Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. The word has its origins in the Italian language, in which it means either "loose gravel" or "stone made by cemented gravel". A breccia may have a variety of different origins, as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia, tectonic breccia, igneous breccia, impact breccia, hydrothermal breccia. Sedimentary breccia is a type of clastic sedimentary rock, made of angular to subangular, randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. A conglomerate, by contrast, is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of pre-existing rocks. Both breccia and conglomerate are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres in size; the angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. Sedimentary breccia consists of angular, poorly sorted, immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting.
It is lithified scree. Thick sequences of sedimentary breccia are formed next to fault scarps in grabens. Breccia may occur along a buried stream channel where it indicates accumulation along a juvenile or flowing stream. Sedimentary breccia may be formed by submarine debris flows. Turbidites occur as fine-grained peripheral deposits to sedimentary breccia flows. In a karst terrain, a collapse breccia may form due to collapse of rock into a sinkhole or in cave development. Fault breccia results from the grinding action of two fault blocks. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of the introduction of mineral matter in groundwater. Igneous clastic rocks can be divided into two classes: Broken, fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions, both of the lava and pyroclastic type. Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column; this may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magma conduit, or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge.
Lavas rhyolite and dacite flows, tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. This occurs when the thick, nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma; the resulting breccia is uniform in rock chemical composition. Lavas may pick up rock fragments if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano, these form volcanic breccias called pillow breccias. Within the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes the volcanic breccia environment merges into the intrusive breccia environment. There the upwelling lava tends to solidify during quiescent intervals only to be shattered by ensuing eruptions. Clastic rocks are commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry stocks and kimberlite pipes, where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion if fresh magma is intruded into consolidated or solidified magma.
This may be seen in many granite intrusions where aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. When intense, the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes: Consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks, where the felsic wall rocks are softened and invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth and are found at impact craters. Impact breccia, a type of impactite, forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater, in the rim, or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater, and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones, impact glass, shocked minerals, chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material.
An example of an impact breccia is the Neugrund breccia, formed in the Neugrund impact. Hydrothermal breccias form at shallow crustal levels between 150 and 350 °C, when seismic or volcanic activity causes a void to open along a fault deep underground; the void draws in hot water, as pressure in the cavity drops, the water violently boils. In addition, the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at the sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards, the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock and boiling water. Rock fragments collide with each other and the sides of the void, the angular fragments become more rounded. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase in particular carbon dioxide; as a result, the chemistry of the fluids changes an
In mountaineering in the United States, a thirteener is a mountain that exceeds 13,000 feet above mean sea level, similar to the more familiar "fourteeners," which exceed 14,000 feet. In most instances, "thirteeners" refers only to those peaks between 13,000 and 13,999 feet in elevation; the importance of thirteeners is greatest in Colorado, which has the majority of such peaks in North America with over 600 of them. Despite the large number of peaks, over 20 peak baggers have reported climbing all of Colorado's thirteeners. Thirteeners are significant in states whose highpoints fall between 13,000 and 13,999 feet. Regarding whether or not peaks in excess of 13,999 feet should be considered as "thirteeners", this article will count them as such for statistical purposes, but concentrate its focus on those peaks less than 14,000 feet since the higher peaks are covered in the fourteeners list. Not all summits over 13,000 feet qualify as thirteeners, but only those summits that mountaineers consider to be independent.
Objective standards for independence include a combination. However thirteener lists do not always use such objective rules. A rule used by mountaineers in the contiguous United States is that a peak must have at least 300 feet of prominence to qualify. According to the Mountaineering Club of Alaska, it is standard in Alaska to use a 500 ft prominence rule rather than a 300-foot rule; these are the standards applied for the lists below. Thirteeners are found in nine U. S. states. This table summarizes their numbers based on each state's prominence criteria: By the most detailed count, Colorado has 637 peaks that exceed 13,000 feet and meet the prominence criteria, of which 53 are fourteeners; the highest of them less than 14,000 feet are as follows: Grizzly Peak is not only the name of Colorado's highest thirteener, but the state has four other Grizzly Peaks plus one Grizzly Mountain on the list: Other notable Colorado thirteeners include: California has the second greatest number of thirteeners with 149 of them, of which 12 are fourteeners.
