the Czech Lodge at Spodnje Ravni via the Mlinar Saddle 5h: to the Czech Lodge at Spodnje Ravni via the Dolci Notch Pass 5½h: to the Frischauf Lodge at Okrešelj via Turski Žleb Ravine 6h: to the Kamnik Saddle Lodge via the Sleme Pass and Mount Turska 5h: to the Gospinec Lodge via the Kalce Plateau 6h: to the Gospinec Lodge via the Kalce Ridge 2h: Grintovec 1h: Kalce Mountain 2½h: Kalce Ridge 3½h: Kočna 3½h: Skuta Slovenian Mountain Hiking Trail Slovenska planinska pot, Planinski vodnik, PZS, 2012, Milenko Arnejšek - Prle, Andraž Poljanec ISBN 978-961-6870-04-7 Planinski vestnik, 1898/2 Fran Lapajne, Planinski vestnik 1921/1 Kamniško-Savinjske Alpe, vodnik, PZS 2004, ISBN 961-6156-52-7 Zois Lodge at Kokra Saddle: Description, Route, & Photos www.psz.si Zois Lodge at Kokra Saddle
Triglav, with an elevation of 2,863.65 metres, is the highest mountain in Slovenia and the highest peak of the Julian Alps. The mountain is the pre-eminent symbol of the Slovene Nation, it is the centrepiece of Slovenia's only national park. Triglav was the highest peak in Yugoslavia before Slovenia's independence in 1991. Various names have been used for the mountain through history. An old map from 1567 named it Ocra mons, whereas Johann Weikhard von Valvasor named it Krma in the second half of the 17th century. According to the German mountaineer and professor Adolf Gstirner, the name Triglav first appeared in written sources as Terglau in 1452, but the original source has been lost; the next known occurrence of Terglau is cited by Gstirner and is from a court description of the border in 1573. Early forms of the name Triglav include Terglau in 1612, Terglou in 1664 and Terklou around 1778–89; the name is derived from the compound *Tri-golvъ, which may be understood because the mountain has three peaks when viewed from much of Upper Carniola.
It is unlikely. In the local dialect, the name is pronounced Tərgwòu̯ in contrast to standard Slovene Tríglav; the highest peak is sometimes called Big Mount Triglav to distinguish it from Little Mount Triglav to the east. The first recorded ascent of Triglav was achieved in 1778, on the initiative of the industrialist and polymath Sigmund Zois. According to the most cited report, published in the newspaper Illyrisches Blatt in 1821 by the historian and geographer Johann Richter, these were the surgeon Lovrenz Willomitzer, the chamois hunter Štefan Rožič, the miners Luka Korošec and Matevž Kos. According to a report by Belsazar Hacquet in his Oryctographia Carniolica, this happened towards the end of 1778, by two chamois hunters, one of them being Luka Korošec, one of his former students, whose name is not mentioned. Triglav's height was first measured on 23 September 1808 by Valentin Stanič; the first to put the name of the mountain on a map, written as Mons Terglou, was Joannes Disma Floriantschitsch de Grienfeld, who in 1744 published the map Ducatus Carniolae Tabula Chorographica.
The first map its name appeared on written as Triglav was Zemljovid Slovenske dežele in pokrajin by Peter Kosler, completed from 1848 until 1852 and published in Vienna in 1861. During World War II, Triglav symbolically captured the primary drive by the Slovene resistance to the Fascist and Nazi armies; the Slovene Partisans wore the Triglav cap from 1942 until after 1944. Triglav was the highest peak of the now defunct Yugoslavia. At the top of the mountain stands a small metal structure, the Aljaž Tower, it acts as a triangulation point. Along with Triglav, it is a landmark of Slovenia and a symbol of the Slovenes and Slovene territorial sovereignty; the tower's namesake was the priest and patriot Jakob Aljaž. In early 1895, he drew up, with a piece of chalk on the floor of his room in the parish of Dovje, plans for a cylindrical tower with a flag on its top. In April that year he purchased the summit of Triglav for the sum of one Austro-Hungarian gulden. Having done so, he secured himself the right to erect a building on the mountain top.
The tower was constructed from iron and zinc coated sheet steel by Anton Belec from Šentvid near Ljubljana. He and four workers brought the parts of the tower to the summit of Triglav and put the tower together in only five hours on 7 August 1895; the opening took place that same day. Aljaž donated the shelter to the Slovene Alpine Society. In the beginning, there were three four-legged chairs, a summit register, a spirit stove, the image Triglav Panorama by Marko Pernhart in the tower, it was repainted and renovated several times by Alojz Knafelc and others. In the Communist era, as the highest point of the former Yugoslavia, it was painted red and decorated with a red star. However, it has now less been restored to its original appearance; the star was removed shortly before the dissolution of Yugoslavia. On the proclamation of Slovene independence in June 1991, the flag of Slovenia was raised on top of the tower. In 1895, due to a lack of space, Aljaž commissioned the building of the Stanič Shelter.
