United States Department of Commerce
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, helping to set industrial standards; this organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all Americans. The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, D. C. Wilbur Ross is the current Commerce secretary; the department was created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, as the bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor; the United States Patent and Trademark Office was transferred from the Interior Department into Commerce, the Federal Employment Stabilization Office existed within the department from 1931 to 1939.
In 1940, the Weather Bureau was transferred from the Agriculture Department, the Civil Aeronautics Authority was merged into the department. In 1949, the Public Roads Administration was added to the department due to the dissolution of the Federal Works Agency. In 1958, the independent Federal Aviation Agency was created and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was abolished; the United States Travel Service was established by the United States Secretary of Commerce on July 1, 1961 pursuant to the International Travel Act of 1961 The Economic Development Administration was created in 1965. In 1966, the Bureau of Public Roads was transferred to the newly created Department of Transportation; the Minority Business Development Agency was created on March 5, 1969 established by President Richard M. Nixon as the Office of Minority Business Enterprise; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was created on October 3, 1970. The Department of Commerce was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $14.6 billion.
The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Proposals to reorganize the Department go back many decades. The Department of Commerce was one of three departments that Texas governor Rick Perry advocated eliminating during his 2012 presidential campaign, along with the Department of Education and Department of Energy. Perry's campaign cited the frequency with which agencies had been moved into and out of the department and its lack of a coherent focus, advocated moving its vital programs into other departments such as the Department of the Interior, Department of Labor, Department of the Treasury; the Economic Development Administration would be eliminated. On January 13, 2012, President Obama announced his intentions to ask the United States Congress for the power to close the department and replace it with a new cabinet-level agency focused on trade and exports; the new agency would include the Office of the United States Trade Representative part of the Executive Office of the President, as well as the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the United States Trade and Development Agency, the Small Business Administration, which are all independent agencies.
The Obama administration projected that the reorganization would save $3 billion and would help the administration's goal of doubling U. S. exports in five years. The new agency would be organized around four "pillars": a technology and innovation office including the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration would be transferred from the Department of Commerce into the Department of the Interior. That year, shortly before the 2012 presidential election, Obama invoked the idea of a "secretary of business" in reference to the plan; the reorganization was part of a larger proposal which would grant the President the authority to propose mergers of federal agencies, which would be subject to an up-or-down Congressional vote. This ability had existed from the Great Depression until the Reagan presidency, when Congress rescinded the authority; the Obama administration plan faced criticism for some of its elements.
Some Congress members expressed concern that the Office of the United States Trade Representative would lose focus if it were included in a larger bureaucracy given its status as an "honest broker" between other agencies, which tend to advocate for specific points of view. The overall plan has been criticized as an attempt to create an agency similar to Japan's powerful Ministry of International Trade and Industry, abolished in 2001 after some of its initiatives failed and it became seen as a hindrance to growth. NOAA's climate and terrestrial operations and fisheries and endangered species programs would be expected to integrate well with agencies in the Interior Department, such as the United States Geological Survey and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. However, environmental groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council feared that the reorganization could distract the agency from its mission of protecting the nation's oceans and ecosystems; the plan was reiterated in the Obama administration's FY2016 budget proposal, released in February 2015.
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Measurement in economics
The measures used in economics are physical measures, nominal price value measures and fixed price value measures. These measures differ from one another by the variables they measure and by the variables excluded from measurements; the measurable variables in economics are quantity and distribution. Excluding variables from measurement makes it possible to better focus the measurement on a given variable, this means a more narrow approach; the table was compiled to compare the basic types of measurement. The first column presents the measure types, the second the variables being measured, the third column gives the variables excluded from measurement; the measurable variables in economics are quantity and distribution. Measuring quantity in economics follows the rules of measuring in physics. Quality as a variable refers to qualitative changes in the production process. Qualitative changes take place when relative of different constant-price input and output factors alter. Distribution as a variable of the production refers to a series of events in which the unit prices of constant-quality products and inputs alter causing a change in income distribution among those participating in the exchange.
The magnitude of the change in income distribution is directly proportionate to the change in prices of the output and inputs and to their quantities. Productivity gains are distributed, for example, to customers as lower product prices or to staff as higher pay. A physical measure can measure the quantity of a variable with unchanged quality. Using a physical measure provides that the quality of the measurement object has been specified and the quality remains homogeneous. If the presumed unchanged quality is not realized, the measurement gives results which are hard to interpret. In this case, the results are affected by changes in both quantity and quality but in which proportion is unknown. Values of the objects being measured are by no means related to the physical measures, changes in prices do not affect the measurement results, it is not possible to combine physical measures. They are best suited for narrow-focused measurements with value alterations. Therefore, physical measures are best for measuring the real process, this is why they are used a lot as tools of operative management.
Typical ratios in a real process are capacity, lead times, faults and process characteristics, etc. A fixed-price value measure is used to measure changes in quantity. True to its name, prices are kept fixed for a minimum of two measuring situations. For this reason, it is possible to define the changes in quality and quantity of a most varied and wide range of commodities, keeping apart the changes in income distribution. Fixed-price measures are suited for wide-ranging measurement because it is possible to combine different commodities based on their value. In a fixed-price measurement, a change in quality means that the relative quantities and relative prices of various commodities change; the best known applications of this are the production function. The production function is always presented with fixed-price ratios, i.e. its variables and volume, are fixed-price values. The most common figures in measuring business are the figures because they can describe the profitability of business process.
Variables in the nominal price measurement are quality and distribution. There are no excluded variables. Nominal price measures of value are suited for measuring profitability and its components as well as the value of reserves. Return and costs in the loss and profit statement are typical examples of a nominal price. In short-term reviews with only little production income distribution taking place, nominal price values are well suited for estimates of fixed price values. Productivity Measurement Saari, S.. Productivity. Theory and Measurement in Business. Espoo, Finland: European Productivity Conference