Christian Almer was a Swiss mountain guide and the first ascentionist of many prominent mountains in the western Alps during the golden and silver ages of alpinism. Almer was born in Grindelwald, Canton of Bern, where he died, in 1846 he married Margaritha Kaufmann, and their son Ulrich Almer was a well-known guide in his own right. Almer gave his dog Tschingel to the 17-year-old W. A. B. Coolidge after an attempt on the Eiger. I do not clearly recollect hearing of Tschingel till July 11,1868 and that month Almer had for the first time become guide to my aunt, the late Miss Brevoort, and myself. On July 8 we all three made our first high climb together and on July 11 started from Little Scheidegg for the ascent of the Eiger, but the rocks were glazed, and we had to retreat. He died at Grindelwald in 1898
It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information system onto a 3D globe. It was originally available with three different licenses, but has since reduced to just two, Google Earth and Google Earth Pro, which is now free and is intended for commercial use. The third original option, Google Earth Plus, has been discontinued. The product, re-released as Google Earth in 2005, is available for use on computers running Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X10.3.9 and above, Linux kernel,2.6 or later. Google Earth is available as a plugin which was released on May 28,2008. It was available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28,2008, as a free download from the App Store. In addition to releasing an updated Keyhole based client, Google added the imagery from the Earth database to their web-based mapping software, as of October 2011, Google Earth has been downloaded more than a billion times. Google Earth displays satellite images of varying resolution of the Earths surface, Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters.
Most areas in Google Earth are only shown in 2D aerial imagery, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASAs Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This means one can view almost the entire earth in three dimensions, since November 2006, the 3D views of many mountains, including Mount Everest, have been improved by the use of supplementary DEM data to fill the gaps in SRTM coverage. Google Earth allows users to search for addresses for some countries, enter coordinates, some people use the applications to add their own data, making them available through various sources, such as the Bulletin Board Systems or blogs mentioned in the link section below. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client, Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language. In December 2006, Google Earth added a new layer called Geographic Web that includes integration with Wikipedia, in Wikipedia, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates.
There is a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World, More coordinates are used, different types are in the display and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer. Google announced on May 30,2007 that it is acquiring Panoramio, in March 2010, Google removed the Geographic Web layer. The Panoramio layer became part of the layers and the Wikipedia layer was placed in the More layer. In Google Earth v4.2 a flight simulator was included as a hidden feature, starting with v4.3 it is no longer hidden. The flight simulator could be accessed by holding down the keys Ctrl, initially the F-16 Fighting Falcon and the Cirrus SR-22 were the only aircraft available, and they could be used with only a few airports
The Schreckhorn is a mountain in the Bernese Alps. It is the highest peak located entirely in the canton of Berne, the Schreckhorn is the northernmost Alpine four-thousander and the northernmost summit rising above 4,000 metres in Europe. The Schreckhorn is located 10 km south-east of Grindelwald between the Upper and Lower Grindelwald Glacier, the region is made up of uninhabited glacial valleys, the great Aar Glaciers and the Fiescher Glacier. The summit of the Lauteraarhorn is located very close and reaches almost the same altitude, the highest peak of the Bernese Alps, the Finsteraarhorn lies 6 km to the south. Geologically the Schreckhorn is part of the Aarmassif, the first ascent was on 16 August 1861 by Leslie Stephen, Ulrich Kaufmann, Christian Michel and Peter Michel. Their route of ascent, via the upper Schreck Couloir to the Schrecksattel and by the south-east ridge, was the route for the following fifty years. The peak had been attempted several times before this, most notably by the Swiss naturalist Joseph Hugi in 1828 and the guided party of Pierre Jean Édouard Desor in 1842.
The first ascent by the south-west ridge – the normal route by which the Schreckhorn is climbed – was made by John Wicks, Edward Branby and they decided to climb the very steep ridge without the help of local guides and succeeded in reaching the summit. The north-west ridge was first climbed by John Stafford Anderson and George Percival Baker, with guides Ulrich Almer, the Strahlegg Hut, destroyed by an avalanche, has been replaced by the Schreckhorn Hut. The Schreckhorn may be ascended from the Gleckstein Hut and the Lauteraar Hut. Dumler and Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, Diadem,1994 Engel, Mountaineering in the Alps, George Allen and Unwin,1971 Smythe, Frank S. A Storm on the Schreckhorn, in Peaks and Glaciers, ed. W. Unsworth, London, an attempt on the south-west ridge in 1925. The Schreckhorn on SummitPost Sunset on the Schreckhorn Paragliding around the Schreckhorn Schreckhorn in beautiful evening light Schreckhorn reflected in the Bachalpsee
Grindelwald is a village and municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Berne in Switzerland. In addition to the village of Grindelwald, the municipality includes the settlements of Alpiglen, Grund, Itramen, Mühlebach, Tschingelberg. Grindelwald village is located at 1,034 m above sea level in the Bernese Alps, Grindelwald was first mentioned in 1146 as Grindelwalt. The oldest traces of a settlement in the area are scattered neolithic tools which have discovered around Grindelwald village. Several Roman era coins have found in the municipality. A castle was built on the Burgbühl hill above the village during the High Middle Ages, in 1146, King Conrad III granted estates in Grindelwald to Interlaken Monastery. In the late 12th century, the barons of the valleys in what became the Berner Oberland went to war against the expansionist Duke Berthold V of Zähringen. The Duke defeated a coalition of nobles in the Grindlewald valley in 1191 and his victory allowed him to expand Zähringen power into the Oberland, to expand the city of Thun and found the city of Bern.