It is located 55 metres below the top of Triglav and is named after the poet and mountaineer Valentin Stanič. The shelter has room for 8 people sitting or 16 standing, it had a wooden door, benches, a table, a chair. Its significance diminished after the Kredarica Lodge was erected in 1896; the Triglav Glacier is located below the summit on the karstified Triglav Plateaus, part of the northeastern side of the mountain. Covering over 40 hectares at the end of the 19th century, the glacier had shrunk to 15 hectares by 1946, after further shrinkage had fallen into two parts by 1992, it now covers an area of only 1–3 hectares, depending on the season. The Triglav area is the setting of an old Slovene folk tale concerning a hunter seeking a treasure guarded by an enchanted chamois buck named Zlatorog; the earliest known depiction of Trigla
Pizzo Coca is a mountain that straddles the Val Seriana and the Valtellina in Lombardy, Italy. It is the highest peak in the Bergamo Alps, its height is 3,050 metres with a saddle of 1,172 metres. A post-glacial valley exists near a point called "ometto in sassi" at 2,400 meters; the Alps form a part of a tertiary orogenic belt of mountain chains, called the Alpide belt, that stretches through southern Europe and Asia from the Atlantic stretching eastward to the Himalayas. The Bergamo Alps have three prominent peaks named Punta Scaiss and Pizzo Redorta; as with its parent Alpine belt, Pizzo Coca is composed of "dark-coloured" sedimentary mountain rock with "huge rocky spurs" known as a pyramid type peak. Pizzo Coca, along with the other Bergamo crystalline peaks, exist parallel to the Valtellina Valley. Narrow and vertical chimney clefts stretch towards Pizzo Coca's summit, which has rock debris, before it levels off; the mountain rises to 2,924 meters by "Dente di Coca" before settling out by Pico Coca's summit.
The Alps are split into five climate zones, each with a different kind of environment. The climate, plant life and animal life vary on different sections or zones of the mountain such as Pizzo Coca; the initial altitude at Val Seriana, one of the recommended southern access points, is 1,100 meters and part of a valley. The valley trail rises to 1,892 meters by Rifugio Coca, a rest stop. Pizzo Coca's Subalpine regional climate ranges to 1,800 metres with the lower levels available for cultivation; the Alpine regional climate exists between 2,500 meters. The Glacial regional climate extends from 2,500 to Pico Coca's top at 3,050 metres with snow falling at the higher elevations. Pizzo Coca can be reached from the south starting from Valbondione. From here the path leads to Rifugio Coca, a "hut" managed by Club Alpino Italiano based in Bergamo continues towards Lago di Coca. From here, before reaching the lake, climbers must crawl up the scree to the east. After this, the trail climbs then follows a semicircle along the natural amphitheatre at the foot of the Bocchetta dei Camosci.
From here begins the steepest part of the path allowing climbers, after 300 to 400 meters uphill, the base of Pizzo Coca is reached. From the peak, there is an unrestricted view to the surrounding area; the Rhaetian Alps that connects to the north are visible, as is Lake Barbellino, Monte Torena, Pizzo Strinato, Monte Costone, Monte Trobio, Monte Gleno and Pizzo Recastello, Pizzo Redorta, the glacier of Marovin, the Pizzo del Diavolo di Tenda in the west and Pizzo Arera to the south as well as several other peaks, beginning from the valley of the Serio River, the starting point of Valbondione. The initial trail leads to a series of rifugios, Italian for refuges, like the first Rifugio Coca mountain hut; this is a hike to this refuge. Past Rifugio Coca, becomes a YDS 3 or a climbing route with scrambling uphill amongst boulders, creeks and zig-zag markers. Based upon exposure to falling and increased YDS 3+ in some hard rock climb areas, climbing equipment like rope, climbing harness, crampons, ice axes and skis is recommended.
Pizzo Coca's nearest airport is Orio al Serio Airport in Italy. The nearest "convenient center" is Valbondione. Alpine Brigade Orobica Swiss Alps List of national parks of the Alps Europe Ultra-Prominences www.peaklist.org Retrieved: 2010-05-11. Pizzo di Coca www.peakware.com Retrieved: 2010-05-11. Pizzo di Coca A Google translation Retrieved: 2010-05-11 Alpinfoto alpinfoto.it Retrieved: 2010-05-11. - Images from the Alps Alpine Convention www.alpconv.org Retrieved: 2010-05-11. - Convention on the Protection of the Alps Alpine Space Programme Alpine Space Programme Retrieved: 2010-05-11. - EU transnational co-operational programme for the Alps