The highest under 14,000 feet are as follows: Other notable California thirteeners include: Alaska has at least 41 thirteeners that meet its more stringent prominence criteria of 500 ft, of which 20 are fourteeners. Different sources list varying numbers of 13,000+ ft peaks in the state because many of the peaks are unnamed and have no spot elevations given on the USGS topographical maps. Using a 300' interpolated prominence criterion, there are 61 13,000+ ft peaks in Alaska; the following list may miss a few peaks that should be included: Wyoming has 34 thirteeners with at least 300 ft of prominence, but no fourteeners. 30 of the 34 are located in the rugged and remote Wind River Range. The highest of them are: Other notable Wyoming thirteeners include: Utah has 17 thirteeners with at least 300 ft of prominence, but no fourteeners. All of them are located in the remote Uinta Mountains near the Wyoming border; the highest of the thirteeners are: New Mexico has 3 thirteeners, all located within about 40 miles of each other in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.
Hawaii has two thirteeners, the great shield volcanoes which comprise the bulk of the Big Island of Hawaii. Nevada has only a single thirteener that meets the threshold for inclusion, Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park with an impressive 7,568 feet of prominence. However, the highest point in the state is Boundary Peak, a sub-peak of California's Montgomery Peak with only 240 feet of prominence. Mount Rainier is the only mountain in Washington state that exceeds 13,000 feet, it has two summits that meet the prominence criteria, both of which are included on the list of fourteeners. Outline of the United States Index of United States-related articles Fourteener Mountain peaks of Alaska Mountain peaks of California Mountain peaks of Colorado Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains Mountain peaks of the United States Peak Lists by Gerry Roach 13ers.com - Home of Colorado's Thirteeners Climb13ers.com - Peakbagging Info for Colorado 13ers listsofjohn.com
Chaffee County, Colorado
Chaffee County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,809; the county seat is Salida. Chaffee County has a confusing origin. Between February 8 and February 10, 1879, Carbonate County was created by the Colorado legislature out of northern Lake County. On February 10 the two counties were renamed, with the southern part of Lake County becoming Chaffee County, Carbonate County becoming Lake County. Chaffee County is known as the “Heart of the Rockies”, it was named for Jerome B. Chaffee, Colorado's first United States Senator. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,015 square miles, of which 1,013 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Browns Canyon National Monument Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Collegiate Peaks Wilderness San Isabel National Forest Arkansas Headwaters Recreation Area American Discovery Trail Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Great Parks Bicycle Route Western Express Bicycle Route Lake County - north Park County - northeast Fremont County - southeast Saguache County - south Gunnison County - west Pitkin County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 16,242 people, 6,584 households, 4,365 families residing in the county.
The population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 8,392 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.94% White, 1.58% Black or African American, 1.09% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.21% from other races, 1.69% from two or more races. 8.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,584 households out of which 25.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.70% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years.
For every 100 females there were 113.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,368, the median income for a family was $42,043. Males had a median income of $30,770 versus $22,219 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,430. About 7.40% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Chaffee County is home to a source of water that Arrowhead water uses for some water bottles; the source is Ruby Mountain Springs. Salida Buena Vista Poncha Springs Garfield Johnson Village Maysville Smeltertown St. Elmo Vicksburg Winfield Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Chaffee County, Colorado Cultural and Archeological Resources Chaffee County Clerk of Court Chaffee County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Geologic Map of the Harvard Lakes 7.5ʹ Quadrangle and Chaffee Counties, Colorado United States Geological Survey
Independence Pass (Colorado)
Independence Pass known as Hunter Pass, is a high mountain pass in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado in the United States. It is at elevation 12,095 ft on the Continental Divide in the Sawatch Range; the pass is midway on the border between Pitkin and Lake counties. State Highway 82 traverses it, after Cottonwood Pass to the south, is the second highest elevation of a paved Colorado state highway on a through road, it is the second-highest pass with an improved road in the state, the fourth-highest paved road in the state and the second highest paved crossing of the Continental Divide in the U. S; because of the heavy snowfall at its elevation, it is closed in wintertime, isolating Aspen from direct access from the east during the ski season. When the pass is open in warmer weather, it is a popular destination. A scenic overlook near the pass allows visitors to take in the alpine tundra environment above treeline, offers excellent views to the east of Mount Elbert, Colorado's highest peak and the second-highest mountain in the contiguous United States.