Beginning in the 13th century, Interlaken Monastery began to purchase rights and land in Grindelwald, the Monastery continued to exert influence in the village and in 1315 and again in 1332 ordered the villagers to raid Unterwalden to further the political ambitions of the Abbots patrons. In response to the raids, in 1342, Unterwalden attacked Grindelwald, a few years later, in 1348–49, the villagers joined in an unsuccessful rebellion against ecclesiastical power. In 1528, the city of Bern adopted the Protestant Reformation, Berne was able to impose its will, converted the village and secularized Interlaken Abbey and the Abbeys lands. Grindelwald became part of the bailiwick of Interlaken, under a Bernese bailiff, the first village church was a wooden building from the mid-12th century. The wooden building was replaced with the stone St. Marys Church in 1180 and this church was replaced in the 16th century, and the present church was built in 1793. The tourism industry began in Grindelwald in the late 18th century as foreigners discovered the scenic town, pictures of the vistas were widely reprinted, quickly making the village internationally famous.
In the 19th century many Englishmen came to the village to climb the peaks around the valley. The Finsteraarhorn, the Wetterhorn, the Eiger, the Schreckhorn, the first resort opened in 1888, there were 10 hotels in 1889, and by 1914 there were 33 in Grindelwald. A rack railway was built to Kleine Scheidegg in 1893, numerous ski lifts, cable cars, hiking trails and alpine huts were built in the late 19th and 20th centuries to allow tourists to explore the mountains. Today, almost the entire economy of Grindelwald is based on tourism, the municipality is quite large and is divided into seven mountain communities
The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, the following sortable table lists the Earths 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germanys highest mountain, the 2, 962-metre-high Zugspitze, the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km, the Zugspitze is thus the highest peak for a radius of 25.8 km around. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km, because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, after Mount Everest the Aconcagua, highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains. There is no land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush.
Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps, the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. The Kukurtlu, which rises near the Elbrus, is the peak for Mont Blanc. com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger. com peaklist. org peakware. com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost. org
Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura, to the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais, east of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau. The canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,017,483, as of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners. The cantonal capital, the capital of Switzerland, is Bern. Bern joined the Swiss Confederation in 1353 and was between 1803 and 1814 one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation and these caves were used at various times during the last ice age. The first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf, during the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level, important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental.
During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann, in the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, simple copper objects were already in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann. Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development, settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas. The area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled, Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the early Iron Age changes in climate forced them to settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus.
With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the influence of the Mediterranean grew in the area. Evidence of this include a hydria which was discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time, the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods. In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by burials
The Nesthorn is a mountain in the Bernese Alps. It is located in the Swiss canton of Valais north of Brig, the mountain lies between the Oberaletsch Glacier on the north and east side and the Gredetschtal on the south side. It is part of the subrange of the Bernese Alps that culminates at the Aletschhorn, the Nesthorn was first ascended from Belalp in 1865 by B. George and H. Mortimer, with Christian Almer and his son, passing the base of the peak nearly to the head of the west branch of the Beich Firn, they had on their left a steep iceslope, broken in five places by protruding masses of rock
The Eiger is a 3, 970-metre mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais. It is the easternmost peak of a ridge crest that extends across the Mönch to the Jungfrau at 4,158 m, constituting one of the most emblematic sights of the Swiss Alps. The most notable feature of the Eiger is its 1, 800-metre-high north face of rock and ice, named Eigerwand or Nordwand and this huge face towers over the resort of Kleine Scheidegg at its base, on the homonymous pass connecting the two valleys. The first ascent of the Eiger was made by Swiss guides Christian Almer and Peter Bohren and Irishman Charles Barrington, the north face, considered amongst the most challenging and dangerous ascents, was first climbed in 1938 by an Austrian-German expedition. The Eiger has been publicized for the many tragedies involving climbing expeditions. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand.
