Halland is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden, on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Västergötland, Småland and the sea of Kattegat; until 1645 and the Second Treaty of Brömsebro, it was part of the Kingdom of Denmark. The provinces of Sweden serve no administrative function. Instead, that function is served by the Counties of Sweden. However, the province of Halland is coextensive with the administrative Halland County, though parts of the province belong to Västra Götaland County and Skåne County, while the county includes parts of Småland and Västergötland; as of December 31, 2016, Halland had a population of 327,093. Of these, 310,536 lived in Halland County. During the Danish era until 1658, the province had no coat of no seal. In Sweden, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560; when Charles X Gustav of Sweden died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province. Each province was to be represented by its arms at the royal funeral.
There are several theories about the choice of a lion. Bengt Algotsson, duke of Halland and Finland in the 14th century, used a lion in his personal arms. Blazon: Azure, a Lion rampant Argent langued and dente Gules; the same coat of arms was granted for the administrative Halland County, which has the same boundaries. The rivers of Lagan, Ätran and Viskan flow through the province and reach the sea in Kattegat. Halland is well known as an agricultural district. Most of the region is made up of a relief unit known as the Sub-Mesozoic hilly peneplain. Around Morup and Tvååker hilltops are remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, an ancient erosion surface that covers much of eastern Sweden. Loose flint nodules of Cretaceous age have been found around Halland; the flints are remnants of a former cover of sedimentary rock, eroded. At present the sedimentary cover continues to exist in Scania and offshore; the Bronze Age was a period of relative prosperity in Halland. This is shown in the number of the numerous archaeological remains.
Over 1,100 tumuli and grave mounds have been found. The end of the Bronze Age witnessed an over-consumption of resources. Large areas were deforested; this might have been a result of a high demand for charcoal in smelting gold or bronze among the local elites. The worsening climate at the beginning of the Iron Age meant that the local elites no longer could obtain bronze to the same extent as before; as a result, the social structures collapsed. The early Iron Age social structures seem to have been egalitarian, but from around 200 AD there was a trend in which villages formed larger communities and small kingdoms; this is to have been a distant influence from the growing Roman Empire. During the 5th and 6th century large free-standing farms were created. An example of such a farm can be found in Slöinge, it was not just the social structure. New villages were formed; the new centers that were formed became the kernel from which new areas were settled during medieval times. According to information from a trader travelling from Skiringssal, close to the Oslofjord to Hedeby in the 870s it can be concluded that Halland was a Danish area at that time.
It would stay so for most of recorded history. Iron extraction is known to have taken place in Tvååker/Sibbarp during the Iron Age; as part of the Scanian lands Halland came under the Scanian Law and participated in the Scanian Thing, one of three Things electing the Danish king. Local assemblies took place in Getinge. Halland was the scene of considerable military action from the 13th century and on as Sweden, Denmark and to some degree Norway fought for supremacy in Scandinavia; the many wars made the province poor. Not only were material damages caused by military action, but the social impact of the fighting was devastating; the county was the site of combat and plunder three times during the 13th Century: in 1256 Haakon IV of Norway invaded, followed by Magnus III of Sweden in 1277 and Eric VI of Denmark in 1294. The county came to be split in two parts for the next century, with the river Ätran forming a boundary; the lords of the two parts succeeded each other in a high tempo. As the Kalmar Union was formed, Halland came for a brief period of time to be centrally located.
According to the union treaty, the king was to be elected in Halmstad. During the rebellion of Engelbrekt in 1434 the fortress in Falkenberg was burnt down and two years Lagaholm was captured by the Swedes; the Swedo-Danish struggles in the early 16th century came to affect the province as well, as in 1519 when the border regions were sacked by the Swedes as a vengeance for similar Danish action in Västergötland. The Danish civil war called the Count's Feud in 1534–36, the Northern Seven Years' War between Denmark and Sweden in 1563–1570 and the Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden in 1611–1613 all affected Halland. One of the major battles of the Northern Seven Years' War, the battle of Axtorna, took place in Halland. Halland was temporarily transferred to Sweden in 1645 under the terms of the Second Treaty of Brömsebro; the conquest was made permanent by the ceding of the province in the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. The last battle in Halland took place in Fyllebro on 17 August 1676, during the Scanian War.