Rock climbers are drawn to nearby bouldering opportunities, informal paths lead to nearby mountain summits of higher elevation. Backcountry skiers make use of the slopes during early summer. Since 2011 the pass has been on the route of the USA Pro Cycling Challenge; the pass was formed by glacial action and erosion in the region, its first recorded sighting was by Zebulon Pike in 1806. Ferdinand Hayden surveyed it in 1873; as part of the Continental Divide, it was the limit of European settlement in the region at the time, with the land to the west reserved for the Ute people. Prospectors who defied governor Frederick Walker Pitkin's order crossed the pass on July 4, 1879, giving it its current name and setting up a named village to its west. A toll road built across the pass was abandoned and neglected after a railroad connection was made to Aspen. A new road replaced it in the 1920s; the Independence Pass Foundation, based in Aspen, works to repair damage to the pass's environment caused by both roads since 1984.
At the pass, the main ridge of the Sawatch Range, thus the Continental Divide, turns from running south to more southwesterly. North of the pass slopes rise to an unnamed 13,440-foot peak a half-mile away. To the south the ridge rises more around Mountain Boy Gulch to an unnamed 13,198-foot summit 2 miles distant; the first named summit in this direction is Colorado's highest thirteener. The terrain is level enough, the ridge broad enough, to allow for a 500-foot parking lot along the south side of Highway 82 at the height of land; the pass is split evenly between Pitkin and Lake counties, as well as White River and San Isabel national forests. Boundaries of the Collegiate Peaks Wilderness and the Mount Massive Wilderness are near the pass on the south and north respectively; the Hunter–Fryingpan Wilderness is nearby. West of the parking area is a small maintenance shed. Both are maintained by the U. S. Forest Service. A paved walkway system extends to a pair of overlooks 500 feet to the south allowing views in that direction over the Lake Creek valley to Mount Elbert, at 14,440 feet the highest peak both in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains, La Plata Peak, another fourteener and the state's fifth-highest peak.
A wide dirt path continues southward three miles along the ridge to an unnamed 13,020-foot summit. Across the road a use path leads 2.5 miles to the summits of Twining. The pass comes in the middle of a 32-mile stretch of Highway 82 between the two winter gates, a corridor, sometimes referred to in its entirety as Independence Pass. Aspen is 19 miles to the west, with Twin Lakes 18 miles to the east. Beyond Aspen the highway continues down the valley to the mouth of the Roaring Fork at Glenwood Springs. East of Twin Lakes Highway 82 continues a short distance to its eastern terminus at U. S. Highway 24, 15 miles south of Leadville. On both approaches, the dropoff is steep enough for Highway 82 to require a 6% grade and switchbacks: one on the west and three on the east; the former approach uses the narrow valley of the Roaring Fork River, a tributary of the Colorado, which rises from Independence Lake west of the pass. Its walls are steeper but shallower than those of the North Fork of Lake Creek, which drains into Twin Lakes Reservoir and the headwaters of the Arkansas River, on the east.
The pass is above tree line, so the surrounding terrain is alpine tundra. Open grassy expanses are broken by low shrubbery and bare patches of rock on the steep slope to the north. Snow lingers in some areas year-round. Adjacent to the road and parking area are small ephemeral pools on the southwest, with a larger, permanent one north of the road. Like the surrounding mountains, the pass was created by glaciation and erosion over thousands of years. Before European-American settlers arrived, it was in the territory of the Ute Native American tribe. One of the earliest sightings by a European-American was in 1806, when Zebulon Pike, mapping the southern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase, spotted the gap in what would be named the Sawatch Range from the upper Arkansas River valley, it was not explored until Ferdinand Hayden and his team surveyed it in 1873. At the time it was known as Hunter Pass. Three years in 1876, Colorado became a state. At the time settle
The Sawatch Range is a high and extensive mountain range in central Colorado which includes eight of the twenty highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains, including Mount Elbert, at 14,440 feet elevation, the highest peak in the Rockies. The range is oriented along a northwest-southeast axis, extending 80 miles from 39°37′36″N 106°32′13″W in the north to 38°5′51″N 106°3′48″W in the south; the range contains 15 peaks topping 14,000 feet known as 14ers. The range forms a portion of the Continental Divide, its eastern flanks are drained by the headwaters of the Arkansas River; the western side of the range feeds the headwaters of the Roaring Fork River, the Eagle River, the Gunnison River, tributaries of the Colorado River. The Sawatch mountains in general are high and gentle in contour. While some peaks are rugged enough to require technical climbing, most can be climbed by a simple, yet arduous hike. Notable summits include Mount Elbert, Mount Massive, La Plata Peak, Mount of the Holy Cross, the Collegiate Peaks.