They are both part of the Jungfrau Railway line, running from Kleine Scheidegg to the Jungfraujoch, between the Mönch and the Jungfrau, at the highest railway station in Europe, the two stations within the Eiger are Eigerwand and Eismeer, at around 3,000 metres. The Eiger is mentioned in records dating back to the 13th century, the three mountains of the ridge are commonly referred to as the Virgin, the Monk, and the Ogre. The name has been linked to the Latin term acer, meaning sharp or pointed, the Eiger is located within the Bernese Oberland region of the canton of Bern, between the valleys and municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald. It is located 2.2 km northeast of the Mönch and 5.6 km northeast of the Jungfrau, the nearest settlements are Grindelwald and Wengen. The Eiger has three faces, north and southeast, the east ridge from the summit to the Ostegg, named Mittellegi, is the longest on the Eiger. The north face overlooks the pass and resort of Kleine Scheidegg, or more precisely the region east of it, the latter mountain pass lies between the valleys of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald and connects the lower Männlichen-Tschuggen range to the Eiger.
All the aforementioned localities are connected to Interlaken via mountain railways, all sides of the mountain feed the same river, the Lütschine, through the Weisse Lütschine on the west side and through the Schwarze Lütschine on the east side. Although the north face of the Eiger is almost free of ice, on the east side, the Eismeer flows from the Mönch down to 1,300 m through the Lower Grindelwald Glacier system, which feeds the Schwarze Lütschine. The massive wall of the Jungfrau, Mönch and Eiger itself constitutes an emblematic sight of the Swiss Alps and is visible from many places on the Swiss Plateau. The higher Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn, which are located about 10 km to the south, are less visible. The whole area, the Jungfrau-Aletsch, comprising the highest summits, in July 2006, a piece of the Eiger amounting to approximately 700,000 cubic metres of rock fell from the east face. As it had been noticeably cleaving for several weeks and fell into an area, there were no injuries
The Gross Wannenhorn is a 3906-metre mountain in the Bernese Alps, in the Swiss canton of Valais near the village of Fiesch. The mountain separates the Aletsch Glacier to the west from the Fiescher Glacier to the east, the mountain consists of twin peaks, the northern peak is rocky and the southern peak is somewhat flatter. The mountains east side is glaciated, while the west sideis a steep slope intermittently broken by ice fields. The mountain was first successfully climbed by Gottlieb Stuber and team in 1864, list of mountains of Switzerland Gross Wannenhorn on Hikr
The Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland and the most prominent peak of Switzerland. The Finsteraarhorn is the ninth-highest mountain and third-most prominent peak in the Alps, in 2001 the whole massif and surrounding glaciers were designated as part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch World Heritage Site. Despite being the most elevated and isolated mountain of both the Bernese Alps and the canton of Berne, the Finsteraarhorn is less known and frequented than the nearby Jungfrau and Eiger. This is due to its location in one of the most remote areas in the Alps, to its west lies the Fiescher Glacier, the second longest in the Alps, and to the east lie the Great Aar Glaciers. The smaller Lower Grindelwald Glacier lies north of the massif, the Finsteraarhorn is surrounded by the summits of the Schreckhorn and Lauteraarhorn to the north, the Gross Fiescherhorn, Grünhorn and Gross Wannenhorn to the west and the Oberaarhorn to the east. The summit lies on the border between the cantons of Valais and Berne, politically, it is split between the municipalities of Fieschertal and Guttannen.
The Valais–Berne border is the watershed between the Rhône and Rhine rivers, the Finsteraarhorn is the culminating point of the Rhine drainage basin. The Finsteraarhorn was dethroned by Monte Rosa as the highest summit of Switzerland when Valais joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815, the Finsteraarhorn is the culminating point of the Aarmassif, a geologic crystalline massif which crops out in the eastern Bernese Alps and Urner Alps. The massif belongs to the Helvetic zone and consists of rocks from the European continent, the summit itself is composed of amphibolites. The tectonic uplift of the massif occurred late in the alpine orogeny, the inelastic deformation of rocks led to many fractures and formation of hydrothermal crystals by the deposition of the saturated water flowing inside. The first ascent was long a controversial matter, the first attempt was made on 16 August 1812 by the Aargau merchant Rudolph Meyer, guided by the locals Kaspar Huber, Arnold Abbühl, Joseph Bortes and Aloys Volker.
Bortes and Volker, guiding Meyers father and uncle, had been the first to climb the Jungfrau the previous year. They approached the mountain via the Oberaarjoch, Studer glacier, and south-east ridge, Meyer became exhausted and remained behind after reaching the ridge, perhaps near P.3883. Huber kept him company, while the three other guides went on and purportedly reached the summit after three hours, on 19 August 1828, Franz Joseph Hugi, a geologist from Solothurn, made another attempt with seven local climbers. 4, 080-metre saddle on the north-west ridge, but had to retreat because of bad weather after Hugi, the next year Hugi organized another expedition via the same route. Hugi stayed behind somewhat above the saddle not daring to cross a steep slope, on the way back Hugis ankle played up and Leuthold, Währen and Joseph Zemt took turns carrying him down the glacier. Hugis account makes no mention of evidence of an earlier ascent, in articles of 1881 and 1908, the mountaineers and leading historians of Alpine exploration Gottlieb Studer and W. A. B.
Coolidge, declared to be convinced that the Meyer expedition had been successful, the fifth ascent took place on August 13,1857