The more peaceful conditions that followed meant that the province could
The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, northeast Germany, Poland and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53 ° N from 10 ° E to 30 ° E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, the Little Belt, it includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula; the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Administration The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the'Baltic Sea Area' shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N."Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør.
The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland; the Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water. Hydrography and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, a limit to the Belt Sea; the shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea have a rich biology; the remainder of the Sea is poor in oxygen and in species.
Thus, the more of the entrance, included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen; the origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. It might be connected to the Germanic word belt, a name used for two of the Danish straits, the Belts, while others claim it to be directly derived from the source of the Germanic word, Latin balteus "belt". Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt, he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Xenophon.
It is possible. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait." Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". This root and its basic meaning were retained in both Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been associated with colors found in swamps, yet another explanation is that the name meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names; the name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.
The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum. Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it indicate the geographical location of the sea, or its size in relation to smaller gulfs, or tribes associated with it. In modern lang
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but it took thousands of years for writing to be adopted, it was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or until the present. The end of prehistory therefore came at different dates in different places, the term is less used in discussing societies where prehistory ended recently. Sumer in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilization, ancient Egypt were the first civilizations to develop their own scripts and to keep historical records. Neighboring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age; the three-age system of division of prehistory into the Stone Age, followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age, remains in use for much of Eurasia and North Africa, but is not used in those parts of the world where the working of hard metals arrived abruptly with contact with Eurasian cultures, such as the Americas, Oceania and much of Sub-Saharan Africa.
These areas with some exceptions in Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas, did not develop complex writing systems before the arrival of Eurasians, their prehistory reaches into recent periods. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no written records from human prehistory, so dating of prehistoric materials is crucial. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century; this article is concerned with human prehistory, the time since behaviorally and anatomically modern humans first appeared until the beginning of recorded history. Earlier periods are called "prehistoric". Beginning The term "prehistory" can refer to the vast span of time since the beginning of the Universe or the Earth, but more it refers to the period since life appeared on Earth, or more to the time since human-like beings appeared. End The date marking the end of prehistory is defined as the advent of the contemporary written historical record.
The date varies from region to region depending on the date when relevant records become a useful academic resource. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BCE, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more at around 1900 common era. In Europe the well-documented classical cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome had neighbouring cultures, including the Celts and to a lesser extent the Etruscans, with little or no writing, historians must decide how much weight to give to the highly prejudiced accounts of these "prehistoric" cultures in Greek and Roman literature. Time periods In dividing up human prehistory in Eurasia, historians use the three-age system, whereas scholars of pre-human time periods use the well-defined geologic record and its internationally defined stratum base within the geologic time scale; the three-age system is the periodization of human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age The notion of "prehistory" began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word'primitive' to describe societies that existed before written records.
The first use of the word prehistory in English, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in 1836. The use of the geologic time scale for pre-human time periods, of the three-age system for human prehistory, is a system that emerged during the late nineteenth century in the work of British and Scandinavian archeologists and anthropologists; the main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history; the primary researchers into human prehistory are archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation and geographic surveys, other scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples. Human population geneticists and historical linguists are providing valuable insight for these questions. Cultural anthropologists help provide context for societal interactions, by which objects of human origin pass among people, allowing an analysis of any article that arises in a human prehistoric context.
Therefore, data about prehistory is provided by a wide variety of natural and social sciences, such as paleontology, archaeology, geology, comparative linguistics, molecular genetics and many others. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology but in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures rather than named nations or individuals. Restricted to material processes and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous; because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. The concept of a "Stone Age" is found useful in the archaeology of most of the world, though in the archaeology of the Americas it is called by different names and begins with a Lithic sta
Aube is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named after a river: the Aube. With 305,606 inhabitants, Aube is 76th department in terms of population; the inhabitants of the department are known as Aubois or AuboisesThe department was constituted as it is today by a decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790. The Aube department is located in the south-west side of the Grand Est region, it borders the departments of Marne in the north, Haute-Marne to the east, Côte-d'Or in the south-east, Yonne in the south-west, Seine-et-Marne in the west. Within the department regions of natural or traditional countryside can be identified as follows: northwest quarter: Champagne crayeuse northwestern tip: the Nogentais southwest of Troyes: the Othe region to the south: le Chaourçois to the northeast: the Briennois to the east: the Barrois between Troyes and Barrois: Champagne wetlands Aube is divided into 431 communes totalling 308,503 inhabitants.