State Highway 82 traverses the range at Independence Pass. It is traversed by Cottonwood Pass, which connects the town of Buena Vista with Gunnison County. Both Independence Pass and Cottonwood Pass are over 12,000 feet, making them 2 of the highest passes in Colorado and are open only from late spring to mid autumn. Hagerman Pass is another pass to the north, connecting the Arkansas Headwaters near Leadville with the upper valley of the Fryingpan River. Hagerman pass is traversable with four-wheel drive vehicles and on foot during summer and early autumn months; the range contains numerous hiking trails within the San Isabel National Forest and White River National Forest. Southern Rocky Mountains Missouri Lakes Trail Mountain ranges of Colorado Collegiate Peaks Sawatch Range @ Peakbagger Sawatch Range @ 14ers.com Sawatch Range @ summitpost.org Mt. Aetna @ summitpost.org
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
Pitkin County, Colorado
Pitkin County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,148; the county seat is Aspen. The county is named in honor of the late Colorado Governor Frederick Walker Pitkin. Pitkin County has the seventh-highest per capita income of any county in the United States. Pitkin County is included in the Glenwood Springs, CO Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Edwards-Glenwood Springs, CO Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 973 square miles, of which 971 sq mi is land and 2.5 sq mi is water. The high point of the county is a fourteener with a height of 14,265 feet, it is located 20 miles south of Aspen on the Gunnison County border. Eagle County – northeast Lake County – east Chaffee County – southeast Gunnison County – south Mesa County – west Garfield County – northwest SH 82 SH 133 White River National Forest Collegiate Peaks Wilderness Holy Cross Wilderness Hunter-Fryingpan Wilderness Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness American Discovery Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail West Elk Loop Scenic Byway As of the census of 2000, there were 14,872 people, 6,807 households, 3,185 families residing in the county.
The population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 10,096 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.33% White, 0.53% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.37% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races. Of the population, 6.54 % were Latino of any race. There were 6,807 households out of which 21.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.70% were married couples living together, 5.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 53.20% were non-families. Of all households, 35.80% were made up of individuals and 3.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 16.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 38.30% from 25 to 44, 30.50% from 45 to 64, 6.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 115.10 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $59,375, the median income for a family was $75,048. Males had a median income of $40,672 versus $33,896 for females; the per capita income for the county was $40,811. About 3.00% of families and 6.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.40% of those under age 18 and 5.60% of those age 65 or over. According to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association, residents of Pitkin County had a 2014 life expectancy of 86.52 years, the second longest in the United States. Both men and women live longer in Pitkin County than nearly every other county in the United States. 85.2 years for men and 88.0 years for women is the life expectancy at birth. Two contiguous counties and Eagle counties, rank numbers one and three in the nation in life expectancy. Factors contributing to the high life expectancy in Pitkin County are "high education, high income, high access to medical care, the people are physically active, obesity is lower than anywhere else — so you’re doing it right.”
Said Dr. Ali Mokdad, one of the study’s co-authors. Aspen Basalt Snowmass Village Norrie Redstone Woody Creek Ashcroft Buttermilk Meredith Snowmass In its early history Pitkin County favored the Democratic Party, for which it voted in every election between 1896 and 1916, one of the few Western counties to support Alton B. Parker in 1904. After that, it followed the trends of the nation until being narrowly carried by losing candidate Thomas E. Dewey in 1944. Pitkin subsequently remained Republican-leaning until the growing ski resort community drew its residents to the liberal George McGovern – rejected by a majority of the electorates of all but 129 other counties – in 1972. Since the 1980s, Pitkin has turned powerfully Democratic due to the threat of overdevelopment and the need for affordable housing and alternative mobility solutions; the last Republican to carry the county was Ronald Reagan in 1984, George H. W. Bush in the following election is the last Republican to gain a third of the county’s vote.
In this modern era, Pitkin has frequently been one of the leading counties for leftist third-party candidates, being the fourth-best county for Eugene McCarthy in 1976, the third-best for John B. Anderson in 1980. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Roaring Fork Transportation Authority Hunter S. Thompson National Register of Historic Places listings in Pitkin County, Colorado Pitkin County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society