Major cities with more than 10,000 inhabitants) are: Troyes, Romilly-sur-Seine, La Chapelle-Saint-Luc, Saint-André-les-Vergers and Sainte-Savine. They are located in the centre of the department. Four of those five cities are part of the Agglomeration of Troyes. There are 23 rivers throughout the department, the four main rivers being the Seine, the Aube, the Armance, the Vanne; the department has 140,000 hectares of forests. Located in the Community of communes of Forests and lands in Champagne, the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park was one of the first natural parks created in France. In the same place, there is the Orient Lake and the Amance and Temple lakes where fishing, recreational water sports, bathing are available; each lake specialises in one or more of these activities. The climate is moderate without intense cold or excessive heat which represents a climate similar to continental and oceanic. Between 1950 and 1985 the average annual temperature recorded in the department was 10.1 °C, equivalent to the Paris basin and the cities of north-eastern France.
The average sunshine hours per year is 1771. Average annual rainfall is quite high. In general there is more rain in autumn than in winter but rainfall is highest during spring. In contrast summer is the season. There is, more rain in the south-east than the north-west. Snow is infrequent. Prevailing wind is from the west; the department has 150 km of autoroutes, 33 km of national roads, 4,517 km of departmental roads and 2,116 km of local roads. In the Agglomeration of Troyes TCAT provides a transport network between communes. Unlike many networks that are provided by other operators, the agglomeration community of the city is the owner of the company; the network serves eleven communes including two outside the Troyes agglomeration. Other cities, including Romilly-sur-Seine, have no transport network. Aube has intercity transport networks. 21 regular bus routes are operated between the major cities of the department. The use of these lines is entrusted to private coaches: Transdev – The Carriers of Aube has 15 routes, Keolis Sud Lorraine has 4 routes, Procars Champagne has 2 routes, Autocars Bardy has one route.
Five railway stations are in operation. These are: Nogent-sur-Seine, Romilly-sur-Seine, Vendeuvre-sur-Barse, Bar-sur-Aube. Aube does not have a strong rail coverage. Only one main non-electrified line passes through Aube – the line that connects Paris-Est to Mulhouse; the department has 34.8 km of navigable waterways. The city of Nogent-sur-Seine has two river ports for grain; the first inhabitants of Aube were the Tricasses and Lingones with a substantial human settlement around the year 400 BC. Saints Potentian and Savinian, Greek priests from Samos, came to preach the gospel from the middle of the 3rd century. Saint Patroclus was one of the first martyrs of the new faith in the year 259. Shortly after Saint Jule and some notables of the city of Tricasses suffered martyrdom; as elsewhere, the Christian community became large enough to accommodate a bishop. Saint Amateur was the first in 340. In the year 286 the Bagaudae ravaged the land. Emperor Julian rescued it; the territory making up Aube was first attached to France following the Treaty of Verdun.
Two important monasteries were founded in the department: one at Clairvaux in 1114, created by Bernard of Clairvaux, the other at Paraclete, by his illustrious rival, Pierre Abélard and of which Héloïse d'Argenteuil was the first abbess. Bernard of Clairvaux was noted for his eloquence at the Council of Troyes and his preaching of the Second Crusade which had no result and whose outcome was disastrous; the reunion of Champagne with the kingdom of France was finalised in 1361. Yet people wanted the incorporation of Champagne but in 1328 King Philip VI gave the city of Bar-sur-Seine to Philippe de Croy; the inhabitants, ransomed him to return it to the king on the condition that it become inalienable. The decree of the National Assembly of 15 January 1790 formally established the department of Aube, its first president was Augustin-Henri-Marie Picot and his first deputy was Louis Antoine Joseph Robin. Jacques Claude Beugnot was elected Attorney-General and MP; the 19th century marked the emergence of the Hosiery business i